The engraving shows a view of the town of Leipheim with some of the important buildings highlighted. In the foreground to the right, there is a tree with the town coat of arms above. Another arm and a brief description of Leipheim are situated to the left.
The work shows the town with a fortress situated on a steep hill. The Wesdret rivulet is flowing through the landscape surrounding the fortress. Nearby to the right, in vicinity of the river, there is the village of Dolhen. In the left bottom part there is a square field with the inscription “Limburg” and with caption: 1 to 9.
This relatively small engraving depicts an elongate building on a hill under cannonade. Behind the firing position of the cannons there are army troops lined up. In the foreground, on both sides, there are two riders, those to the left with a musketeer. Above the image there is a decorative cartouche with the inscription “Maulburg”.
The engraving depicts a romantic forest with huge trees, with a secluded house on the left and with a pond in the foreground. Three scenes (A, B, C) occurring in the forest describe a robbery committed on a travelling priest by a wandering soldier. Below the image there is an extensive three-stanza poem reading a dialogue between the priest and the robbing soldier.
The engraving shows a group of rural people (men, women and children), lamenting the hardships and suffering caused by the war. Some have clasped hands, others lift up their farming tools towards heaven. In the background there is a village with a church, partly in flames and plundered by soldiers. Under the picture there is a 12-stanza German poem pleading for help and protection. Below the poem there are quotations from the Book of Psalms from Old Testament (Psalms 60, 67), and the Book of Lamentations.
In its bottom right part, the engraving depicts the Pope, a Cardinal, a Jesuit high official (probably Superior General of the Order) and Prince Primates of the Holy Roman Empire gathered in a cave. They are discussing the upcoming anti-Protestant measures. To the left, the Jesuit is getting money from a wealthy nobleman for an anti-Protestant propaganda, nevertheless to no effect. Behind these figures in the house there are: a Jesuit, several released and deserter mercenaries, as well as a range of other villains; the inscription above their heads goes: “Hic Inferis erat in terra Praesidium”, which means: “Here is hell on earth”. In the sky we can see the God wearing a Jesuit biretta and holding the insignia “IHS” with the nails and the pierced heart. In the background, various scenes take place, allegorically representing subversive activity of the Jesuits and the Catholic Church against the Protestants, or so-called Counter-Reformation. There are for instance big fish eating small ones; ships in the sea with the inscriptions warning that the sea is infested with evil sea fish; two beasts of prey chasing a stork with an accompanying explanation that this is an evidence that the piety is being persecuted; two foxes attacking a chick, meaning that the malicious preponderance brutally exterminates the innocent and defenceless; two cats attacking a mouse – a game naturally ending up with the death of the weak mouse, etc. The texts in the engraving are mainly in Dutch. At the top to the right we can see the siege of a town attacked by an army and hit by the bullets and shots of an artillery. A brief explanatory text in German (quoted above) is written below the image.
This small engraving illustrates a fight between two armies, shooting one at another. Several dead and wounded bodies lye in the battlefield. The soldiers are armed with lances, with several combat standards discernible amongst them. Under the image there is a German text in verses, depicting the horrors of war, hunger, misery, looting, plundering, general decline of morality, absurdity of the fight between the members of the same nation, which is ultimately benefited from only by the 'hereditary enemy of the Turks'. The poem urges its readers to return to the Lord and virtuous life.
The engraving depicts a town square with a few shops, in front of which there are merchants and various tradesmen, lamenting and wailing. In the middle of the image there is an elevated bed with the dead credit. At the left side of the catafalque a gravedigger is digging a grave for the dead. Under the image there is a three-stanza German poem containing a dialogue between a merchant and his customers with the chorus that keeps repeating that it is impossible to sell goods on credit, as “Herr Credit” is dead.
In a room with two entrances the Roman Pope is sitting on his throne. He is wearing a tiara and holding a triple-barred cross in his right hand; his left hand is pointing to the right, where the door opens to the view of a fire in distance (probably representing the hell) with two men being burned therein. The Pope's Throne is decorated with drapery and various curtains. Four Jesuits are coming from the right. Apparently, they are intensively and vividly defending themselves and excusing their failures, gesturing animatedly and lifting their fingers in an oath. At the Pope's left-hand side two Swiss guards are standing with partisans (polearms with a long cutting and stabbing blade). On the opposite side a Cardinal is standing with a big dog nearby. The floor has a mosaic pattern of distinct square tiles.
The engraving depicts a man in armour and helmet, holding a sword in his right hand and a shield with the image of Christ in his left hand, fighting with the evil spirit. The shield reads the words “Scutum fidei”, the sword reads “Gladius Dei Verbum spiritus”, the belt reads 'veritas', etc. A hand with a crown “corona gloriam” protrudes from the cloud above the figure of the knight. The devil on the run is called “princeps mundi”; he is holding various tools for game (or souls) trapping in his hand. A swarm of wasps, the bats, winged snakes and lizards called “Potestates Tenebrarum” are flying above the devil's head. The devil has goose legs, carries a quiver with the inscription “Ignea body” and has a vespiary in his anus from where the wasps are flying out to attack the knight. An extensive German text in verse on both sides of the image explains the depicted allegorical scene. A short poem in Latin below briefly summarizes what vices are to be avoided and why a virtuous life should be lived.
The picture portrays a large creature with a horse's right foot and a human left one protected with an armour. The beast is holding a halberd and a flaming torch in its right hand; the left hand in the shape of a lion's paw is holding various seized objects: chalices, monstrances, chains, etc. Similarly, the mouth in the wolf head is clenching stolen liturgical gear. The monster has a mangy rat tail dragging a tangle of snakes, toads and salamanders. A wounded soldier lies supine in front of the beast. In the background we can see a burning village and its villagers running away while pursued by the army. In the background to the right there is a picture of a town, with the sun rising behind. A group of men carrying various craft tools are walking peacefully through the streets. The above described monster, struck by lightning and killed now, is lying in front of them. From its bowels cut open the stolen items fall out. - Below the image there is a German poem denouncing the horrors of war and urging humble and virtuous life.
With its time perspective and topic the engraving does not fall within the collection. In the middle is Leipzig besieged by the armies that are depicted in detail. At the right bottom corner are the gallows, and the picture of God (relatively non-artificial), beneath which are an angel with a laurel wreath and two burning balls, is depicted in the sky. Beneath the upper edge there is a long rectangle containing the above inscription. Beneath the picture, there is legend 1-21 followed by several verses.
An overall view of Prague from the south without any further time and factual details. The armed forces are campaigning in the direction from Újezd Gate and an attack has unleashed in the Lesser Town Square. The individual Prague towns are marked separately, for example, Retschin, Königl. Schloss, Altstatt, etc. In the sky there is the cartouche inscription ‘Prague’.
The ceremonial act of coronation is depicted in 5 scenes. In the middle is a bigger picture of the coronation in St. Vitus Cathedral. On the left: the king is putting his hand on the Bible and is taking his oath; the king’s unction follows. On the right: the king is receiving the sword, the sceptre and the imperial apple. Over these pictures there is an inscription on the right side of which is a cartouche with the Czech lion, on the left side is the same cartouche with the imperial eagle. In the middle is the portrait of Ferdinand II ringed with a laurel wreath held by two angels.
The printing depicts an obliquely standing ladder used by the short men to take various coins up. Down by the ladder is the usurer with a treasury and a bag of money, a short way off are a peasant, a craftsman and a burgher lamenting and moaning. In the background of the picture is a hilly countryside. Over the picture is a German poem having two stanzas and requesting an intangible, inanimate item that cannot walk but may go up or down (understand: the value of money). Below is another poem dealing with various misuses of money, speculations, and other financial intrigues and ended by the deliberation that only God may guide the humankind out of these low predatory interests.
It is a detailed, but sometimes inaccurately elaborated, map of the Czech countries, furnished with a scale on its edges. At the right bottom corner are depicted Hradčany outside which is a person wearing a coat and holding a string with the tied imperial eagle. Not far away is a person making a bow and taking off his hat. On the other side in a decorative cartouche there is the symbol with the Czech lion held by a faun leaning against the board on which there is the dedication to Eylhar Lubina, professor at the university in Rostock, from the engraver Kaeria.
The picture is the symbol of political changes in the Roman German Empire in the 17th century. In the high tower with seven floors there is the emperor depicted with seven electors. Non-imperial earls are staying aside and are observing the development. The dial-plate of the clock driven by faith depicts four kings going up and down.
The view of the entire city of Prague across both banks of the Vltava („Moltav fluvius“) has been drawn very carefully. In the left foreground there is a staffage of trees. Above the picture there is the above-mentioned text. In the sky there are coats of arms: Hradčany, Malá Strana (Little Quarter), Czech, Imperial, Staré Město (Old Town), Nové Město (New Town) and Vyšehrad. The print is not signed, but the concept is reminiscent of Hollar, or perhaps the graphic art was based on Hollar's template. This engraving is in many ways strikingly similar to Hollar's picture of Prague.
It is a picture of Hradčany from the today’s Klárov. On the left side there are the new castle stairs. In the place of the today’s gardens on the slope to the Lesser Town there is a preserve (“Thiergarten”) with the deer. Under B there is the provincial office window from which the emperor’s governors are falling. At the upper corners there are the imperial eagle and the Czech lion in laurel wreaths. At the right bottom corner is legend A-C; there is an explanatory inscription in German over the picture.
The picture of Pilsen is painted from a bird’s eye view with accurate details of various buildings. The attack of general Mansfeld’s armed forces is targeted at the Franciscan church. At the right upper corner is the emblem of the town of Pilsen in a decorated field. On the same side down there is legend A-I in a four-edge cartouche. On the left side down there are two riders, of whom one is holding a flag, and a few infantrymen. At the left upper corner is the inscription “Obsidio urbis Pilsenae”.
The town of Pilsen is drawn with good prospects. From the west, Mansfeld’s army is getting into the town through the ruptures in the town walls. At the left upper corner there is a camp of Mansfeld’s army. On the right up there is the emblem of Pilsen and down is the Radbuza river and the orienteering compass. At the left bottom corner there is a decorative cartouche with legend A-M.
At the front in the engraving is the town of Budejovice with walls, towers and gates, and in the background is a hilly panorama with trees, the military troops, the artillery, and the individual soldiers. The picture makes an impression of the town being only watched and experiencing only small raids against the fortress rather than the actual siege. The terrain outside the town indicates that the combat was targeted in the direction out of the town, which points to the estates’ armies not acting too belligerently.
Seven Jesuits are travelling in a big wagon drawn by six horses. The horses are wearing caps with the Czech and Hungarian emblems and another emblem on the shield of which is an open book. The travelling Jesuits are called as P. Colovrat, P. Haynal, P. Forro, P. Rumer, P. Caldi, P. Faminus, and P. Arnoudus, attorney-at-law from the Curia in Paris. There is a big group of priests walking along the wagon and loaded down with baggage and bags. In the background is a burning monastery from which the Jesuits have just been expelled; not far away, there is a monk sitting on his baggage and resignedly waiving his hand. Towards him there comes the dog loaded down with bags as well and having the devil’s tail. In the left background is a town with a port to which there leads the way the Jesuits are taking, that is, “via ad sanctum Raspinum”. Under the picture the Jesuit Order is continuously defamed and denigrated. This ends by calling on the Jesuits sarcastically to humbly and resignedly undergo the punishment waiting for them in the Amsterdam prison.
The printing is depicting the sleeping emperor Ferdinand II, sitting on the throne under the canopy decorated with the Austrian eagle. Before him is Jesus Christ with a whisk in his hand. On the flag is the slogan: “In hoc signo vinces!” Five robust men wearing soldierly costume and armed with weapons and shields are leaving the throne. These men represent the emperor’s warriors devoted to the emperor at all times. The sleeping Ferdinand symbolizes his persuasion that he can calmly rely on the justice of his matters. In the right background are the Prague defenestration and five hands holding the Czech uprising sword. There is the following inscription there: “God shall punish the five hands raised against him!” A short way off we can see five military troops in which a short slogan is always stated. The Czech troop: “We either achieve freedom, or the power of Ferdinand’s sceptre will be extended even more!” The Moravian troops: “We were deceived by the Czech and Dutch insect!” The Silesian troops: “We, the Silesians, will stand by the Czech if we were about to be hurt!” The Lusatian troops: “The ridiculed Lusatia played a bloody game!” The Austrian troops: “Our freedom cannot be larger than that under the today’s government!” Around the military troops a large number of various insects are flying, which symbolizes the anti-emperor propaganda predominantly led from abroad. On the left is a small rider in whom the earl Thurn’s statement that a heroic and happy commander, being Maximillian of Bavaria, is mentioned. All inscriptions are Latin. Under the picture are a four-stanza poem and an extensive German explanation of allegories, citing numerous Old Testament psalms and relating their significance to the topic of the picture.
The picture shows the Roman pope with the donkey head, stuck-out tongue and glasses. He is wearing the monastic cowl and is playing the violin (“opiniones”). Under him there lies a book on which is the human excrement (“disctinctiones”), bagpipes (“comentaria”), and the whisk (“questiones”). The pope’s clothes are pecked at by the magpie “Aristotle”. Under the picture are three poems, French, Latin and German, denigrating the pope with unscrupulous expressions.
It is a set of two small pictures depicting scenes representing the course and the characteristics of the political and religious events as they took place in Bohemia from 1618 to 1619. There is, for example, the scene where the fox and the wolf “in sheep’s clothing” are approaching the Czech wolf to persuade it of the dangers associated with the Evangelic religion. Other picture shows the cardinal Khesel and some Jesuit who are holding the canvas before the emperor Matthew sitting on the throne in order to prevent him looking at the arriving envoy who wants to present the requirements and complaints of the Czech estates. In the middle is a bigger picture with a big furnace heated by many Jesuits called as “superbia, arrogantia, avaritia”, etc. A small angel “providentia” is pouring water into the fire. This scene is satirical about the anti-reformation led, in particular, by the Jesuits. Under the picture is a very detailed legend explaining the depicted events. Nearly all persons are marked with letters and the legend always states accurately who is depicted and by whom which statement was expressed.
MDCXIX. Fridericus I. rexhyemis XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXVIX, XXX & estatis: fit: sit & erat: Ingens: Bohemiae: In annos: Nestoris: fatis: Benigne: serios. In the middle of the printing is an oval portrait of Frederick Palatinate, framed on one side by roses and on the other by thorns. In his right hand, he is holding the marshal stick and has a wide collar around his neck resembling the mill wheel and a wide sash over his shoulder. On the right there is the Czech lion wearing a fur coat, in the background is a town with military camps, on the left is the Czech lion again, but this time without a fur coat, and a military troop marching in a hilly countryside. The above inscription is over the picture. Under the picture-based part of the printing is a German two-stanza poem praising the king and expressing the hope that once the winter is gone, the king’s military troops start to march towards victory and fame. In the last verse, the author is asking God to save the king Frederick and provide Czech people with peace and satisfaction.
Under the Dutch inscription ‘Doemen 1567 Schreef, wast schade dat den Leev soo lang slapende bleet’ is a countryside with a sleeping lion and a wolf standing a short way off and fixedly gazing at the basket with seven goslings and two lambs. By the basket is a fox with a duck in its mouth and on the left the guard dog is tied up. Next to the guard dog is a donkey staggering and bending under the heavy load. Two men are sleeping close to the lion. In the background are illustrated scenes depicting people’s hardship and suffering in the ravaged country. Under the engraving are 4 poems (in Dutch, French, German and Latin) relating to the described picture. Other three-stanza poem is dealing with the scene depicted in a highly accurate fashion.
The engraving depicts the act of coronation on 9 September 1619 in Frankfurt am Main. On Wednesday, the king is kneeling by the altar and the Koln archbishop is putting the crown on his head. They are surrounded by dignitaries holding the sword, the sceptre and the imperial apple. On the next field another scene is depicted: the king sitting on the throne under the imperial eagle is dubbing several men; on the sides there are tribunes from which crowd is observing the act. Under the picture on the right there is the following text: Ferdinandus hier gesalbt wirt zum Röm. Kayser und geziert mit Scepter, Schwert, Ring, Apfel, Cron, Mayntz solchs mehrentheils verrichtet schon. On the other side is the same text in Latin. In the middle under the picture are coins scattered amongst people (ausgeworfene Münz) on the occasion of the coronation. The coin is a hand partially covered by the clouds and holding the crown. On the hand is a ribbon with the inscription: “Legitime certantibus”. On the back side of the coin is the inscription: “Ferdinandus secundus Hungariae et Bohemiae Rox coronatus in reegem Romanorum, IX. Sept. MDCXIX”.
