Copperplates

467-Leipheim, small town lying between Güntzburg and Ulm, at the territory of Ulm.

Leipheim, small town lying between Güntzburg and Ulm, at the territory of Ulm.

Leipheim,

The engraving shows a view of the town of Leipheim with some of the important buildings highlighted. In the foreground to the right, there is a tree with the town coat of arms above. Another arm and a brief description of Leipheim are situated to the left.

Signature: G. Bodener fecit et excudit.
Autor: Bodenehr G., mědirytec a kartograf

Original name: Leipheim ein Stättlein zwischen Güntzburg und Ulm. Ulmer Gebieths.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 416/475

Leipheim lies in Württemberg region, which was witnessing a range of war clashes during the Thirty Years' War. The scene depicted in the graphic is not linked directly with any specific war episode. Its dating nevertheless falls roughly to the era of the Thirty Years' War, which is why it forms a part of the Sternberg collection.


475-Limburg

Limburg

Limburg,

The work shows the town with a fortress situated on a steep hill. The Wesdret rivulet is flowing through the landscape surrounding the fortress. Nearby to the right, in vicinity of the river, there is the village of Dolhen. In the left bottom part there is a square field with the inscription “Limburg” and with caption: 1 to 9.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Limburg

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 417/360

In this case it is difficult to identify the events depicted in the engraving. The only clues consist of the facts that Limburg lies in western Belgium and that the graphic portrays Dutch artillery batteries and infantry. These circumstances could indicate that the depicted scene describes an incident from the protracted war between Spain and Netherlands, the setting of which lied at the mentioned territory around 1630. Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, led the Estates-General of the United Netherlands of the time. His versatile skills made it possible to bring the country to unprecedented economic, military and social achievements. The terms of peace reached by the Dutch in the peace negotiations in Münster on 15th May 1648 were extremely advantageous.


476-Maulburg

Maulburg

Maulburg,

This relatively small engraving depicts an elongate building on a hill under cannonade. Behind the firing position of the cannons there are army troops lined up. In the foreground, on both sides, there are two riders, those to the left with a musketeer. Above the image there is a decorative cartouche with the inscription “Maulburg”.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Maulburg

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 418/364

Maulburg lies in the southern Baden region, which was witnessing many war incidents around 1630. It is just this circumstance that enables approximate dating of the depicted combat action, however without possibility of further specification.


479-Blessing by a soldier, or how to rob someone of a horse, money and cloths without cursing and beating, if not killing or bloodshed, and with nice words only.

Blessing by a soldier, or how to rob someone of a horse, money and cloths without cursing and beating, if not killing or bloodshed, and with nice words only.

The engraving depicts a romantic forest with huge trees, with a secluded house on the left and with a pond in the foreground. Three scenes (A, B, C) occurring in the forest describe a robbery committed on a travelling priest by a wandering soldier. Below the image there is an extensive three-stanza poem reading a dialogue between the priest and the robbing soldier.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Soldaten Segen, wie man einem ohne Fluchen, Schlägen, ja ohne Mord und Blutvergiessen, mit lauter guten Worten, Pferd, Geld und Kleider abnehmen kann.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 419/128

The leaflet deals in a witty and sarcastic way with the issue of the crimes of robbery committed on travellers by deserters, which were widespread during the Thirty Years' War. Taking the entire property from a priest using 'just nice words' instead of violence is apparently meant ironically towards the robbed priest whose faith disapproves any form of violence. It is obvious that the unrestrained demoralization spread especially amongst mercenary armies produced brutality and violence as side effect.


480-A grievous and pleading poem of the poor for dear peace, uttered by many, farmers and rustics throughout Christendom, struck by cruel and detrimental war campaigns and otherwise burdened alike. Based on an ancient religious song “Give us peace, Our Lord, in our days...”, or “Grant us peace, graciously...” etc.

A grievous and pleading poem of the poor for dear peace, uttered by many, farmers and rustics throughout Christendom, struck by cruel and detrimental war campaigns and otherwise burdened alike. Based on an ancient religious song “Give us peace, Our Lord, in our days...”, or “Grant us peace, graciously...” etc.

The engraving shows a group of rural people (men, women and children), lamenting the hardships and suffering caused by the war. Some have clasped hands, others lift up their farming tools towards heaven. In the background there is a village with a church, partly in flames and plundered by soldiers. Under the picture there is a 12-stanza German poem pleading for help and protection. Below the poem there are quotations from the Book of Psalms from Old Testament (Psalms 60, 67), and the Book of Lamentations.

Signature: Strassburg bey Jacob von der Heyden.
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Klag und Bettlied der Armen durch vielfaltige grausame schädliche Krieg Durchzüg und andere weg hochbedrängten und beschwerten Bawers und Landleuten in der gantzen Christenheit umb den lieben Frieden. Nach dem alten Kirchengesang: Da pacem Domine in diebus nostris, gerichtet oder verleih und Frieden gnädiglich etc.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 420/127

The leaflet is dealing with the subject of suffering and hardship of rural people during the Thirty Years' War due to plundering, which was one of standard fighting methods applied at the enemy territory. This inhumane and cruel practice frequently resulted in depopulation of entire areas.


481-The Jesuit Friday is everywhere and a Roman tracker dog who dares to sneak in everywhere, not only on land and at sea, but even in the air and the sky.

The Jesuit Friday is everywhere and a Roman tracker dog who dares to sneak in everywhere, not only on land and at sea, but even in the air and the sky.

In its bottom right part, the engraving depicts the Pope, a Cardinal, a Jesuit high official (probably Superior General of the Order) and Prince Primates of the Holy Roman Empire gathered in a cave. They are discussing the upcoming anti-Protestant measures. To the left, the Jesuit is getting money from a wealthy nobleman for an anti-Protestant propaganda, nevertheless to no effect. Behind these figures in the house there are: a Jesuit, several released and deserter mercenaries, as well as a range of other villains; the inscription above their heads goes: “Hic Inferis erat in terra Praesidium”, which means: “Here is hell on earth”. In the sky we can see the God wearing a Jesuit biretta and holding the insignia “IHS” with the nails and the pierced heart. In the background, various scenes take place, allegorically representing subversive activity of the Jesuits and the Catholic Church against the Protestants, or so-called Counter-Reformation. There are for instance big fish eating small ones; ships in the sea with the inscriptions warning that the sea is infested with evil sea fish; two beasts of prey chasing a stork with an accompanying explanation that this is an evidence that the piety is being persecuted; two foxes attacking a chick, meaning that the malicious preponderance brutally exterminates the innocent and defenceless; two cats attacking a mouse – a game naturally ending up with the death of the weak mouse, etc. The texts in the engraving are mainly in Dutch. At the top to the right we can see the siege of a town attacked by an army and hit by the bullets and shots of an artillery. A brief explanatory text in German (quoted above) is written below the image.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Jesuitischer Pater überall, und römischer einschleichender Jagdhund, der auf Erden und im Meer, ja auch in der Lufft und im Himmel allenthalben einzuschleichen sich understehet.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 421/124

This propagandistic leaflet published by the Protestants criticizes and mocks the intensive Counter-Reformation measures taken by the Catholic Church, the Jesuit Order, the Emperor and the Prince Primates of the Holy Roman Empire. The recatholisation was in particular carried out at the territories conquered during the Thirty Years' War by the imperial troops while having previously belonged to a member of the Protestant military community.


482-On needless wars.

On needless wars.

This small engraving illustrates a fight between two armies, shooting one at another. Several dead and wounded bodies lye in the battlefield. The soldiers are armed with lances, with several combat standards discernible amongst them. Under the image there is a German text in verses, depicting the horrors of war, hunger, misery, looting, plundering, general decline of morality, absurdity of the fight between the members of the same nation, which is ultimately benefited from only by the 'hereditary enemy of the Turks'. The poem urges its readers to return to the Lord and virtuous life.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Vom unnöttigen Kriegen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 422/118

The leaflet denounces the uselessness of war with all its terrible side effects. The peace efforts of the mankind 300 years ago were just as current as today, nevertheless similarly ineffective.


483-A sorrowful lament over the pitiful parting of the well-known Mr. Credit, who is now dead almost everywhere.

A sorrowful lament over the pitiful parting of the well-known Mr. Credit, who is now dead almost everywhere.