The picture is divided into 9 fields in which the individual acts of coronation are depicted in detail: A. The welcome ceremony in the Hvězda castle in White Mountain. B. The arrival in Hradčany. C. The ceremonial procession towards the place of coronation. D. The king’s unction. E. The coronation. F. The Czech estates’ oath to the king. G. The king is dubbing lower nobility representatives. H. The depiction of coins minted on the occasion of the coronation. I. The ceremonial lunch after the coronation. – Under the picture is an extensive text describing the whole event in detail and legend A-I.
The picture part of the printing is divided into four fields depicting four scenes from the ceremonial tribute paid by the Austrian estates to Ferdinand II: 1. Emperor’s procession led by Ferdinand on the horse and with the crown and the scepter. In front of him is a courtier whose privilege is to carry the emperor’s sword. 2. Scene when the estates’ oath is read in the presence of the emperor on the throne. 3. Estates’ greetings intended for, and their tribute paid to, the emperor. 4. Ceremonial feast when the emperor is sitting at his own small table close to which is a big table at which the estates representatives are dining, at the front are musicians.
The picture depicts a large group of princes and monks headed by the Pope, who have started to panic as a consequence of some sort of natural disaster. The princes are desperately raising their hands towards the heaven, are falling to the ground and yelling. The pope has fallen down from his descending horse. On the ground are rosaries, praying books, crosses, bells, and the pope’s tiara and cross. From behind the cloud there comes a bright beam with the following inscription: “Pope, pope, why are you following me?” (The same words heard by Pavel of Taras outside Damask). The rain and hails are falling. Under the picture is a German three-stanza poem explaining the depicted event and calling on the readers to reject the Roman church’s efforts for catholic reformation.
On the right side of the engraving is a big room with curtains (that is, the spinning mill), where there is the pope on the throne with a sword and the keys. On both sides of the throne there sit several Jesuits spinning threads. By the table are members of the Catholic League. On the left side is the Czech lion driving the Jesuits out of the Czech countries to Rome. In the heaven is God condemning evil souls and calling up the good souls through the angel. At the bottom there is a German-Latin poem detailing the depicted theme.
The printing depicts three men in various costumes, close to whom there are the shields with emblems. Two messengers have just met behind the third men. One of these men is carrying a tray and the other is carrying a spear and a leaf. In the background is the countryside with a burning house and a bonfire on which some person is burning. On the right is a crowd of people desperately clasping their hands and confusedly running from one place to another (probably the emigrants). Under the picture part of the printing is an extensive German poem pointing to the three depicted persons called as Peter Job, Herr Matz and Vater Abraham. Each of them is expressing himself on the religious situation after the Battle of White Mountain.
The engraving is divided into four fields: The first field depicts the Czech lion surrounded by thick, non-penetrable thorns (that is, the situation prior to the Czech uprising). On the next field is the lion who has just managed to get out of the thorn bush (that is, the Czech uprising). The third picture depicts Frederick Palatinate kneeling by the lying lion and removing the thorns from its injured legs. The last scene shows the king Frederick Palatinate peacefully strolling at large with the Czech lion; in the background is the panorama of Hradčany. Under the pictures are two-line Latin glosses and a German four-stanza poem describing the faith of the Czech lion until its liberation by Frederick Palatinate and ended by the wishful request that God grant long life to the king and increased the Czech fame.
It is a map of the Porýní (Kurfalc), around which 58 various towns, castles, fortresses, etc. conquered by Spinola’s army during the campaign through Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621 are drawn in small square fields. Under the picture part of the printing is a small portrait and the arms of the marquis Spinola.
The engraving is typical of its distinctive front side (a big stump on the rock). In the middle is the town of Linz on the Danube. An army is marching on the bridge over the river. In the background is the panorama of a hilly countryside.
On the graphics are 45 small square pictures of towns, fortresses, castles and strongholds. The last three fields remained empty. In the middle is the oval portrait of the marquis Spinola with the marshal stick on the horse, around is the military staffage. Over the table is the above German explanatory text. Under the pictures is a detailed German description of Spinola’s campaign through Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621, ended by the prayer towards God for peace and general satisfaction.
The picture depicts in detail the course of conquering Budyšín. The burning town is depicted in the middle; fights are raging around between the Saxon and Lusatian armies. You can see a lot of square military structures, the chances, the firing positions of the artillery and the camp. Minor scenes are accompanied with succinct explanatory inscriptions. In the bottom third of the picture is a rosette showing the cardinal points. On the left is legend A-Y.
On the elevation there lies the town of Budyšín in flames and smoke. The trajectories of the bullets from mortars are marked with curves. At the front is John George I of Saxony on his horse and behind him is a troop with flags. There is a group of captives kneeling by his feet and escorted by a group of riders led by the commissioned officer taking his hat off to the elector. Under the above text is the Latin inscription: “Delineatio Budissini obsessi ab electore Saxoniae ab obsequium mense septembri anno 1620”. Legend 1-15 follows.
The engraving is made in detail but relatively non-artificially. In the middle is Budyšín in fire. On the left is a cartouche with an oval portrait of John George I of Saxony with an inscription and elements. Over the picture is the inscription stated above. At the left bottom corner is legend A-Z in a square field. Under the picture part of the printing is a German text with four paragraphs explaining the topic of the picture with a lot of details, for example, the accommodation of the commissioned officers in the town, a list of buildings and various types of property destroyed by the fire, etc.
The engraving schematically depicts the battle position of the imperial and Bavarian armies (in the printing below) and the Czech estates soldiers (up). The tactical concept of both muster shapes significantly differs, in particular, when it comes to the sequence of the individual types of weapons. The regiments and their commanders are marked with names at their stations.
The engraving depicts the beginning of the Battle of White Mountain. At the front are the imperial and Bavarian armies; first clashes between both opponents are taking place in the middle. The Czech estates’ army starts running away on the top of the mountain. In the right background is the city of Prague and on the left is the enclosure of the Hvězda castle. At the bottom is a three-line legend with letters A-H.
The sheet represents the Battle of Big Mountain drawing to its unlucky end. At the front are the emperor’s and Bavarian armies fiercely attacking the Czech estates army the fighting continuity of which is broken. The defeated soldiers are running away towards Prague that is painted in the right background of the picture with the Vltava river and the stone bridge. The scattered Hungarian riders are drowning in the river. On the left is the royal enclosure with the Hvězda castle. Under the picture is two-line legend with letters A-H.
The engraving depicting the Battle of White Mountain is carried out very primitively. At the right upper corner is the enclosure of the Hvězda castle, on the left is a burning village. The space between the square military formations is strewn with dead, injured and fleeing soldiers of the Czech estates, at the right bottom corner are three buglers.
The engraving depicts the military campaign and the subsequent Battle of Big Mountain on 8 November 1620 in four scenes: A) Army’s position close to Rakovník. B) Beginning of the Battle of Big Mountain. C) The battle is raging to full extent. D) The estates’ soldiers are running away towards Prague. The pictures are very detailed and well elaborated, but the engraver’s work is not very good.
It is a schematic plan of the military camp in symmetrical squares. At the front is a swamp under which is the measuring scale. Over the picture part of the printing is the above text, under which are legends: A-R and 1-11. This sketch is a significant document for the war history of the 17th century since it accurately depicts the organization (local) of the military encampment. The printing depicts accommodation, battle, administrative premises, the intendancy stocks, etc.
The engraving depicts the territory northwards from the Como lake along the Addy valley in the today’s province Sondrio. On the right side of the picture is the lake Como. The whole countryside is scattered with mountains with countless identifications of various places. Over the picture are the cited text and the legend.
The small picture depicts the hilly countryside on the foot of which is the fortified town Ingringen. There are the chances depicted among various hillocks. In the background are the towns of Brysach and Höhingen. At the front are several trees and two musketeers. Over the picture is the text stated above.
The engraving depicts the fortified town (from above) at the bank of the river Tar (correctly: Tarn). The correct name of the besieged town is Montauban. The town lies in the Tarn et Garonne department. At the left corner there is the king’s main tent depicted on the hill. The above inscription is stated on the engraving.
The front side of the picture shows the groups of soldiers and buglers. There is the river Tarn flowing in the centre of the countryside. On its bank there lies the fortress Montauban. On the left near the river Lauarion is the king’s main tent – Pique Cox. Under the engraving is legend 1-13.
Through the small ovals structured to form a spiral, the graphics depicts 50 towns, castles and fortresses. In the middle are Spinola’s portrait and arms. Below is a Dutch and French text describing subjectively, from the perspective of the Spanish winners, the course of the Palatinate war in 1620-1621.
A Anvers, par Abraham Verhoeven, imprimeur juré demerant sur la Lombaerde Veste, au soleil d´or 1621.The engraving depicts a wheel on the shaft spun by two men. There is Frederick Palatinate depicted on the wheel in three various positions symbolizing the individual phases of his troubled life. On the left he is holding onto the wheel and is going up. In the highest point in the middle is the king on the throne and on the right he is falling from the wheel down into the sea from which he is being got out by the Dutch fishermen. In the background is the hilly countryside and under the picture is a German two-stanza poem describing the unlucky fate of the Czech winter king.
The engraving represents the winter king Frederick wearing a fur coat and sitting on the throne. Instead of the scepter he is holding the Hussite mace. Along both sides of the throne there stand his commanders in classic military costumes and with shields depicting the signs of the northern (winter) constellations of Scorpio, Capricorn, etc. One of the military personas is passing the king two pieces of little fish in a bowl. Under the picture is a German three-stanza poem ridiculing Frederick Palatinate.
The graphics depicts the Catholic church as a high, robust building with four towers symbolizing the emperor, the pope, the elector of Bavaria, and Spain. Strong chains pulled by various enemies of the church, being Frederick Palatinate, Bethlen Gabor, the margrave Krnovský, Kryštof of Dohna and several devils wanting to pull down the Roman church building, are fastened on the towers. At the right and left corners of the printing are the towns of Heilborn and Crailsheim where there was the so-called Anhalt’s office, that is, all correspondence and other written documents of the prince of Anhalt, the known instigator of the Czech uprising and the commander of the estates’ army in White Mountain. This documentary material considerably discredited both Anhalt himself and many other persons participating in the Czech uprising. After the Battle of White Mountain, Anhalt’s office became the emperor’s supporters’ booty and allowed them to accurately ascertain the rebels’ intentions and the level of their traitor activity. Around the picture are many statements of persons who either were involved in the Czech uprising or stood on the emperor’s side. Under the picture part of the engraving is an extensive German poem, the so-called “sincere warning” convincing the readers about the betrayal and immorality of the anti-Catholic uprising in 1618.
In the engraving there is a post on which the imperial eagle is sitting and is holding a ring in its beak and a laurel twig under its wing. On its head is the imperial crown and under its left leg is the sun with the inscription: “Sol iustitae”. On the left is a shooter (England) who is aiming at the eagle and two men with spears (Mansfeld and the duke Krnovský), stabbing the eagle. However, their action is being prevented by two angels with shields containing the inscriptions: “It is useless!” and “Complete Mistake!” The fox (Bethlen Gábor) and the bear (the Netherlands) trying to pull the post down are leaning against the post. In front of the post is the deer (Braunschweig) digging under them. However, it is bitten by a snake. On both sides of the post there are the lion and lioness (Sweden) and the inscription: “We are watching!” Under the picture is a three-stanza poem.
In the centre of the picture is a post over which angels are holding a laurel wreath with the Czech crown and the scepter. There are stairs leading to the top of the post on which the Czech lion is standing on the left with the crown on its head and the cross (reformation) is falling opposite to it. The Saxon elector John George has injured the lion’s leg with his sword. The marquis Spinola (Spain) is pulling the lion’s tail and the duke Maxmillian of Bavaria is stabbing its left leg. On the other side of the stairs there is the imperial eagle on the head of which the sword is falling (that is, the execution of the Czech lords). Both Mansfeld and the duke Krnovský are shooting at the eagle and the seven-castle prince Bethlen is threatening the eagle with his sword. In the background behind the post there is the battle between Mansfeld and Maxmillian of Bavaria depicted. Under the engraving is a German two-stanza poem.
On the post there is the eagle on the throne with the crown and the scepter. In the clouds there is a hand with a sword touching the imperial apple held by the eagle in its left talon. On the right side of the post there is standing Jan George I, Elector of Saxony and on the left Mansfeld, Bethlen and the duke Krnovský. Behind the post is a crowd of Czech, Moravian and Silesian people. At the front on the right there is lying the injured Czech lion from which a tree to which the sword and the shield are tied up is growing. Under the picture part of the graphics is an extensive rhymed German text.
It is a small high-altitude painting with the Rhein river with a bridge across it. A ship is painted on Rhein and Rhein-Türkheim lies on the shore. The upper part of the paintings shows the Stein castle, encircled with a water course and swamps. There is a Spanish camp, chances and various trees in the landscape. Above the painting, there is the aforementioned text, and below the painting is a legend.
The engraving maps the fortress Nové Zámky with five advanced chances and surrounded by water. From the fortress shots are being fired at the emperor’s camp located on the left. In the background behind the town, the riders clashed. On the right is the river Nitra. At the right bottom corner is a four-edge cartouche with a view of Bratislava. In the background are hills.
The engraving depicts the fortress Nové Zámky in 1621. Except for the missing view of Bratislava, the graphics is nearly identical with sheet No. 38/170 on page 35. Only the riders’ clash is somewhat differently conceived. It is undoubtedly the fight in which Buquoy died. According to Drugulin G. Keller, both engravings are undoubtedly created by the same author and have the same dimensions.
The picture is divided into seven parts depicting various events associated with the conviction and execution of 27 Czech lords in the Old Town Square. The depicted episodes represent the pronouncement of the judgment, the presentation of the petition for pardon by the convicts’ wives and children, the convicts are transported in covered carriages to the Old Town Square Hall, the bloody execution on its own and the Old Town Square bridge tower to which the heads of the executed persons and the Jesenius’s tongue were fastened as a warning.
It is a small picture, probably cut out from some work (maybe Theatrum Europaeum), with no specific time indication. It depicts riders with flags. On the left are the fortified tower and the river Regnitz across which a way is leading to the fortified camp with soldiers. In the background is fire.
In the picture is the town of Willhermsdorf upon Aurach lying 34km northwestwards from Norimberk, and the castle Bürckmischling with “Lusthaus” on the hill overgrown with grapevine. The river Aurach splits close the town into two arms, of which one flows around the castle that is the water stronghold. Over the castle is the coat of arms, undoubtedly owned by the family of the then holder. Both inside and around the town is the camping army. In the background are 4 military troops structured in the distinctive square shapes. The above text and legend 1-4 are under the picture part of the printing.
The etching is made masterfully. However, based on the style, it is not made by Hollar but rather by Sadeler and is not signed. Tabor is depicted from above, the church tower is partially demolished and on the left is the pond Jordan. Around the town are military groups, chances, incursions, etc. Everything is engraved with an astonishing accuracy and carefulness. The cited inscription is over the picture. At the bottom is an extensive legend on a decorative vignette field.
The town is painted from above. A short way off, the riders have clashed. On the left is Rhine and on the right is a forest with a small village and the church tower. Around the town are banks and chances. The trajectories of the cannon shots are depicted by curves. At the bottom on the left is a decorative cartouche with legend A-L.
The picture depicts only the fortification facilities around the town of Frankenthal, the remaining part is empty. The flow of the river Rhine is depicted in the forest countryside. On the right side up there is a decorative cartouche with two figures of Fidelitas and Constantia, on which are the coats of arms and the above inscription. Under the picture of the printing are legends A-R and 1-12.
In front of us, there is a tableau of the Duke Christian of Brunswick and Wolffenbüttel, also called of Halberstadt, on horseback, without a hat, with a big sash, holding the Marshal’s cane in his right hand. There are 38 small viewpoints on different towns and castles, which he conquered, around his portrait. The entire engraving, although unsigned, indicates considerable artistic qualities of the author; especially the images of towns are very skillfully made.
The schematic illustration of the town of Hanau, which lies close to the river Main, about 20 kilometers west from Frankfurt. A small river Künzig flows around the town. In the landscape, few individual trees are drawn. In the left top corner, there is a rectangle with an inscription above, without a given time and specification. Also, the image does not show, except for three cannons located in the town square, any military motives.
In the middle of the engravings, an old man with devil horns, a massive beard, a wooden stump instead of his right leg is displayed together with the left leg of a bird covered with fish scales on calf and with a crutch in his armpit. The old man raises his right hand with a pointing finger, in his left hand, he holds a sheet of paper with a seal on which is written: 'The apprenticeship certificate of counterfeiters and moneylenders, down, deep to the hell!'. The back basket on his back is filled with similar sheets and inscriptions: 'We counts and nobles, clergy, we Jews, we traders', etc. The figure has a pouch with money attached to his waist and a rat's tail protrudes in the back. On both sides of the described image, there is a long German poem depicting intentions and activities of moneylenders and the easiest way how to become a moneylender and counterfeiter. In the next one, however, the poem warns against this vice, because it corrupts people and essentially leads to hell.
The engraving is quite crude. In the centre, there is the Jülich fortress with troops marching around and enemy units leaving the town. Wide neighbourhood of the city is dotted with various chances, fortifications and military camps. A hill will gallows on top is in the foreground. A portrait of Henry, Count of Berg is in the left upper corner, on the right, there is a coat of arms with a lion. German description of the situation with marking of camps of Berg and Spinola is below the painting on the board. Under it, there is a detailed description of the event in Latin, which celebrated the heroism and credit of general of Berg.
The painting shows the Jülich fortress and city near the Dutch borders with its surroundings. The upper part of the painting shows the Roer (Ruhr) river, a wide circle of fortifications, chances and various fortification objects, military camps, movements of military units etc. A hill with gallows is in the foreground. Some settlements in the area are marked with names.
Heidelberg above Neckar is depicted in the foreground, a hill with vineyards is on the right, above it is an inscription: “Chur Pfältzische Residentz Statt Heidelberg.” The aforementioned odd appearance of three suns and rainbows is painted on the sky, the sky is dotted with stars, a cross with two clouds and several rays of light is between the stars.
We can see a hilly Swiss country with the Rhein river and Chur city, near which is a battle of armies, which come from all directions. Cities and villages are named. Territorial borders are marked with dotted line. Below the painting, there is the aforementioned text.
The engraving is very gently and carefully carved. In the middle, there is the town of Hagenau and the town’s emblem is above. In the foreground, chances, seven cannons, several tents, two men, a woman and a dog can be seen – in the background, we can see a forest. On the left, near the river Moder, we see the main tent of Archduke Leopold, the path leading to Strasbourg is on the right. Below the image, there are the explanatory notes: A-N.
It is a schematically drawn city plan without figures and any staffage. In the right corner, there is a city coat of arms with a rose, on the left, there is a fortress founded by Mansfeld, which was subsequently closed down. Under the painting, there is a legend.
The engraving is done (superficially and apparently hastily) in the manner of maps; streams are drawn as in reality. Cities and villages are marked with their names. Heilbronn at the bottom left and Wimpfen at top right. The explanatory notes A to L contain explications of the depicted events. In the middle of the engraving, there is a distinguishable wagon fortification with the mark 'D'. There is the inscription above: 'Palatinatus', and: 'Pars Ducatus Würtenbergensis' is below.
The engraving shows the progress of the battle in the clouds of blowing dust and smoke from exploding ammunition supply. On the left, there is the river Neckar and the Böllinger stream in the background, which as a natural obstacle caused catastrophic losses to the army of Margrave of Baden-Durlach during their escape. The town of Wimpfen is at bottom right. The battle wagons are clearly visible in the Protestant position. The given inscription is above the image, the explanatory notes A-R are below.
In the right bottom corner of the engraving, there is a double portrait of Tilly and Corduba in an oval cartouche. The print also shows the flow of Neckar, town of Wimpfen and panorama of the battle with an explosion of ammunition of Margrave of Durlach. Above the painting, there is the mentioned text, an A–R legend is below the painting.
The painting shows the Battle of Wimpfen, which took place on 8 May 1622, and it is very similar to the engraving 63/5 except for some non-essential differences. Upside on the left, there is an A-L legend in the corner
The engraving shows a well-arranged map of the entire battlefield. The Main river, which flows through Frankfurt and Sachsenhausen, flows through the map diagonally; the town of Höchst with a bridge over Main, on which the defeated Brunswick army crowds, lies near the mouth of the Nidda river on the right shore of Main. Several castles and settlements, which are marked with names, are in the background in hilly terrain.
The painting shows landscape near Höchst and Frankfurt. The Nieda river joins Main near Höchst. On the left, there is the ongoing battle, the defeated army of Christian Brunswick retreats over the bridge over Main. Large column of imperial forces is approaching from Frankfurt. In the left corner of the sheet, there is an A-K legend and on the bottom, there is a German text, describing the course of battle in detail and all relevant facts.
The print shows the battle of Höchst on 20 June 1622. The defeated army of Duke of Brunswick retreats over the bridge over Main. In the right upper side, there are cities of Frankfurt, Steinheim and Offenbach, on the left, the course of battle under number of hills is depicted; the river Nieda flows through the middle of the landscape.
The town of Höchst is in front of us, on the right, there is a wide river, Main, over which the armies of Duke of Brunswick are fleeing; behind the town, the battle is in full progress yet. Fitting perspective and perfect engraving technique reminds of Václav Hollar. However, the engraving is not signed. Under the pictorial part of the print, there is an A–Z legend.
The town of Heidelberg is situated under a high hill, there is an elector castle on the left, a bridge over the river Neckar at the bottom, the army of Tilly is wading through the Neckar on the right side. In the foreground, there are approaching attacking columns. The city is besieged from all sides and combat actions are everywhere. On a cloud in the sky, there is the Palatine Elector coat of arms that is held by two angels and the inscription: 'Haydelberga capitur'. There are explanatory notes 1 – 20 below. Around the coat of arms, there is a ribbon with the inscription: 'Houi soi qui mal y pense.' It is the motto of the English Order of the Garter whose bearer was the Frederick V, Elector Palatine as a son-in-law of James I of England.
The city of Bergen op Zoom is depicted from above, from the so-called bird's-eye view. In the surroundings, there are various Spanish battle structures, which served for approaching and storming the city. The town of Sternbergen is foreshadowed in the upper left part. Probably artificially created floods of the river Scheldt, which were supposed to be an impassable obstacle for any enemies, are extraordinary. Above the painting, there is the mentioned text.
The fortified city of Bergen op Zoom is in the centre of the painting. The land around the city shows chances of besieging Spaniards, camps, tents, positions of military units, marching regiment and several banners. The river Scheldt is swollen around the city. There is a Latin inscription above: „Delineatio urbis Bergenobsooma una cum hispanorum castris ad illam factis, anno 1622.“ German text is under the painting on the right. On the left, there is a writing on the water: „Verdroncken Landt – i.e. flooded ground“. To fortify the city, his surroundings were flooded.
Wide Rhein river flows through the centre of the painting, we can see the heavily fortified island of Pfaffenmütz. Two ships sail on Rhein. Lower on the Rhein, there is a village of Rindorb (Rheindorf), Berchen is on the upper left. In the right upper corner of the painting, there is a legend with letters A–H. Above the painting, there is the mentioned text, below the painting, there is a four verse long German poem which describes the course of the siege.
The small painting portrays the fortified island of Pfaffenmütz in the middle of Rhein. In front of us, there is the village of Graen Rhindorf (correctly Gross-Rheindorf). Small stream Sieg joins Rhein. On the left side, in landscape covered in trees, there is a settlement called Berchen.
There is a small wood carving on every side of the sheet. The left one portrays drummer, flautist and 4 pikemen. The right one shows a commander leading his army. Under the painting, in two columns, there are verses of a song, which ironically describes the Duke of Brunswick and his heroism. Every verse ends with refrain: “Lord Tilly was captured by Brunswick!”
The mentioned Dutch text is at the upper side of the sheet. Portraits of Ernst von Mansfeld and Christian Brunswick are below. They both have large hats and marshal batons. The portraits have dimensions 6 x 9.5 cm and they were engraved by S. de Passe. The lower half of the sheet contains a painting of the actual battle. In the right front, there are riders with banners with dead horse nearby. The main scene of the painting is the cavalry attack lead by Duke of Brunswick, who decided the battle in his and Mansfeld's favour by this decisive attack of his. At the horizon, town of Flory is on the left and town of Gemblours is on the right. Under the painting, there is an extensive Dutch text concerning the course of the battle.
The engraving shows the battle of Fleury on 29 August 1622. In the front, we see Mansfeld's retreating army, in the middle, the fight is in full progress. On the left, there is a depiction of an attack of cavalry of Duke Christian of Brunswick, who, even though he was wounded on arm, had decided this battle in his favour, because it was a draw for a long time and Mansfeld's units were already partially retreating. In the end, Spaniards were defeated. The horizon of the landscape is a forest. In the front of us on the right, there are three fleeing musketeers of Mansfeld. Under the painting, there is an A–N legend.
This is a schematic plan of the town of Mannheim with the river Rhine into which the Neckar flows. The landscape is studded with trees, which are all equally carved. The fortress of Mannheim is drawn without the construction details, just fortified facilities are carefully drawn up. Around the area, there are scattered individual soldiers and lines of shooting musketeers.
In the middle of the image, there is a schematic drawing of the fortress of Mannheim with the rivers Rhine and Neckar. In the surroundings of the city, there are deployed cannons and many trees with spherical treetops. Explanatory notes A-T under the image are missing (cut off).
The image is divided into 4 parts: 1. The scene in the Catholic Church; the King is sitting in an armchair with several courtiers around him; the priest is reading from the book of marital conditions at the altar. 2. The King at the ceremony feast; the King is washing his hands in the foreground. 3. The parade which is led by the King. 4. Remote view on London (“Lunden”) with the River Thames.
Engraving is drawn quite incompetently. In the foreground, there is the Friedland Castle in Göttingen and the town of Rüstenberg in the background. On the left side, there is a number of Brunswick troops’ camps and the encounter of the cavalry is in the middle. Various units of troops are scattered throughout the surroundings. In the background, there is a camp of the imperial troops under the Rüstenberg Castle.
On the engraving, the story of the battle is quite primitively drawn. On the hill, there is the castle of Friedland and in its neighborhood, there are many military divisions, shooting cannons, camps, fortification system and several villages. A comprehensive inscription above can be found below the printed images, it is followed by a German text which is divided into three columns, as well as the explanatory notes A-Z and 1-10.
The image is divided into two parts: the upper one shows the retreat and the persecution of the Brunswicks by eight broken ravines by the armies of General Tilly. At the bottom left, there is the situational map of the battlefield, final battle of both armies of Stadtlohn and the defeated Brunswick troops fleeing to the Netherlands. The inscription is above the printed images, there are the explanatory notes A-Z at the bottom.
The artwork is quite primitive. Throughout the area, there are scattered the square infantry and cavalry regiments, which were partly fighting. On the upper left, there is portrayed the scene in front of the command tent in the presence of the cavalry and infantry regiment with many flags and banners. Next to this one, there is a portrait of Christian Halberstadt with a probably ridiculed face on a circular field. In the middle of the image, there is the inscription 'Statlo', i.e. the name of the town Stadtlohn; the town itself, however, is not pictured. It is also remarkable that there is depicted the General Tilly with disproportionately tall and massive body on the right side, while Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, leading his fleeing units, is pictured vanishingly small on the left side. The author without any doubt wanted to express the disparity of their skills as military leaders by the disproportioned size of both generals.
The town is illustrated in perspective from above. The troops of Brunswick retreat by crossing the bridge over the river Lippe. Around the town, there are fortification systems and defensive bastions from which it is possible to shoot. Four military troops in square positions are located nearby the town. In the background, there are several ponds. The individual troops are marked by inscriptions.
The image is divided into four parts: There are three separate scenes, i.e. the attack of cavalry, the expulsion of robbed inhabitants from their homes and plundering of farmhouses. At the bottom, there is illustrated the march of the Dutch defenders against the enemy, guns in fire positions, marching infantry and construction of fortifications; several wagons with the fleeing civil populations meet the approaching Dutch army halfway. It is remarkable that the sleighs (snow is rare in the Netherlands) are dispersed among all the wagons; It's probably some sort of sliding wagons, which were effective on the Dutch sand. The artwork has a typical style of Dutch painters á la Brueghel, etc.
The image depicts a rather schematic map of the area around the fortress of Breda, which is displayed in the centre of the sheet. There are extensive fortifications around it and the sea on the left side. The surrounding landscape is heavily covered by individual trees. In the foreground, there are two musketeers and the cavalry is nearby. The Latin inscription above is on the decorative cartouche on the left side.
In the middle of the image, the confluence of Mulda and Elbe is illustrated. On the left bank of the Elbe, there is the imperial wall, a bridge behind it and a dam over the peninsula to Mulda, which is crossed by a bridge again. The whole landscape is heavily covered with individual trees. The town of Dessau is pictured on the right side of the print. Troops or camps of the troops are not here. Dessau lies approximately 100 kilometers southwest from Berlin.
It is a print without a more detailed textual explanation which depicts the defeated Mansfeld by Wallenstein at the Dessau bridge on 15 April 1626. The engraving is done in detail with many realistic particularities. There is a bridge across the river Elbe, fortress, Mansfeld’s chances and explosion of his ammunition supplies. On the right side we can see the town of Zerbst.
Heavily forested landscape with the Elbe, into which the river Mulde flows. The battle and fleeing of Mansfeld’s army are displayed on the shore behind the bridge that crosses both rivers. On the left side, there is a compass. Above the image, there is a text, at the bottom, there are the explanatory notes A-Z.
On the engraving, there is the Tilly’s army shooting across the river Vézère, which is crossed by the bridge to the town of Münden. On the other bank of Vézère, there is an additional units’ attack. The background of the image is a forested, hilly panorama, in the right foreground, there is the gallows and a big wheel.
In wide plateau, with the sea in the background, there is the besieged town of Elbing, from which a high church tower protrudes, and it is surrounded by powerful moats. On the right side, the same river runs through the town. Towards the upper edge of the image, there is the emblem of the town. Elbing is located in East Prussia on the sea coast, approximately half the distance between Kaliningrad and Gdynia. Below the image, there are explanatory notes A-S.
The engraving shows the flow of the River Vistula which divides into two. The bridge crosses the river and there are several sailing ships on the surface. On the furthest tip of the peninsula, which is created by both shoulders of the Vistula, is a Swedish fortress with a cleared forest behind it. In the bottom right corner of the image, there are two private soldiers, one with a pike, the other with a musket, holding a map of the area of Lower Vistula River and the Baltic Sea with a visible compass. There is a square with the explanatory notes 1-10 at the bottom left.
The engraving shows the situation of the battle between Tilly and the Christian IV of Denmark near Lutter. There are marked the towns of Wolfenbüttel, Lutter, Northeim, Göttingen and Duderstadt. From Lutter to Duderstadt, there flows a stream, which separates the positions of both armies. In the right corner, there is a rectangle with the explanatory notes A-F.
There are the towns of Göttingen, Northeim, Sese and Wolfenbüttel in the picture. The main location of the image is the battle between the two armies across the stream. There is the Fort Lutter nearby and the town of Duderstadt at the bottom right. In the upper right corner, there are explanatory notes A-G in the square. The quoted text is written in an antique font above the image of the copperplate.
Under the above text, many peasant weapons are depicted which were used during the peasant riots in the year 1626 in Upper Austria. It is noteworthy that the depicted weapons also include several Czech Hussite weapons, e.g. „ein böhmischer eiserner Morgenstern“, „ein žiškaischer Streitkolben“ or „ein böhmischer Kornhammer.“ There are even instructions for use for some of the weapons, e.g. the weapons marked A are held by several warriors on long poles; then they run into the groups of enemy horsemen and pull the riders from the horses using large hooks. Under the weapons there are pictures of five peasant chiefs, and one other chief on a horse. The peasant commanders are identified by their names. A two-verse explanation of the picture follows, with anti-peasant tendencies.
The etching depicts the harbour of Todos los Santos on the Atlantic coast of Brazil, near San Salvador (Bahia), approximately 1,400 km north of Rio de Janeiro. In the harbour there are several battleships with sails, of which two are in flames. The coast is fortified and occupied by battling troops. On the sea there are several smaller boats without sails, occupied by shooters who are firing at defensive positions on the coast. Above the picture there is an unfolded vignette with a clear map of the situation. At the bottom on the left there is a round, decorative cartouche with the above-quoted text. The engraver, in an effort to capture the tropical South American landscape, brightened up its character with many palm trees.
This is a map of the town of Grolla in the Netherlands, which is surrounded by various fortification buildings and military camps. The above-quoted Latin text is shown in the top right-hand corner. Below the picture, there is a measuring scale.
The engraving depicts the countryside at the lower reaches of the Elbe and the Weser and Ems river basin. There are several towns depicted here, e.g. Hamburg, Bremen, Nordheim, Braunschweig etc. Troops are scattered throughout the entire area. On the right by the bridge is the town of Bleckede, where the main clash which is the subject of the picture took place. In the foreground are tents, several trumpeters and a woman with a pack basket.
The picture depicts the area through which the Havel and Elbe rivers flow. On an island on the Havel river there is the town of Havelberg, and nearby there is Thumbhof, which means “a fortified hill with a church” (Thumb.Dom.). Downstream on the Havel river there are two forts facing each other, and between them an artillery barrage is shown. The Danes are just retreating from the fortress on the right. On the left, on the right bank of the Elbe, is the Imperial camp. In the left bottom corner of the print, a part of the town of Tangermünd is illustrated. At the top on the left-hand side is the legend A-E.
On the height format, the town and fort of La Rochelle is depicted (the capital of the French department of Charente-Inferieure). At the top of the print, there is a harbour and three anchoring ships. Lower down, there is a town surrounded by ramparts and towers. The above inscription is in the image part of the print.
On the height format, the town and fort of La Rochelle is depicted (the capital of the French department of Charente-Inferieure). At the top of the print, there is a harbour and three anchoring ships. Lower down, there is a town surrounded by ramparts and towers. The above inscription is in the image part of the print.
The town of La Rochelle is depicted from a so-called bird's eye view, with a harbour in which many ships are anchored. Around the town there are various military scenes, camps and field fortifications. In the bottom on the right there is a small map of the town environs. The quoted text is in a decorative cartouche in the top part of the picture.
On the peninsula there is a fortress whose floor plan consists of a star with a building in the middle. On the sea around the peninsula, five ships are sailing. On the dry land there is the small town of Gustow, protected by a field fortification. Troops are attacking the stronghold.
In the middle of the picture, there is the town of Wolfenbüttel, lying on the water. On both sides there are battling troops. Around the town there are several swamps and attackers' field fortifications, and at the bottom on the left there are two windmills. At the bottom on the right there is a square with the legend 1-22, and nearby there is a profile of a water dam.
The etching depicts the town of Wolffenbüttel, surrounded by marshes. On both sides of the town there are battle skirmishes and gunshots from rifles. Small forests have been drawn in three places; several gallows have been built near one of them. Above the picture there is the above-quoted text; at the bottom there is a rectangle with the legend 1-12.
The town of Stralsund has been schematically sketched; on one side there is the sea with a number of ships, and on the other side there is dry land with various fortified buildings (field fortifications and Imperial troops' bulwarks). In the right-hand corner of the picture there are two horsemen and an infantry division. On the left, in the square field, is the legend A-M; lower down there is a measuring scale in “Ruths”.
The etching depicts a fireworks display organized to celebrate the birthday of Elizabeth Duchess of Saxony, wife of John Philip of Saxony. The picture shows a house with a burning angel flying out of a window. Astonished people are depicted nearby. Under the picture, there are two four-line verses with a German greeting.
The drawing of the town of Toruň has been carried out very diligently and in great detail; the Latin text shown is in the decorative cartouche at the top on the left. Further down, there is the legend A-Z. The picture is full of explanatory notes. In the foreground, there is the „Vistula fluvius“ (river Visla) with a ship and a bridge.
The copperplate is a Merian work, and apparently comes from Abelin's “Theatra Europaea“. It depicts the Elbe countryside not far from Hamburg, with the towns of Kempen and Glückstadt and field fortifications, bulwarks and military divisions nearby. Danish ships are sailing on the Elbe. The legend A-G is at the top on the right, on the uncoiled ribbon.
The sheet is divided into two pictorial parts; the lower part depicts the small town of Chur on the Rhine in western Switzerland, and the upper part shows the Rhine countryside with high mountains, the Rhine and a bridge. In the countryside there is a large number of small settlements, castles, fortresses etc.
This is a very accurate, mapped situation of the environs of the town of Herzogenbusch in the north of the Brabant province in the Netherlands. On the right is the river Meuse. The wide surroundings of the town are filled with an extensive system of bulwarks and field fortifications. Above the picture there are two emblems. On the right, near a bend in the Mosel, there are two cartouches decorated with weapons, with the inscription: “Rheinländische Rutten“. Another cartouche contains the above-mentioned text. There is a measuring scale nearby.
The copperplate depicts the Rhine and two fortresses. On the peninsula, beside the shipping bridge which is just being built, stands a cargo crane whose system is remarkably effective and built in a modern way. The crane is unloading cargo from ships. A little further is the fortified town of Wesel, from which the Spanish are retreating on one side, and the Dutch are entering on the other. The cartouche with the legend A-I is a very interesting allegory: the figure representing Spain is holding a chain to which a lion is tied (i.e. the Netherlands). The lion is holding two banners with the inscriptions Herzogenbusch and Venloo. Under the chain there is the inscription “Wesel”. A hand is coming out of the clouds, holding a scissors which it is using to cut the chain. The hand is labelled with the inscription “Hand Gottes“.
On the left-hand side of the picture, the river Po and the town and citadel of Cazal are depicted. The illustrated scene is explained with French and Dutch text. On the right-hand side there is a detailed depiction of the citadel, and lower down a measuring scale is shown. The decorative ribbon contains the town emblem and the legend 1-10. In the bottom right-hand corner there is a perspective view of the town and countryside.
This is a view of the Po lowlands, in the middle of which lies the town of Cazal above the river Po. In the foreground there are artillery batteries and military camps; on the left under a tree there are three officers studying a map. In the background there are military divisions and behind them there are Alpine mountain panoramas. In the sky there is the inscription “Obsidio Casalis“. Above the picture there is the quoted German text and the legend 1-10.
The engraving, with a view of the city of Regensburg on the Danube, has been carefully drawn. In the foreground there are fields divided by borders; at the bottom on the left there is an allegorical gate with the city's coat of arms and a male figure which is looking at the city. At the bottom on the right, the legend A-O is shown in two rectangles. In the sky above the city there is a large Imperial eagle, holding in its talons a decorative board with a tribute to Emperor Ferdinand II.: “Divo Ferdinando etc.“. On the right-hand side there is the city emblem with the inscription: “Ratisbona“. The above-quoted German text is located above the picture.
On the right side of the engraving, the Po river has been drawn; on the left are the ridges of the Apennines. On the top left-hand corner there is a rectangle with the quoted text. All the edges are marked with the measuring scale “Miliaria italica“.
This is a very accurately executed depiction of the battle for the town of Mantua. Mantua itself is very carefully and accurately engraved; the town is surrounded by water. In the left foreground, there are three firing cannons. The quoted German text is located in the upper part of the etching.
In the middle of the plate, on which there is the inscription “Fundamentum Jesum Christum“, is the Bible “biblia sacra“, from which a palm tree grows with the inscription: „confes. August“ on its trunk. In the crown of the tree there is Constantia (endurance) and near the trunk there is: Fides (fidelity), Charitas (mercy) and Spes (hope). On the right-hand side, a Swedish lion is repelling various wild animals. A Brandenburg eagle is flying from the left and chasing away wild birds; near the tree there are two crossed swords tied with a laurel branch (i.e. the emblem of Saxony), repelling enemy troops. There is a hand coming out of the clouds, holding a chain which is tied to the crown of the palm tree, which symbolizes the hand of God protecting the Church of Augsburg. Under the picture there is a extensive three-verse German poem which explains the meaning of the depicted scene.
Immediately after landing on German soil near the island of Rügen on the 4th of July 1630, Gustav Adolf of Sweden began fortifying several locations on the coast so that he could safely carry out operations further into the German hinterland. These footholds included the Peenemünd fortress, located near the outlet of the river Oder into the sea, south of the island of Rügen. The king also had a similar fixed point established near Wollgast, not far from Peenemünd. Defensive actions by Imperial forces against the landing and attacking Swedes were feeble, since the Imperial forces were thinly scattered across the whole of Pomerania and Mecklenburg.
The print contains two views of the town of Wollgast from two locations various distances away. From the first, closer viewpoint, a castle on an island in the sea can be seen; in the foreground there are two firing cannons. The other, more distant view shows the town with the Swedish camp and conqueror's ramparts in the foreground. On the left there is a burning village.
The print shows an unusual building on three pillars standing on a book (i.e. on the Bible) in a mountainous landscape – at the top is the “ecclesia“ church. The three pillars represent: Omniscinecia, Misericordia and Omnipotentia. The book is labelled with the inscription: “Verbum Domini manet in aeternum“. This is because the Bible forms the basis of the Protestant faith. In front of the building there are five pillar ruins and bases, of which three are labelled: Bohemia, Palatinate and Augsburg, and are lying beneath a monster. The ruins represent the pillars of the Protestant faith, defeated by the Emperor and the league. The monster represents the Catholic faith and its heads carry the emblems of the Pope, cardinals and other church dignitaries. A sailboat with the Swedish lion and a Dutch helm is approaching this scene (i.e. and allegory of the alliance between Sweden and the Netherlands). On the rocky coast from which the ship set sail there is a person standing upright and teaching a group of pupils. By this the author of the print wants to state that the country from which the ship is sailing, i.e. Sweden, still has correct and pure reformed (Lutheran) teaching. The sun, which is just at that moment emerging from the clouds, shines its rays only on the ship and the teacher of Lutheran faith above Sweden, on the rocky coast, which means that God is helping the Swedes who are landing on German soil. Beneath the picture there is an extensive German poem, which very theatrically (in the form of a dream) explains the depicted scene and describes the Swedes' arrival in Germany as the rescue of the Christian Church which had been driven to the brink of extinction by the Roman Papacy.
The picture represents the interior of the Regensburg house in which Eleonora of Mantua was crowned Roman Empress. Above the chancel there is a large cross under which, in front of the altar, kneels the Empress with three bishops, of which one is placing the crown on her head. On the left, underneath a canopy, kneels the Emperor. The whole space is filled by a large number of various dignitaries.
The picture shows a meeting of all the rulers standing in the anti-Imperial camp, and representatives of major cities, i.e. England, France, Württemberg, Sweden, Nuremberg, Strasbourg, Ulm and many others. The chairman of the meeting is the “restless spirit“ (unruhiger Geist) seated at the head of the table. Away from the meeting hall, there is the Emperor on the right and the Catholic Church on the left. Under the picture there is a long German poem, in which each participant in the meeting expresses their views and complaints.
Tilly, with three of his generals, is sitting at a table with several bowls. He is being approached by a Swedish lion holding a map, representing the Battle of Leipzig, and by Gustav Adolf of Sweden with two platters containing Mainz and Würzburg; he is followed by John George of Saxony with Prague and the Landgrave of Hessen carrying Fulda. General Gustav Horn, carrying Bamberg in a bowl, is last. In the background, the Battle of Leipzig is illustrated. Beneath the picture there is an extensive German poem explaining the illustrated scene.
This is a map of the territories of Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Brandenburg. The Oder flows on the right-hand side; at the bottom on the left there is a small stretch of the river Elbe. In the north are the mapped territories bordered by the sea (“Maris Balthici Pars“), on which a ship is sailing. The entire area of the print is filled with geographical signs.
Here we see a view of the city conquered on the 3rd (13th) of April 1631 by the Swedes. In the background we can see the flow of the Oder with a large bridge and island, across which Imperial forces are fleeing. On the other bank there are many men on the run. The city is under strong Swedish artillery fire. In the left foreground there is an artillery division with the trumpeter and standard-bearer's horse rearing up. On a nearby hillock, there are two more trumpeters. The usual explanatory text is missing here.
The upper part of the picture shows the wide flow of the Oder, with a bridge and an island lying a short distance away on the right-hand side. On the city streets, a large number of persons running around in confusion has been drawn in great detail. The city is surrounded by the Swedish army, firing from numerous cannons. In the right foreground there are two figures of musketeers. Under the picture there is the legend A-M; the quoted text is located above the picture.
On the picture is the interior of a huge temple, in the middle of which is a high bed with skies above it. On the bed lies a person who is just now waking up. It is John George I. Elector of Saxony, being awakened by a kneeling woman, clad in tattered clothes, who is screaming desperately. This represents Germania, i.e. Germany, which ended up in a frightening position due to the actions of the Imperial troops; naturally this means Protestant Germany. In front of the bed is a (Swedish) lion whose paws are resting on the coats of arms of Venice, Switzerland and Hanseatic towns. These three states were faithful allies of the Swedes. Beneath the picture is an extensive German poem, explaining the illustrated scene.
This is a small picture of the city of Magdeburg, besieged by Imperial troops. In the foreground there is a military scene with horsemen and banners. The troops are advancing across a bridge over the Elbe. In the background, the city is shrouded in smoke and flames. The quoted Dutch inscription is located on an uncoiled banner in the sky; beside it is the city emblem and an Imperial eagle with a laurel branch around it. The etching is a remarkable, extraordinarily beautiful and delicately made work of art, but it is virtually unknown. Even its great author is unknown.
The print depicts the conquest of Magdeburg by Tilly in 1631. The high artistic level of the engraving and the distinctive character of the composition bears witness to Merian's authorship, although the print has not been signed. In the middle of the picture is the river Elbe, spanned by a bridge across which troops are advancing. The burning city is in the background, and in the foreground there is a cavalry division. On the uncoiled banner in the sky, there is the legend 1-25, and on the sides there are the city and Imperial coats of arms.
In the middle of the picture there is an open mousetrap in which a mouse is sitting; on the right-hand side there is a cat lying in wait, on the left-hand side there is a fox chained to a rock with a house behind it. Beneath the picture there is a German poem with a conversation between the mouse A, cat B and fox C. The mouse (i.e. Magdeburg) asks: Should I go get the pork fat which has been laid out and leave the trap, or should I stay here, which will mean an early death? The cat (i.e. Tilly) replies: “If you dare to run out from the trap, you will be destroyed anyway!” The fox (i.e. Gustav Adolf) says: “Go now and run, mouse, and jump into the cat's eye! I'd like to come and help but the chain tying me down is too strong!”
The German poem under the picture contains a dialogue between the fox (Gustav Adolf) and the cat (Tilly). The overturned mousetrap symbolizes the devastated city of Magdeburg, during whose conquest Tilly overate, because he did not swallow an ordinary mouse but rather a ferocious shrew. The cat complains of nausea caused by the shrew in its bowels; the fox responds that these mice will finally bite through the rope which is tying it to the tree, and it will then attack the cat and avenge the mouse. The tied up fox (G.A.) represents the strategic and political situation which prevented the Swedish king from liberating Magdeburg from the siege.
King Gustav Adolf of Sweden is leading a bride (i.e. the city of Magdeburg), and a procession is following them. Across from them stand generals Tilly and Pappenheim. Beneath this scene is a short German poem mentioning certain cities (e.g. Ulm, Augsburg, Nuremberg etc.) in various wedding roles. On both sides there is the text of another poem with the words of Tilly, certain soldiers, Magdeburg, Denmark, Turkey, the empire, the Catholic League, Swedes etc. Each of them is speaking ironically, according to their relationship with the Roman-German empire.
General Tilly is presenting his open hand to a witch who is predicting another fate for him. A child is standing behind the witch. In the background, Magdeburg is in flames. Beneath the picture is a rhyming dialogue between Tilly and the witch in which Tilly's so-called crimes are primitively described, in particular of course the conquest of Magdeburg. Tilly is trying to justify his actions.
The picture represents a large Swedish field camp at the confluence of the Elbe and Havel, not far from Werben, which was established by Gustav Adolf on the 12th of July 1631. The arrangement of tents and various other localities in the camp is interesting. In the background we can see the confluence of both of the mentioned rivers and the small fortified town of Werben. Tilly's troops are in the foreground. At the bottom on the left, there is a rectangle with the legend A-I.
This copperplate is identical to the print mentioned on the previous page under no. 133/238, which is labelled in Dutch, while sheet no. 134/262 is labelled with a German-Latin inscription.
The picture shows a view of the town of Tangermünde, which lies on the Elbe, approximately 100km west of Berlin, on a gentle hill. The Tanger river, flowing into the Elbe, is drawn on the print. In the sky there is a blank heraldic shield. In the foreground there is a fortified military camp on the bank of the Elbe. On the river, two ships are sailing.
The picture illustrates the Dutch territory at the mouth of the Scheldt. There are many different warships on the river. The above-quoted German text with the legend A-B is located below the upper edge of the print. Under the picture there is a three-verse German text, which describes the course of the naval battle and mentions several military inventions discovered by a certain monastic person in Brussels. These inventions (1-14) apparently helped the Dutch to victory.
The print depicts general Tilly's messenger who is marching to Frankfurt-on-Mohan. He's holding a lance and waving a hat with the other; he has luggage tied to his back and an Imperial emblem with an eagle on his chest. The goal of his journey – Frankfurt-on-Mohan – is in the background. Beneath the illustrated scene there is a long German poem strongly describing daring and confidence in the victory of Tilly's army, which is preparing to fight against the troops of Gustav Adolf of Sweden and John George Elector of Saxony. The Elector of Saxony, in particular, is shown very frequently, as he only decided to fight on the Swedish side shortly before the Battle of Breitenfeld.
The picture has been drawn in a relatively primitive and simple way. It represents the position of both of the opponents' troops before the battle at Breitenfeld near Leipzig. The bottom of the picture shows a village with a church tower and a long ditch with a row of trees planted beside it; a little further on the left is another village. The destination at the end of the drawn paths is always labelled with an inscription. At the bottom on the right there is an orientation compass. In addition to the clamped military formations there are also many individual figures, horsemen, firing cannons, vehicles etc.
The copperplate is divided into two parts, of which the upper part depicts the positions of both of the opposing armies, the Imperial League and the Swedish-Saxon, between the Battle of Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. At the bottom there is a picture of the battle in full swing; the Imperial-Bavarian divisions are in disarray and are retreating and fleeing. On both of the pictures, the village of Breitenfeld is at the bottom on the right. The whole copperplate is framed by a fine baroque frame with a small shield in the top centre, in which the number XLIV is written. The above-quoted Latin text is located on the decorative shield between both of the illustrated scenes.
This is a fragment of a large copperplate, engraved á la Merian but unsigned. In the foreground of the military scene there is the village of Podelwitz, and an unnamed river. The left third of the picture shows the path to Wittenberg and Leipzig. Beside the path labelled with the letter “K“ is an illustration of general Tilly with his adjutant; on the right is King Gustav Adolf of Sweden with two horsemen. The above-quoted Latin text is located above the illustrated scene.
The engraving represents a large prospectus of the Battle of Breitenfeld (of Leipzig). On the left-hand side the battle is already approaching its peak, but the situation on the right-hand side is not yet so advanced. In the foreground is a village with a windmill, a small church and groups of trees. In the foreground on the right there are several military emblems, and a little to the left there is an orientation compass. The quoted text is located in the rectangle at the bottom on the right; on the left there is another rectangle with the legend A-M.
This is a large and detailed picture of the Battle of Breitenfeld. The above-quoted text is located on the right. The entire area of the picture is filled with battle scenes with cannons, banners, cannonballs, kegs etc. An unnamed stream flows along the edge. The most intense battle rages on the left, beneath a hillock with a gallows across which many soldiers are fleeing. On the left at the top there is an incoiled vignette with battle slogans: “Gott mit uns“ (i.e. Swedish) and “Jesus Maria“ (i.e. Imperial). Under the picture are the legends A-X and 1-99.
The engraving represents a large prospectus of the Battle of Breitenfeld (of Leipzig). On the left-hand side the battle is already approaching its peak, but the situation on the right-hand side is not yet so advanced. In the foreground is a village with a windmill, a small church and groups of trees. In the foreground on the right there are several military emblems, and a little to the left there is an orientation compass. The quoted text is located in the rectangle at the bottom on the right; on the left there is another rectangle with the legend A-M.
The picture shows 3 of Tilly's soldiers kneeling in front of a bench; 2 Swedish mercenaries are standing behind them and beating them mercilessly with large bats. Playing cards and various delicacies lie on the bench. Under the bench there is a mousetrap and a brush. In the background is an emblem of the Battle of Breitenfeld. Beneath this scene there is a 9-verse poem in which the beating Swedish soldiers describe the crimes perpetrated by Tilly's army, thus justifying their own actions.
This is an extensive pictorial riddle (rebus), which is located under the inscription: “Als man zählt tausend sechshundert einunddreisig Jahr, am Tag Regina das ist wahr, ward Magdeburg hunderfältig gerochen, und mancher Pfaffenknecht erstochen, usw.“ “When we counted the one thousand six hundred and thirty first year, on the day of the Queen, it is true, Magdeburg was avenged hundredfold and many a parish priest's servant was stabbed, etc.“ The almost completely deciphered text of the rebus is quoted on the reverse of this copperplate.
The copperplate is composed of six pictorial sections: A. Tilly is depicted in armour with a raised sword in his right hand as the yet undefeated, confident hero. Behind him are the Brandenburg eagle and the Swedish lion, and he obviously has no fear of them. B. Tilly is on a horse, with his bride (i.e. Magdeburg) and a soldier with his hand raised in the saddle behind him. In the background is the burning city of Magdeburg, and troops. C. A fight between soldiers at the lunch table. This represents Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, which in Protestant pamphlets is very often compared to a banquet put on for Tilly by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony. D. Tilly is sitting unhappily on the ground in a landscape; there are flies buzzing around his head (i.e. depressing thoughts which are troubling him) and in the background there is a battlefield littered with corpses. This symbolizes the Tilly's desperate situation after the great defeat at Leipzig. E. Tilly is sitting in a church beside a priest, making his confession. A person representing desperation is handing Tilly a knife and rope so that he can commit suicide. F. In front of the church gates stands a monk who is offering Tilly a monk's frock. This represents Tilly intending to join a convent in desperation. A long German poem explaining the illustrated scenes follows.
On the picture is general Tilly sitting on a lion in the skin of a donkey, with long ears. Tilly is holding a tattered branch in his hand, and has a large hat on his head. In front of him, the Pope sits on a throne with a triple cross in his hand and a tiara on his head. Nearby, between the two, stands a high-ranking church dignitary, apparently a cardinal, who is holding a warhorse by the reins and offering it to Tilly. In the background, on the left, stands a verger. Beneath this scene is a rhyming text with a dialogue between the Pope and Tilly, numbering 42 verses.
Tilly, dressed in armour, is lying sick on a bed; the expression on his face shows severe pain. Beside the bed is a table with a glove, a helmet and marshal's staff on it. In the background there is a window covered by a curtain. On the tablecloth there is an inscription (translated): “An honest day's work for an honest day's pay!“ On the bolster there is an inscription: “Lord Tilly, how come you're so calm?“ An extensive German poem follows, in which Tilly laments his fate, which is punishment for his crimes in Magdeburg. In another the author warns all other offenders of God's vengeance.
The picture shows a postal messenger cantering on a horse and blowing a French horn. He's riding through a rocky and forested landscape, in the background of which there is a small church and a body of water with a ship. Behind the rider on the right, there is a man holding a long staff. Under this illustrated scene there is a German poem in which the messenger constantly asks peasants, priests, monks, nuns and all other passers-by where Tilly disappeared with his great army. Among the generals mentioned in the verses, there are also references to Aldrigen and Götz.
The picture, which is very delicately and carefully made, shows a lain table thronged by a large number of wounded and maimed soldiers. Beside the table on the right stands Gustav Adolf of Sweden, beating an Imperial soldier over the head with a staff. A little further away stands John George Elector of Saxony, who with a raised forefinger warns the pushing soldiers not to eat the tempting dishes. In the background we can see Tilly's army on the run, and numerous dead and wounded mercenaries. Under the picture there is a poem describing, in detail, the course of the banquet prepared for Tilly and his famous army. Naturally, the tone of the poem is sarcastic, especially when it deals with Tilly's actions at the “banquet of Breitenfeld”. Beneath the poem is a detailed menu listing all sorts of delicacies that have been prepared for Tilly.
This is a picture of an enormous drum, which is fixed askew in a scaffolding construction which is similarly tilted. In the background there are several people using ropes to move large drumsticks and beat the drum with them. In front of the drum is the devil, dressed in an officer's uniform and wearing a large hat; he is accepting money offered to him by priests with Jesuit birettas on their heads. One of the Jesuits is persuading the devil not to be embarrassed to take the money. In the background, crowds of people are flocking to be recruited into the army. Beneath this picture there is a poem which harshly condemns the manner in which armies were recruited and armed in the Thirty Years' War.
The picture is relatively primitively drawn and represents the conquest of Würzburg-on-Mohan by the Swedes. At the top is the horizontally drawn flow of the Mohan; above it lies the castle which is being conquered by Swedish troops. Würzburg is drawn in detail in the shape of a triangle; the Swedes have already entered the town. On the right there are several Swedish divisions, and in the foreground there are two musketeers. At the bottom on the left, there is the legend: A-I. Several verses beneath the picture deal with the course of the battle for Würzburg. The above-quoted inscription is located above the picture.
The picture shows the city of Frankfurt-on-Mohan. In the background there is a relatively high mountain range and in the foreground we can see Swedish troops, led by King Gustav Adolf, advancing on the city. On the right there are a number of trees and two trumpeters on horses, and in the top left-hand corner is the city emblem with a laurel branch around it. Below is the legend 1-22.
The print shows the town of Kreuznach, lying on the river Nahe (the right tributary of the Rhine), approximately 70 km south-west of Frankfurt-on-Mohan. The Swedish cavalry is fording this river. On the right, on a hillock, lies Kreuznach castle. The town extends over both banks of the Nahe, and is engulfed in flames. In the foreground, on the right, there are horsemen with banners. In the skies is the town emblem with the inscription: “Crucenacum a Svecis occulatur.“ (this should be “occupatur“). Below is the legend A-P. The distinctive drawing of horses' behinds, as we see them here, is quite typical of W. Hollar even though Drugulin states that the author is M. Merian; in 1631 Hollar was employed in the Merians' engraving workshop in Frankfurt and he usually did not sign the works he produced here.
The engraving represents the interior of the large, vaulted cathedral with a presbytery, altar and pulpit. The cathedral is completely filled with people who are even crowding the oratories and the chancel. Above the picture is the quoted text, and below is the legend A-N.
The Rhine flows through the illustrated landscape, and the army of Gustav Adolf King of Sweden is advancing across it. In the foreground there are some small-scale military scenes with cavalry. On the other bank of the Rhine is the town of Oppenheim, already in the grip of sizeable Swedish forces. Above the picture is the above-quoted German text, and the legend A-V is below. The engraving is the work of Wenceslaus Hollar; it does not actually contain Hollar's signature but Urzidil states in his work on Hollar that it has been safely confirmed that the clash at Oppenheim was drawn by Hollar, who watched the course of the battle with his own eyes.
The print shows a large, four-sided pillar (obelisk), resting on a base of four globes. A Swedish lion is drawn on the pillar. Beside the monument there are two officers – most likely an honour guard. The Rhine flows in the background. The above-quoted text is located on the picture beside the pillar.
The picture represents a printing press, a newspaper editorial office and administrative office, and a publication with a large number of people busy with various related tasks. The main functionaries are labelled with the letters A-G, and their literary activities and promotional efforts are described in detail in the following rhyming text.
On the picture we can see the territory around the confluence of the Mohan and the Rhine, near Mainz. On the bank of the Mohan there is a fortress in the shape of a star; a little further along the river there are several islands. The pontoon bridge leads to Mainz. In the foreground there is a small village with a church tower and two male figures. On the left there is a stylized tree and another small church. In the sky there is an inscription: “Gustaviburgum“.
The tableau is divided is divided into small rectangles in which pictures of various cities, fortresses etc. have been drawn, identified by their names. In the middle, there is a portrait of Gustav Adolf in profile, in an oval, with the inscription “Gustav. Adolph. D. G. Svecor. et Vandalor. Rex.“ On the right-hand side, there is a Swedish royal coat of arms.
This is a very detailed map of west German territory, showing the flow of the Mohan and the Rhine. All the towns and villages have been drawn in detail.
There is a Latin inscription ‘Trifolium unionis aureum in sanctae huius concordiae vinculum‘ in the painting. There are three Protestant princes portrayed: the Swedish King, the Saxon Electorate and the Brandenburg Electorate clad in military clothing and wearing large hats. They are shaking their right hands, which are symbolically bound by a ribbon. The princes are standing on a clover shamrock and marked by their respective coats of arms. The sun is beaming on them from behind the clouds, above them are various biblical psalms. A mounted cavalry regiment is galloping in the background. Next to the picture are Latin and German psalms and a bit lower down are verses that praise the decision of the three Protestant princes to enter into an Alliance against the Emperor and the powerful Catholic League.
The picture depicts the Swedish King Gustav Adolph standing on a carriage with the Protestant princes ousted out by the Catholics. The wagon is pulled by animals symbolising some of the Kings characters, for instance, a lion (i.e. big-heartedness], a fox (i.e. carefulness) etc. A limp female body with her mouth and hand bandaged is lying to the right. The woman is holding a rattle in her bandaged hand and is in a quite a wretched state. She represents the Christianity brought by the Catholics headed by the Pope, which is now doomed. ‘Herr Dona’ (i.e. Achac, the Burgrave of Dohna), a Protestant nobleman and a zealous supporter of the Swedish King, is coming towards the carriage holding a sheet of paper in his hand with the inscription ‘pacem’, i.e. peace. It contains the honest wishes and the purity of thoughts of the nations that trust Gustav Adolph. The woman is giving handing and weapons to the king, i.e. the God’s help, which guides the king's deeds. Another female figure with a cross in her hand is lying to the left and pointing the right direction for the carriage. She represents the ‘religion’. There are many various allegoric scenes in the picture, which praise the King Gustav Adolph and disgrace his opponents. The long German poem below the painting has the same meaning. All allegories are marked with letters A – Z, their meaning is explained in the caption.
Wallenstein is seated in an armchair and clad in ceremonial clothing with the Order of the Golden Fleece attached to his breast. Two colonels are standing on each side of Wallenstein. All three of them are smiling. Only this picture is left from the original engraving so the explanation usually placed below it is missing. The top part of the print with the above stated text is also missing. It was put here only to make the understanding of the meaning of the depicted scene easier.
The painting depicts the Peace (‚pax‘) represented by a female figure sitting in the middle of ruins with her head leaned in her left hand. There is a man with a sword at his side in front of the ruin. He is wearing short clothing and a hat. There is a long German poem under the picture. In the form of a dialogue between the Peace and the described man (the so-called ‚old German man‘) it denounces the war and its consequences.
The print depicts an old German man wearing a beautiful robe, who is throwing around leaves of paper covered in writing: ‚der sih dich für‘, which means,the person who can foresee the future events and is warning the public. The Jesuits are picking up the leaflets, while others are burning them. There is a ship on the river taking the propaganda prints around. The Electorate John George of Saxon with an inscribed sheet of paper in his hand is standing at the bottom right in front of his horse. A long German poem is below the picture. All depicted persons (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) have something to say in it. It is stated in Zíbrt and Drugulin’s descriptions of this print that on the far right of the painting are portrayed John George of Saxon and the King Gustav Adolph,holding sheets of papers in their hands with the words ‚der sih dich für‘ on them. This painting shows two figures on the far right, however only one of them, possibly the Electorate of Saxon, is holding a sheet of paper. The second figure shows no royal attributes and it is more likely to be a stableman of John George of Saxon. Apart from that, this copper engraving corresponds with the one described by Drugulin and Zíbrt exactly.
Two chevaliers are facing each other while looking at the Imperial sword, sceptre, orb and a Jesuit biretta placed on a cushion. There is a two-stanza German poem below this scene, which praises the Protestants’ victory at the battle of Breitenfeld and explains the meaning of the picture.
On the picture there are two burning field fortifications located on both banks of the Rhine, one at Drusenheim (nearby, there is an island on the Rhine); another one, lower down, is surrounded by peasants. Beneath the picture there is a three-verse German poem glorifying the liberation of the enemy. The quoted German text is shown above the pictorial part of the print.
The engraving shows the Danube, into which the Wernitz river flows near the township of Donauwörth, lying in part on the island of Wernitz. On the right-hand side, the Swedish army is attacking. The quoted Latin-German text is above the pictorial part of the print; the legend A-S is at the bottom.
On the engraving we can see the Danube, on which lies the town of Donauwörth which has been drawn very beautifully and in great detail. Behind the town flows the river of Wernitz, which flows into the Danube near Donauwörth. The above-mentioned town name is located on an uncoiled banner in the sky above the illustrated landscape. The decorative banner bears the legend A-O.
The picture represents the landscape along the river Lech near Rain, approximately 50 km west of Ingolstadt. In the foreground is the Swedish army which is both fording the Lech and crossing it over a bridge which is hazy with smoke. The engraving is of a high artistic value, and its distinctive execution indicates the work of Hollar but unfortunately it has not been signed. On the opposite bank of the Lech, on the right, there is a thick forest. The legend A-I is under the picture, the German text is at the top, and the Latin text is located in the sky in the picture.
The print depicts the Battle of Lech, in which general Tilly and Elector Maximillian of Bavaria were defeated (killed) by Gustav Adolf of Sweden on the 6th of April 1632. The picture has been drawn in a primitive manner. The Swedish troops are advancing across the Lech by a bridge and a number of fords. On the other bank, beneath the small town of Rain, a cavalry division, firing from rifles and pistols, is attacking the infantry. On the lower edge of the engraving there is a tent with the inscription “1632”. At the top on the left, we can see the Danube and the town of Donauwörth; nearby is a hillock which is being attacked. On the left, in front of a military banner, is Frederick of Palatinate (“Fr. Kö. in Böhem“).
On the right-hand side of the picture stands Gustav Adolf wearing a hat with a feather, dressed in armour. In his right hand he is holding a marshal's staff; his stance is overly theatrical. A wailing woman is lying in the middle of the picture (i.e. Augsburg) and on the left is a church with an open gate – the devil is standing at the altar, and above him is the inscription “Wo dieser steht, Gottes Wort vergeht!“ (i.e. “Where he stands, the word of God will cease!”). In front of the cathedral, monks are bringing various books and publications to be destroyed (i.e. the execution of the restitution edict). In the background, we can see the city of Augsburg. In the sky, an angel is floating and pointing at a Hebrew inscription which is illuminated by rays. Beneath the picture is a poem which quotes extracts from the Psalms in the Old Testament and applies their meaning to the subjugated and subsequently liberated city of Augsburg. There is, of course, a religious perspective intended here, as the recovery of the city where the Augsburg Confession was founded was an important event for the Protestant side in contemporary religious life. This copperplate was not signed, but Zíbrt states that the author is W. Endter.
The engraving shows a city in which only the main buildings are depicted. In the foreground is the river Lech. Swedish artillery is firing into the city, and several towns in the area are shrouded by smoke and flames. This is a view from above (a so-called bird's eye view). At the top on the right, the flow of the Sinkel river is indicated.
The picture shows the city of Augsburg; the city garrison is leaving by a bridge after the conclusion of an accord – an agreement about the city's capitulation – with Gustav Adolf. In the background there are several villages and small towns, identified by their names. The German text beneath the engraving comments on the conquest of Augsburg by the Swedes in 1632.
The etching depicts the city of Ingolstadt (the most important buildings in the city are numbered); beneath the city, along the Danube, Swedish divisions are attacking. On the right, at the head of the division, a Swedish general is riding a horse and holding a marshal's staff (undoubtedly Gustav Adolf). A trumpeter and a cavalry division are watching him. An interesting detail: a cannon is firing from the Ingolstadt field fortification, and hitting a Swedish soldier. The quoted German inscription is above the pictorial part of the copperplate; at the bottom there is a lengthy German text describing in detail the history of the city and ending with a description of the siege of the city by the Swedes on the 24th of April 1632. The legend 1-10 follows.
A view of the city, lying on the far bank of the Danube. Important buildings are identified by their names. A bridge crosses the Danube. In the foreground, on the nearer river bank, the Swedes are attacking the city. Nearby there is a peasant homestead, beside which there are peasants watching the battle. In the sky is the inscription “Ingolstadium“, and higher up there is the city emblem, with a laurel branch around it.
The copperplate depicts Munich, which was conquered by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden on the 10th of May 1632 on the basis of an agreement. In the foreground is a scene showing the Munich city council presenting the Swedish king with the keys to the city, and city priviliges. The king is riding through the city on a horse and holding a marshal's staff in his right hand. In his extensive military entourage, the following are identified by their names: the King of Bohemia (i.e. Frederick of the Palatinate), Count Palatine August, Duke Willhelm of Weimar and Duke John of Holstein. On the left, there is a bridge across the river Isar. In the middle of the city is the well-known “Frauenkirche,“ i.e. a church of the Virgin Mary. On the right there is another bridge across the Isar. In the far background, there is a village in flames. In the top left-hand corner, there is the emblem of the city of Munich – “Münchner Kindl“.
The print depicts a landscape through which several streams flow and across which several villages, identified by their names, are scattered. Below the upper edge of the engraving there is the inscription “Palatinatus“; on the bottom at the right there is a small forest and nearby there is a clash between Spanish and Swedish troops. The above-mentioned text is located above the pictorial part of the print. At the bottom, there is the legend A-G and 1-7.
In the middle of the copperplate is the city of Maastricht, lying above the Moselle. It is surrounded by a thick ring of various fortified buildings. Throughout the entire picture there are numerous military scenes, camps, marching divisions, small skirmishes etc. Individual details are accompanied by explanatory notes. In the bottom right-hand corner, in the foreground, there is a commanding general with his entourage and two trumpeters. The above-quoted inscription is at the top on the right, and nearby two coats of arms have been drawn: a Flemish lion and a six-pointed star; under this there is a measuring scale.
The picture shows the city of Koblenz, lying at the confluence of the Moselle and the Rhine. In the foreground there is a bridge across the Moselle; army divisions and firing cannons are arranged around the city. On the left, above the Rhine, is the castle of Herrmanstein. This is a very detailed drawing, particularly reminiscent of Hollar's engravings due to its concept of perspective.
In the middle of the engraving is the city of Nuremberg, in which only the important buildings and fortifications have been illustrated in detail and are identified by their names. Around the city there is an extensive, fortified Swedish army camp. In both bottom corners, there are unusually beautifully engraved skirmishes between horsemen. At the top on the right there is a decorative baroque vignette, which contains the above-quoted text. On the opposite side, at the same height, there is the emblem of the city of Nuremberg with a laurel branch around it.
The engraving, which has been very sharply engraved, illustrates Nuremberg and both of the opposing armies's fortified camps. The Regnitz river flows horizontally. The above-quoted inscription is located above the picture.
A small engraving, engraved á la Merian or Hollar (Hollar worked for a number of years in Merian's workshop in Frankfurt; this is why there is an obvious similarity between the artistic concepts of both engravers). In the left foreground, a riding scene is depicted. In the middle, there is the wide flow of the river Meuse, and over it a bridge. The city of Maastricht lies in the background, and there is a battle in progress close to it. The print comes from the work “Theatrum Europaneum“.
This is a depiction of the situation in the Swedish and Imperial camps at Nuremberg. At that time, on the 9th of August 1632, the Swedes attacked Waldstein's supply expedition in Freudenstadt. At the top on the left is Nuremberg, the river Regnitz flows through diagonally, and in the place where the river touches the edge of the print there is the township of Fürt, where Imperial forces camped. At the bottom on the right, the affair in Freudenstadt, which is mentioned in the heading, is illustrated. The afore-mentioned inscription is below the picture. Throughout the entire engraving, many small scenes – mainly military ones - have been drawn. In the bottom left-hand corner there is a square with the inscriptions “Sw. Swedisch“ and “Fr. Friedländisch“.
The print shows the town of Freudenstadt, lying on a hillock in flames. The surrounding landscape is mountainous. The town is apparently being attacked by Swedish horsemen. In the foreground there is a general, most likely Gustav Adolf, with a cavalry division; on the other side (on the left) there are several horsemen with banners and bugles. The quoted text is above the picture, and at the bottom there is another, extensive German text describing the course of the illustrated event.
The engraving has been made in the form of a map of the territory between Nuremberg and Freudenstadt, through which the rivers Pegnitz and Regnitz flow. Both cities are illustrated. The clash between the Swedes and the Imperial forces is in the middle of the engraving. The etching is unusually finely made. Under the picture, there is the legend A-F.
The picture shows the Battle of Wiesloch, which lies approximately 20km south of Heidelberg. In the foreground on the left there is a military scene, drawn á la Hollar. In a nearby valley, troops are fighting; a short distance away is the town of Wiesloch. In the background, there is a forested mountain range. The quoted German text is beneath the picture, and at the bottom there is the legend A-G.
The engraving shows a forested landscape where the Battle of Wiesloch took place. On the left of the picture, there is a village with a pointed church tower. In the foreground, on the left, there are several horsemen and musketeers. The execution of this engraving bears witness to its origin in Merian's workshop in Frankfurt. Under the picture, there is the legend A-G.
On the right side of the picture there is the hillock “Altenberg“ and the Imperial camp; on the opposite side (diagonally across the sheet) is the Swedish position. The flows of the Regnitz and Pegnitz rivers are very distinctly drawn. At the bottom on the left, there is a decorative cartouche which contains the above-mentioned inscription, and the legend A-G is at the bottom.
On the left side of the picture is the hillock “Altenberg“ on which battles between numerous army divisions broke out near the Imperial fortifications. On an elevated area in the forest, there is a castle or convent. At the bottom on the left there are two horsemen, shooting at each other. A little further away, the Regnitz river flows; at its confluence with another river there is a small village with a church.
The engraving has been made in the form of a map. In the middle, there is the town of Benfeld, lying approximately 30 km south of Strasbourg above the river Ill. Beneath the town, the river divides into several branches. Around the town, the attackers' field fortifications are illustrated. At the top on the right, there is a rectangular image of the town of Benfeld, the above-mentioned text and the legend A-F. On the right, beneath the picture, there is a detail of the fortifications.
This is a view of the city of Leipzig from above (a so-called bird's eye view). The city has been drawn very accurately and in great detail. Around the city there are various battles scenes, and enemy fire. At the top, on the right and left, there are 2 coats of arms. At the bottom, there is the legend A-Z.
The suburb of Deutz in Cologne on the Rhine, with an explosion in a church and an attack by Swedish troops, forms the foreground of the engraving. Above this we can see the river Rhine with several mills, and the city of Cologne on the Rhine in the background. In the sky, on the left, there is an Imperial coat of arms containing an eagle, and on the right there is the emblem of the city of Cologne. The German text is above the picture; the legend A-W is at the bottom.
Below the upper edge of the print flows the river Rhine. Immediately under it is the suburb of Deutz with an explosion (the church tower is tumbling down). In the foreground, in front of the city, there are several army divisions and a commanding general holding a marshal's staff, accompanied by several standard-bearers. The quoted German text is above the picture; the legend A-W is at the bottom.
The picture, with its relatively large figures, represents a close-up of a battle between several horsemen. The wounded are lying on the ground. On the left, a horseman is firing a gun into Gustav Adolf's back. The turmoil of a battle, partly shrouded in smoke, is in the background.
This broad picture shows the town of Lützen in flames at the top on the right. On the left side, there is an oval cartouche with the quoted Latin text. The middle of the whole picture is filled with the commotion of battle. In the foreground there is a gallows, and nearby a large explosion has been illustrated – most likely an ammunition store.
On the upper side of the print Swedish battle positions are illustrated, in which it is typical that the ranks of the musketeers are distributed between the cavalry squadrons, and that some of the light artillery firing positions are in the vicinity of battle formations, whether they be infantry or cavalry. The position of the Imperial army is illustrated in the lower half of the graphic artwork. A trench occupied by Imperial gunmen, which played an important role during the battle, runs through the middle. On the right, there is a cartouche with the both armies' battle slogans: “Jesus Maria“ (i.e. the Imperial forces' slogan) and “Gott mit uns“ (i.e. the Swedes' slogan). On the right, in the middle of the sheet, is the burning town of Lützen.
This engraving was made to resemble a map. The river Rhine flows on the right side, the Moselle on the left. There is a canal between the two rivers with eleven small fortresses. There is an ornamental cartouche with a Latin inscription at the top left with an inscription, which explains that the Archduchess Isabella of Austria, the widow of Archduke Albert and Governor of the Netherlands, ordered the canal construction. An orienteering compass showing cardinal directions is on the left.
The print depicts the town from the birds-eye view. There are boats on the lake. An orienteering compass is on the right. The river Rhine flows through some hills in the background. The coat-of-arms of the town with a cross is in the sky. The stated German text is placed above the picture; the caption 1–27 is below it.
This is rather a primitively drawn map of the territory between the Weser and the Rhine, which definitely cannot be considered as corresponding with the real topography of the area. The above-stated German text is placed above the map.
In the foreground of this large portrait of Mainz is depicted its suburb Cassel and the river Rhine spanned by a bridge. Nearby is a square fortification wall. The picture of the town is picturesque and done out very thoroughly. There is an inscription above the town: ‚Archiepiscopalis Maguntia‘, and its coat-of-arms. The caption 1 – 36 is lower down.
On the left of this large copper engraving is a meander of the river Rhine with the city of Rheinberg on its banks. There is a system of waterways, canals, various fortifications, trenches and army camps in the surroundings. There is a scale map of the territory at the bottom left. Above it there is a figure of a fisherman holding a board with another scale. The above-stated Latin text is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top left, opposite is an unrolled ribbon banner with the caption 1-20. A profile of the fortification trenches including the parameters is depicted at the bottom right.
This picture is very delicately engraved. The battle of the two regiments is just commencing at the top right near the town of Memmingen. The river Iller flows nearby. There are also several villages depicted with their names marked. At the bottom centre is the town of Babenhausen, connected with Memmingen by a path. A convoy of carriages is passing along the path, the coachmen are waiving their whips in the air. The stated German text is placed in a rectangle at the top left.
The Battle of Oldendorf fills up the entire area of this large picture. Various contemporary military scenes are depicted in the bottom foreground. There is even outlined an oblong formation of Swedish regiments, typical for the Thirty Years‘ War fights. Swedish as well as Imperial battle slogans are inscribed on an unrolled ribbon banner. Below the picture is the caption 1-79.
The bizzare retreat of the Imperial army from the battle fought on 28 June / 8 July 1633 near Oldendorf. 1. Major General Böninghausen, 2. Count General of Gronsfeld and 3. Colonel Gottfried of Geleen from Wachtendong, Commander in Wolffenbütell. Printed in the year 1633. There are three figures depicted under this title: 1. The Major General Böninghausen is galloping away, 2. The General Gronsfeld is carried away on a piece of wood by two soldiers, 3. The Field Marshal Geleen is running away as a common soldier. There is a satirical verse under each figure poking at the way they are escaping. This is a propaganda leaflet issued by the Protestants, which mocks the hasty flight of the Imperial commanders from the Battle of Oldendorf in 1633.
The heavily fortified town of Hameln is in the centre of the print. Above the town flows the river Weser spanned by two bridges, nearby is the small river Hammel. The town itself is protected by bulwark and various fortification constructions and surrounded by the troops of the enemy. A forest is at the background. There are two figures, of a cavalryman and a soldier, in the foreground. There is a square banner with the caption A-D on the right.
The painting is divided by two rivers flowing across. A battle is raving on the central field dotted by many dead and wounded soldiers. The escape of the Imperial troops is pictured at the top. The food supply carriages are depicted in the foreground, two soldiers are standing by. At the bottom left are depicted the Duke of Lüneburg, the General Gustavson and the Field Marshal Knyphousen.
The battle is depicted in the left part third of the painting. The town of Pfaffenhofen is on the right, the Lichtenberg castle is atop a hill in the background, and a bit further on is the village of Rinkelsdorf. The caption A-N with appropriate explanations is below the painting.
The painting depicts the Lichtenau fortress with its surrounding situated approximately 20 km southwest of the town of Ansbach in Bavaria. The river Resa is painted on the print. A dark forest lies in the foreground. The town’s coat-of-arms is above Lichtenau, a portrait of the Count John Jacob Thurn with his coat-of-arms lies opposite. The caption A-F is at the top left.
This very delicately done copper engraving depicts the town of Nancy and its surrounding. The enemies’ trenches are positioned in a large curve around the town. There are ornamental cartouches at the top left and right showing cross-sections of fortifications constructions; the scale is at the bottom right. Below the painting are: 1. A dedication to the King Louis XIII. from R. Disiette 2. A description of the siege of Nancy marked A – Z and praising Louis XIII. 3. A topographical description of the siege. 4. A sonnet praising the heroic conquest of Nancy.
The picture is divided by the river Oder. Burning Stein lies to the left above the Oder, there is the so-called Stein fortification along both banks of the river surrounded by the Imperial army formations. There are horse carriages in the left foreground with one cavalryman. The stated German text is located above the picture, while the caption A – I is placed below it.
There is a portrait of the Duke of Weimar on a horse holding the Marshal baton in his hand in the left foreground of the etching. The town of Regensburg is on the right. The picture does not depict fully the military actions of the siege of the town, only a few smaller military scenes. There are two angels holding a Laurel wreath and branchlets in the sky and two other small angels who are holding an unrolled ribbon banner with an inscription: ‚Soli Deo Gloria‘. The Regensburg coat-of-arms (two crossed keys) is in the corner of the print.
The engraving is separated into two parts down the middle. The top part shows the assassination of the officers and supporters of the Duke of Friedland. There is a dining hall filled with many fighting and shooting men, the tables are full of food, the tablecloth is pulled off. The other part of the print portrays Wallenstein in his nightdress. He is standing in the bedroom, with a desk with a burning candle in the background. A four-posted canopy bed is in the corner of the room. Three soldiers are breaking through the door, the first one (Deveroux) is just about to stab Wallenstein with a halberd, a stabbing double-edge weapon with a long shaft. Others are armed by cords.
There is a portrait of Wallenstein with the contemporary pointed beard and moustache. He is wearing a wide upright collar and a sash over his chest. There are four ovals with other depictions: The banquet in the Cheb Chateau upon the arrival of the murderers. One of them, possibly Gordon, is shouting:,Vivat casa d’Austria!’. The assassination of the participants of the banquet - Kinský, Trczka, Illov and Neumann. The assassination of Wallenstein in his bedroom by the Hetman Deveroux. The drugging of the dead bodies with soldiers and one colonel with a stick standing by. There is a long German text below these drawings that describes the event into details; however from the point of view of the Imperial movement. The mention of the fact that Duke of Saxon-Lauenburg arrived to Cheb on the same evening with a larger group of soldiers to protect Wallenstein is noteworthy.
There are 4 separated pictures on the copper engraving showing the following scenes: 1. The forced entry of the armed unit into the Cheb Chateau and the fight in the kitchen. 2. The assassination of Kinský, Trczka, Illov and Neumann at the feat. 3. The assassination of Wallenstein in his bedroom by the Hetman Deveroux. 4. The Wallenstein’s body is carried out to the courtyard. There is an inscription among these scenes:,Alberti ducis Fridlandini militiae caesareanae generalissimi et aliorum quorundam ducum et officiorum caedes, Egrae die 15. Februar. anni 1634.‘. There is an extensive three-column German text below the picture part of the print, which comments the Cheb assassination from the point of view of Wallenstein’s supporters.
The siege of Memmingen is depicted in the centre of the print. The river Iller and the stream Buxach flow nearby. There is a main tent of the Swedish Marshal Gustav Horn on the bank of the river at the top right. The above-stated text is above the picture in an oblong cartouche, the coat-of-arms of Memmingen is on the left, with a laurel wreath wrapped around it. The engraving is remarkable for its delicate work.
The print depicts the battle between the Imperial and Swedish regiments. A thick forest inscribed: ‚Der Löwen Wald‘ is on the right, in the background is the Chateau Hirtenstein with the river Thur flowing below. The battle of the two armies is in the centre of the picture. The Imperial regiments are fleeing towards the left side of the print. A horse cavalry with buglers is at the bottom right. The caption 1-21 is below the picture, while the German text is above it.
Huge battle turmoil, partially veiled by the smoke from cannons, fills the entire area of the print. The town of Legnica is in the left background. There are some minor military scenes in the foreground drawn with great mastery. The German text is above the picture while the caption A – Q is below it.
The town of Legnica in Silesia is portrayed at the very top of the picture. Imperial soldiers are fleeing in the direction of the town. The rest of the painting is filled up by the army formations lined-up in typical squares. In the left foreground are a large tree, 2 cavalrymen, 3 soldiers, a woman with a child and a farmer holding a dog and a hen in his hands.
This is a large representative copper engraving, which depicts the siege of Regensburg by the Imperial army. There are mountains and the river Danube in the background. The town itself is engraved very clearly and meticulously. There are some military scenes, fortification walls, army camps etc. in the foreground. A factual and topographical captions, A-Z and 1-29, are in an ornamental banner on the right. Nearby are individual cavalrymen and musketeers carrying standards. On the left is a round ornamental cartouche with the coats-of-arms of the city council including a dedication to an unnamed burgomaster by a certain Matthias Hubert. The coat-of-arms of Regensburg, a two-headed eagle with crossed keys is at the top right. The German text cited word-for-word on the previous page is placed in the clouds over the depicted city.
The print shows the situation (ground-plan) of Frankfurt on the river Oder. The wide flow of Oder spanned by a bridge near Frankfurt cuts off symbolically the top left corner of the print. The town is surrounded by the enemy’s regiments with numerous cannon batteries and army camps. The stated German text is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top right. The topographic and military caption A-R is above the picture part of the print, included is also a scale in rutheny.
The print shows the situation (ground-plan) of Frankfurt on the river Oder. The wide flow of Oder spanned by a bridge near Frankfurt cuts off the top left corner of the print. The town is surrounded by the enemy’s regiments with numerous cannon batteries and army camps. The stated German text is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top right. The topographic and military caption A-R is above the picture part of the print, included is also a scale in rutheny.
The town of Rheinfelden with its high church spire is outlined in the centre of the engraving. Outside the town is: ‚Herr Gen. Maior Exc. Reingraff Johann Philips quartier‘, and nearby to the right: ‚ Auszug der Kayserlichen‘. There are mountain ridges in the background. The river Rhine flows across the painting. Army camps and cannon batteries are in the foreground. There are even ballistic tracks of the cannonballs falling on the town outlined. In the left foreground are three cavalrymen.
The engraving shows the town of Landshut in a beautifully drawn countryside. A huge fire broke out in the town, covering it with clouds of smoke. The Imperial army is running away on the other bank of the river Isar. There are 2 cavalry and some infantry soldiers in the left foreground. The coat-of-arms of Landshut with three hats is drawn above the town. The caption A-L is at the bottom..
The Danube river flows across the picture with the town of Regensburg along its banks. The river Regen, which spills into branches in the Bavarian part of the Bohemian Šumava Forest, flows into the Danube from the left side. Two cavalrymen are portrayed in the left foreground. The Imperial army camp inscribed: ‚Königs in Ungern Läger‘ is in the top left corner. The caption A-S is at the bottom left.
The city of Regensburg on the river Danube with an island and two bridges lies in the background of the engraving. Its suburb with two high spires is on the left. The Swedish army is just retreating from it. A cavalry regiment is at the bottom right. A small banner with the inscription: ‚Bischofspalast‘ is placed above it. The coat-of-arms of the city (two crossed keys) and an inscription: ‚Ratisbona- Regenspurg‘ is in the sky over the city.
A fight of cavalries with relatively large figures is depicted in the foreground. The main battle and the city of Nördlingen with its church spire are in the background. Thick clouds of smoke and dust are hanging over the fighting turmoil. There is a cavalryman carrying a standard with the Imperial eagle in a group of figures to the left. The landscape in the background ends at high mountains. The entire composition of the picture characterises a later period than the first half of the 17th century.
The print shows the overall view of the city of Nördlingen situated in the Western Bavaria near the border with Württemberg, approx. 80 km northwest of Augsburg. There is an unrolled ribbon banner in the sky over the landscape with the French inscription stated on the previous page. There are several military regiments with carriages in the foreground. A high officer with a report giving adjutant is depicted on the left. A large tree stands nearby and there is a church on a hillock on the right. The caption A-V is below the picture. This is a copper engraving of French origin of a high artistic quality. Although there is no signature, it shows many characteristics of the engraving techniques of Jacques Callot. It is remarkable that apart from the topographical caption the position of Nördlingen and its surrounding is also given according to modern cartographic customs in the longitudes and latitudes.
This wide print depicts the Battle of Nördlingen. The Imperial army is on the right side and the Swedish on the left in a forest. The city of Nördlingen is painted nearby on the right. A small scene with a colonel and buglers is depicted in the right foreground. The entire area of the print is filled up by fighting regiments. The Latin inscription cited word-for-word on the previous page is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top right. The caption A-Z and 1-42 is below the picture.
The print depicts the map of Mainz and its surroundings during the siege of 1635. There are fortifications and walls around the town, however the place for the town itself is empty apart from the incription ‚Mayntz – Moguntia‘. Below is the river Rhine with its tributary Main. There are three islands on the Rhine. The town is surrounded by massive bulwark and there are several regiments, camps and few trees spread around. Nearby is a fortress called Gustavusburg with a star-like ground-plan. The caption A-Z and 1-10 is in a banner at the top left. The above-stated text is above the picture.
The river Rhine flows through the centre of the depicted landscape. The Rheinfels fortress on its left bank is surrounded by deep trenches of the French regiments. The French line is under the fire of the cannon batteries of the enemy, situated on the right bank of the Rhine. The above-stated German text is placed above the picture.
The 40 figures depicted in the picture, wearing cloaks with lace collars, are possibly portraits of the 40 hostages. There are six angels in front of them with their coats-of-arms. The city of Munich is in the background. In the clouds above the city is the Mother of God with the Baby Jesus and several angels, who are holding her cloak and her crown over her head. At her feet are the coats-of-arms of Bavaria and the city of Munich. At the sides of the Virgin Mary are 4 angels holding boards with the names of the 40 hostages. An extensive German text and some Latin prayers to the Virgin Mary thanking her for a happy return are below the picture.
The copper engraving depicts a part of the lower stream of the Rhine with the fortress of ‚Schenckenschantz‘. It shows many minor scenes, various fortification constructions, military camps, pastures etc. A soldier holding a long pike and several other figures, one with a backpack, are to be seen in the right foreground. Two ditch diggers are painted on the right. There is a plan of the fortress at the top right. Opposite, in an ornamental banner is the above-stated German text and the caption 1-25.
The print is lacking the usual explanatory text. According to Drugulin it depicts the siege of the town of Sachsenhausen and its handover upon agreement on 11 August 1635 to the General Lamboy. The picture shows the city of Frankfurt and the river Main with Sachsenhausen spreading on its other side. A shooting regiment is crossing the bridge over the Main. A garrison is leaving Sachsenhausen.
The print depicts two cities separated by the wide river Rhine. A bridge connecting Frankfurt and Sachsenhausen is under the fire from both sides. The Swedish-French regiments are just leaving the town. There are even ballistic track of cannonballs falling upon the city marked in the print.
An army camp on an elevated plain surrounded by strong fortification walls is in the centre of the picture. The small town of Mesieres and a couple of other villages and settlements are nearby. There are a couple of woods in the landscape. The Swedish-French army is marching at the bottom right. The above-stated text is in an oval banner in the top left corner of the print. The caption A-M is in a similar banner at the bottom.
The print depicts the territory around the confluence of the rivers Moselle and the Rhine with the town of Koblenz nearby. On a rather high hill on the other side of the Rhine is the Ehrenbreitstein fortress depicted accurately with the surrounding fortification constructions. There are deep-cut valleys, ravines and streams in the landscape. The German text is placed above the picture, while the caption A-R is below it.
The picture depicts a soldier sitting on a peasant as on a horse. Other soldiers pictured behind him are torturing the villagers in various ways. A regiment is on the left and a hilly panorama in the background. There is a small cloud in the sky with a small figure sitting on a bonfire. A two-verse German poem is below the picture part of the print. It describes the suffering of the peasants in the war promising a future revenge. There is no date on the print; however Drugulin’s catalogue places this print in the year 1636.
This is a wide view of the city of Prague with the river Vltava spanned by a stone bridge flowing through its centre. A stylised ruin stands in the left foreground with the Strahov Monastery visible behind it. The Baroque-style cartouches drawn over the city show the coats-of-arms of Hradčany, Old and New Town and Malá Strana, the Imperial Eagle and the Czech Lion. The city quarters and important buildings are marked with names. There is a rectangular cartouche at the bottom centre with names of 20 remarkable buildings in Czech, Latin and German. The coat-of-arms of the author (Hollar) with an inscription:,Wenceslaus Hollar a Lewengrun et Bareyt hanc regni Bohemiae Metropolim, Patriam suam, ex monte Sct. Laurentii A. 1636 exactissime delineavit & aqua forti in hanc formaa aeri insculpsit, Antwerpae A. 1649.‘ is at the top. Translation: ‚Václav Hollar of Lewengrun and Bareyt painted as accurately as possible this capital city of the Bohemian Kingdom, its homeland, in the year 1636, from the hill of St. Lawrence (present day Petřín) and using the aqua fortis (the nitric acid used for etching) he etched this view into a copperplate in Antwerp, year 1649.
The town of Hanou is drawn from the birds-eye perspective in a meander of the river Küntzig and is divided into two parts. There are enemies‘ fortified lines, various regiments etc. in the near surroundings of the town. The river Main flows through a forested landscape in the foreground. The stated German text is in an oval cartouche at the top left. The caption A-Z and 1-15 is lower down.
The engraving depicts the river Elbe streaming out into several branches. The city of Magdeburg lies above the river. The author did not outline the centre of the city, there is only the inscription ‚Magdeburg‘. The Imperial-Saxon army fighting formations are lined-up outside the city while a relatively small Swedish garrison is leaving it from the other side. There are four mounted buglers at the bottom right. The above-stated German text is placed in an ornamental vignette in the top left corner.
There is an inscription below the bottom border of the engraving:,Wittstocker Schlacht’. A small river is flowing on the right with the small town of Wittstock above it. There are two hilltops in the depicted landscape with the armies fighting atop. The fights are also depicted in the valley spreading out towards the river. The caption A-P and the above-stated text are placed below the picture part of the print.
This is a very meticulous bird’s eye view of the city. There is the streamed out river Pleisa and a number of gardens outside the city. Several Swedish regiments are attacking the city, mainly from the south. There are two coats-of-arms at the top, one of them is Saxon. The above-stated German text is on an unrolled ribbon banner above the picture. Two rectangular banners with captions A-O, P-Z and 1-14 are at the bottom left and right.
A hilly peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea near Leucat Lake is depicted on the picture. A battle between the French and Spanish is raging on the peninsula. A ship is sailing on the sea. Leucate is situated at the seaside near Perpignan. The stated German text is placed in a rectangular cartouche at the top left. The local and factual caption is below the picture.
The picture depicts the rivers Ancre and Somme. On a hillock above the Somme is the fortress of Corbie, surrounded by an extensive system of fortifications. There are several army camps in the surrounding countryside. There is a cross-section detail of the fortification at the top right above the stated German test. The topographical and factual caption A-D and 1-20 is placed at the bottom right.
The town of Dolle (Dole on the river Doubs) approx. 50 km southeast of Dijon in France lies in the centre of the engraving. The so-called bird’s eye view is done merely schematically, however the fortifications around the town are drawn quite meticulously. The river Le Doux (Doubs) spanned by a bridge leading out of the town flows across the bottom part of the picture. There are numerous fortification constructions, army line-ups and camps around the town. There is a wide circle of trenches around the town. The background is hilly. A detail of the fortification with the enemy’s trenches is in the top left corner in a square. The caption 1-22 and A–K is at the right in a rectangular banner. There is an orienteering compass at the bottom left.
This copper engraving depicts a section of the upper stream of the Rhine that spills out in a forested terrain. The formation of regiments near the burning township of Wittenweyer is in the background. The Imperial soldiers are attacking the Swedish fortifications. In the foreground are some minor scenes with cavalrymen escorting the captives. The above-stated German test is above the picture, while the caption A-M is below it. Drugulin believes this engraving to be the work by M. Merian.
This is a map of the town of Bredy and its wide surroundings done with a great attention to detail. The fortifications of the conquerors circle the town widely. The stated German text is at the top left, below is an ornamental unrolled ribbon scroll with two coats-of-arms. Army formations as well as individual figures are painted all over the area of the print.
The copper engraving consists of two fully separated views placed above each other. The upper picture depicts a battle on the opposite bank of the river Scheldt. There is a church on the right, several sailboats on the river and many drowning soldiers in the water. The bottom picture is done to resemble a map of the situation around the mouth of the Scheldt; there are some fortification constructions and a lot of fighting regiments. The caption 1-18 is below the pictures.
To the right side of the engraving there is Wildstatt castle surrounded with a dense fortification system of watercourses. Its geographic situation is unknown. The engraving rather has a character of cartographic layout or plan. In the top left part there is a decorative cartouche with a view of Wildstadt castle broken through by the artillery fire. In the lower part there is a square board in the shape of a headstone, held by two female figures with the Imperial Eagle above their heads. The board reads caption: A-M.
This engraving is much alike the record No 227/29 D, pg. 185. However in the foreground is depicted the battle itself instead of the army formations and camps that are on the above-stated record. It can be presumed that both prints are either the work by one person, or that the print from the year 1634 was used as a model for the depiction of the fight of Rheinfelden in 1638.
The picture is divided into two parts across the middle. The wide stream of the Rhine with the town of Reinfelden on its other side flows at the top. Nearby a battle is raving, in which the Imperial army was finally defeated on 21 March 1638 thanks to the tactical art and ploy carried out by Bernhard of Weimar. The German explanatory text is placed on a wide unrolled ribbon banner at the top right and together with the caption 1-11 and A-N. The bottom half of the picture depicts the first battle on 18 February, which was won by the Imperial army.
The usual explanatory inscription is missing on this copper engraving. However, according to the depicted event and the topographical and factual caption, this is undoubtedly the Battle of Rheinfelden, on 18 – 12 February 1638. This tall picture is divided by the river Rhine across the middle. A battle is raving near the river; there are three buglers and a group of Croatians at the foreground. There is a map of the Upper Rhineland on the wide unrolled ribbon banner at the top. The captions A-O and a-i are on both sides.
The fortified town of Meppen is in the centre of the engraving, however represented only by a large church. Four lines of army troops are marching into the centre of the town. Cannon batteries are firing in two places. The confluence of the rivers Ems and Hase is near the town; soldiers are wading the water. Individual cavalry and infantry soldiers are attacking the town. There are large trees in the countryside.
The picture of Milano and its surrounding is done to resemble a map. The landscape is dotted with trees, the rivers Sesia and Seruio flow across the picture. The small town of Pelarol is at the bottom right. It is surrounded by army constructions and camps. There is an ornamental cartouche in the right top corner with the stated German text. An orienteering compass is drawn below it.
This map shows the river Rhine which streams out into many branches near Brysach. The town and the fortress are painted on the left bank of the river. There are various strongholds, fortifications, military camps etc. in the surrounding countryside. Banners with the topographical and factual caption A-Z and 1-16 are at the top left and right. A profile of the fortification system is shown on a special banner. Above it is an orienteering compass. The German explanatory text, cited word-for-word above is placed above the picture. According to Drugulin, the picture is the work by Th. Kluge, an artillery colonel.
The river Rhine flows at the top border of the engraving. The small village of Wittenweyer is below right. A visible path goes down the middle of the picture; it turns into a dam further down. There is a thick forest in the foreground with the Swedish horse-pulled carriages and several infantry soldiers. The battle is depicted in the centre of the engraving – the Imperial army is already retreating. The topographical and factual legend A-S and 1-15 is at the bottom.
The engraving depicts the peninsula cutting into the Biscay Bay with the fortress of Fuenterrabia. The fight between the Spanish and the French armies can be seen behind the town. A French fleet is on the see in the foreground. There are two winged mermaids depicted on the sea. They are holding a shield with the inscription: ‚Fuenterrabia‘. A rectangle showing the geographical situation of the city and the fortress situated between Biaritz and San Sebastian at the foothills of the Pyrenees, is in the right corner. A detail of fortification is at the top left.
The print depicts the siege of Brysach with the river Rhine spanned by two bridges flowing below. There are many trees in the landscape. Three buglers are in the left foreground. A cross-section of the fortification is placed in a special banner at the top left. The caption A-N and the above-stated German text are below the picture. There is also a long text divided into fourteen articles, including the conditions of capitulation and handover of the town by the General Reinach to the Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar.
This is a plan of the area around Brysach. The river Rhine with several islands flows through the landscape. The town itself with the fortress is done in a very charming way and with great precision. Enemy’s army formations and fortifications are in the surroundings. A large forest with the formation of the General Götz’s army is at the top right. An oblong banner with the caption A-T is at the bottom right.
This engraving depicts a map of the territory along the river Maiz, mostly the regions situated northward and southward of the river. ‚Pipinus rex Galliae, fundator ecclesiae Herbip’,,Carolus Magnus imp. Pipini regis Galliorum filius’and,Gosbertus dux’ (?.).‘ are depicted in the top left corner. There are several coats-of-arms at the top right. The coat-of-arms of the contemporary Bishop of Bamberg-Würzburg and the coat-of-arms of Duke Franz of the East Franconia. Nearby are two figures representing St Killian and St. Burkhard; undoubtedly the patrons of the region. Signatures of the engravers are in an ornamental cartouche at the bottom right (as stated on the previous sheet).
The town of Mousson is schematically sketched in the middle of the picture; the river Meuse flows nearby. Military formations are built on both sides of the town. The stated German text is in a square banner at the top right; the caption A-R is lower down in another banner.
The stream of the river Moselle is in the left third of the picture. A battle is raving on its banks, there is a forested hilly landscape in the background. A schematic sketch of the fortress is in the top right corner with the caption 1-13 on the left. There is an extensive three-columned German text below the picture part of the print. It describes in detail the progress of the depicted battle.
The Moselle river is drawn parallel to the bottom edge of the engraving. The town of Diedenhofen is only schematically sketched along the river. A wide strip of the French fortifications circles the town. A battle with the Imperial-Spanish army under Piccolomini is just commencing in the space between the fortifications and the fortress. The above-stated text is in a square on the left. The author of the print, fortification engineer Carlo Cappi, put the main emphasis on the precise drawing of various fortification constructions.
This is a wide picture of a great naval battle. The coast of England is visible on the horizon in the far background. The surface of the see virtually swarms with various battle ships; a burning ship surrounded by safe boats is in the right foreground. The German explanatory text is placed above the picture, the caption A-S is below it.
The print depicts a detailed plan of the territory around Turin with the river Po spanned by two bridges. A hilly countryside with the Moncaglieri castle is in the foreground. A wide strip of Spanish trenches circles the town; military formations are lined-up in various places in the surroundings. There is a short descriptive German text is on an unrolled ribbon banner.
The print shows a ground-plan of Cologne with its suburbs. The city centre is only sketched. At the bottom flows the river Elbe spanned by a bridge, which connects the city to its quarter Zálabí, with a quadrant medieval tower, the so-called Prachárna (Gunpowder) Tower. The Imperial army is moving closer to the city. The above-stated text is on an unrolled ribbon banner above the picture. There is also the caption A-L.
The heavily fortified Chlumec Chateau is depicted in the centre of the engraving. (It is the original old chateau not the present-day ‚Karlova Koruna Chateau‘.) Nearby is a small church and there is a large lake on the other side of the chateau (possibly the so-called Žehuňský Lake). The above-stated text is above the picture.
The engraving maps out the situation of the fortress with an extensive system of water canals. Few villages situated around the town are burning. There is an orienteering compass at the top. Special squares show the following: 2 details of fortification constructions, details of the St Anthony and St Peter’s Gate. The above-stated text is in the centre of the picture.
The Brandýs Chateau is situated near the river Elbe spanned by a bridge. A stylish maintained garden is depicted around the chateau. The ruins of the town of Staré Boleslav, fortification constructions and the river Jizera are in the foreground. A cross-section of a fortification construction is placed in the small square banner at the far left of the print. The caption A-E is lower down. The inscription stated word-for-word on the previous page is on an unrolled ribbon banner above the picture.
This copper engraving is divided into two parts; a schematically sketched plan of Litoměřice with fortifications is at the top, while the river Elbe is at the bottom. There are four details of various parts of the town and technical cross-sections of fortification constructions in the other part of the picture.
This is a small schematically sketched plan of the town of Litoměřice with its nearest surroundings. The river Elbe flows on the right. There is an extensive German text describing the town in the way of a chronicle on the left side.
The print depicts the panorama of the landscape around the town of Plauen in the West Saxony; the river Elster flows through here. Plauen is depicted on the right side of the picture, but its centre is only schematically sketched. A various phases of the fights between the Swedish and the Imperial cavalry led by von Bredau are shown in the terrain around the town. The German explanatory text is placed below the picture; the caption A-H is placed in an ornamental rectangular banner.
The picture outlines the position of two strong armies near Saalfeld, which lies on the right side of the print above the river Saale flowing across the entire length of the picture. The regular formation of the Swedish-French regiments is at the bottom, while the Imperial Army is fortified at the top. The landscape is very meticulously drawn with the attention to detail, there are many minor scenes: for instance a burning village, military guards etc. There is an ornamental cartouche with the German text from the previous sheet at the top right. The caption A-E and F-K is at the bottom left and right.
This print is made to resemble a map with the town and fortress Arras above Scarpa in its centre. The centre of the town is only schematically sketched, while the huge fortifications around the town are painted to detail. The French fortifications and trenches are built in a large circle around the town. The numerous various military regiments randomly pained in the near and far surroundings are noteworthy. There is a square ornamental vignette with the explanatory text at the top right. The map is engraved precisely and delicately, showing a skilled hand of an experienced and artistically mature engraver.
The Weser river flows across the picture. The town of Höxter is above it in the centre. Its centre is only schematically sketched. Military regiments are standing in a large curve below the town. There are more regiments atop the hills above the river, which are cannonading the area of the town. The image is very delicately done. The landscape is dotted with many big trees. A short explanatory inscription is placed above the picture.
This print depicts the area along the Weser river with the fortified fortress of Höxter. The centre of the town is left unfinished. Several military troops are placed in the surroundings of the town, hilly and forested landscape scenery is in the background.
This is a detailed map of the area along the river Saale with the town of Neustadt, which is only schematically sketched. There are various fortification constructions and positions of military formations in the surroundings. The explanatory German text is at the top, the caption A-I is placed in a Lauer wreath. A ruin of Salzburg, situated opposite Neustadt near the Neuhaus Spa, is drawn in a separated square banner at the bottom right. Neustadt lies approx. 80 km northwest of Bamberg.
It is a very delicately engraved plan of the town Fritzlar with extensive surroundings. As usually, the town itself is only schematically sketched. Since the engravers were mostly interested in depiction of the military topics, which they perceived as the purpose of their work, they intentionally neglected other topics, such as the landscape scenery, urban architecture etc. The river Eder flows across the engraving, with Fritzlar above it. At the top left is a banner with the caption A-V. Next to it is an orienteering compass. There are two long lines of army formations on the other side. The German explanatory text is above the picture image.
The picture shows the session of the Imperial Diet in a large hall with coffered ceiling. Ferdinand III is on the throne surrounded by numerous court dignitaries. Each person is marked by a number, however the caption below the painting is unfortunately missing. The German text cited word-for-word is place above the picture part of the print.
The print depicts a minor battle. Military formations are lined-up behind a forest, while the town of Ziegenhein is sketched on the right. Several cavalrymen are running away in the background, a bugler and three dragoons are depicted in the left foreground. A couple of villages with marked names in the surroundings are burning. The explanatory German text is below the picture.
The print depicts a minor battle. Military formations are lined-up behind a forest, while the town of Ziegenhein is sketched on the right. Several cavalrymen are running away in the background, a bugler and three dragoons are depicted in the left foreground. A couple of villages with their names marked in the surroundings are burning. The explanatory German text is below the picture.
This detailed and accurate map depicts the fortress of Gennep situated on the river Moselle on the territory of present-day Belgium. The fortified town is surrounded by fortification constructions of the enemies – the Dutch. A failed attempt of the Spanish troops to free the town from the Dutch blockade is depicted on the bottom right. The above-stated inscription is placed in a square ornamental cartouche at the top right. The factual caption A-C is in a similar banner on the bottom left.
This is a very accurate and detailed depiction of the town and its entire surroundings. It resembles a map rather than a picture. The town is circled by wide attacking formations of the French army. There is a rectangular banner with the explanatory German text on the bottom right. A map of the Northern France with the town of Aire (Arien), situated approximately 50 km southeast of Calais, is in the top left corner.
This picture is drawn to resemble a map with the fortified town of Aire in its centre. There is the usual wide circle of fortification constructions of the conquerors – this time the Spanish. Only the main buildings are drawn in the town; the rest is only schematically sketched. An orienteering compass is at the top left. A detailed list of sizes of the individual encampments and regiments including their names is below it.
The entire area of the picture is divided into 4 separated fields. At the top in the middle is a bust portrait of John IV of Portugal. The following scenes are in the individual fields: 1. The murder of the Castilian House ruler, the predecessor of John IV. 2. Heralds are spreading the news about the new king, John IV. 3. The oath of the king. 4. The coronation. The above-stated German explanatory text is placed above the 4 images.
The engraving depicts the positions of the Imperial-Bavarian and Swedish armies near the township of Přísečnice. An unnamed stream flows through the place with the Chateau of Přísečnice on its bank. There are two buglers on horses in the left foreground, on the right is a staffage of trees. The ‚Böhmer-Wald‘ is in the background with the positions of the Swedish. It is interesting that the Přísečnice near the town of Vejprty does not lie at the foothills of the Šumava Forest but at the foothills of the Ore (Krušné) Mountains. On the other hand, the author of the engraving was the fortification engineer Carlo Cappi, and any topographical inaccuracy is out of question, based on the experience with his other prints. The explanatory Latin-German text is above the picture part of the print; the caption A-V is in a square banner on the left.
This beautiful image of the town of Neuburg in the centre of the painting was engraved exceptionally meticulously and artistically. Several small rivers, including the Schwarzach, flow around the town. There is a big dark forest in the foreground. The Imperial-Bavarian troops are positioned around the town. High forested mountains are in the background, possibly the Bohemian Forest Šumava. There is an inscription in the sky over the town:,Expugnatio Neoburgi in confinis Bohemiae‘. The factual and topographic caption 1-19 and A-C is at the bottom.
This schematic sketch shows the town of Bernburg situated on the Saale approx. 80 km northwest of Leipzig in Saxony. The scenery around the town dotted with many trees with the stream of Saale is painted with a good taste and in detail. The position of the Imperial troops is depicted above Bernburg. There is an inscription over the town:,Bernburgum cum situ‘. The word-for-word cited German explanatory text is above the picture part of the engraving.