The engraving depicts a town square with a few shops, in front of which there are merchants and various tradesmen, lamenting and wailing. In the middle of the image there is an elevated bed with the dead credit. At the left side of the catafalque a gravedigger is digging a grave for the dead. Under the image there is a three-stanza German poem containing a dialogue between a merchant and his customers with the chorus that keeps repeating that it is impossible to sell goods on credit, as “Herr Credit” is dead.

Signature: Zu finden in Nürnberg bey Paulus Fürst Kunsthändlern, etc.
Autor: Fürst Paulus, nakladatel v Norimberku, obchodník s uměleckými předměty

Original name: Trawrige Klag über den erbärmlichen Abschied desz wohlbekandten Herrn Credits, welcher heutigs Tags schier an allen Orten tod gefunden wird.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 423/115

This leaflet wittily portrays the economic situation during the Thirty Years' War, perceivable especially in the stagnation of trade.


484-Great grief of the Jesuits over the lost properties, especially in Germany.

Great grief of the Jesuits over the lost properties, especially in Germany.

In a room with two entrances the Roman Pope is sitting on his throne. He is wearing a tiara and holding a triple-barred cross in his right hand; his left hand is pointing to the right, where the door opens to the view of a fire in distance (probably representing the hell) with two men being burned therein. The Pope's Throne is decorated with drapery and various curtains. Four Jesuits are coming from the right. Apparently, they are intensively and vividly defending themselves and excusing their failures, gesturing animatedly and lifting their fingers in an oath. At the Pope's left-hand side two Swiss guards are standing with partisans (polearms with a long cutting and stabbing blade). On the opposite side a Cardinal is standing with a big dog nearby. The floor has a mosaic pattern of distinct square tiles.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der Jesuiten grosse Klag, wegen ihrer verlohrenen Häuser, insonderheit in Deutschland.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 424/59

This leaflet issued by the Protestant party mocks the failures sustained by the imperial army and the Catholic Church, in particular by the Jesuits, when several times defeated in Germany around the year 1630. Having represented the most agile part of the Catholic Church, the Jesuits were obviously hated the most by the Protestants and were among the first to be expelled from the territories occupied by the Protestants and to get their properties confiscated there. Just as they were fleeing from Bohemia after the victory of the uprising of the Czech estates in 1618, the Jesuits were once again forced to run away from Germany after the resolute victories of the Swedes at the beginning of the second war decade. This failure of the Catholic Church and the hasty escape of the Jesuits from central Germany naturally provoked hilarity and malicious joy amongst their Protestant opponents, which is expressed both in words and image in the described graphic. The Jesuits who have escaped are apologizing to the Pope for their defeat in Germany and the Pope is threatening them with hell-fire.


485-The Christian soldier of the spiritual armoury, St. Paul from the sixth chapter of Ephesians, assembled and prepared in open press, fitted and copper engraved.

The Christian soldier of the spiritual armoury, St. Paul from the sixth chapter of Ephesians, assembled and prepared in open press, fitted and copper engraved.

The engraving depicts a man in armour and helmet, holding a sword in his right hand and a shield with the image of Christ in his left hand, fighting with the evil spirit. The shield reads the words “Scutum fidei”, the sword reads “Gladius Dei Verbum spiritus”, the belt reads 'veritas', etc. A hand with a crown “corona gloriam” protrudes from the cloud above the figure of the knight. The devil on the run is called “princeps mundi”; he is holding various tools for game (or souls) trapping in his hand. A swarm of wasps, the bats, winged snakes and lizards called “Potestates Tenebrarum” are flying above the devil's head. The devil has goose legs, carries a quiver with the inscription “Ignea body” and has a vespiary in his anus from where the wasps are flying out to attack the knight. An extensive German text in verse on both sides of the image explains the depicted allegorical scene. A short poem in Latin below briefly summarizes what vices are to be avoided and why a virtuous life should be lived.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der Christliche streittende Ritter, ausz der geistlichen Rüstkammer des H. Paulus zu Ephesern am sechsten Capitul, gemustert und ausstaffiert, auch im offenen Truck verfertiget und ins Kupfer gebracht.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 425/54

This anonymous and undated leaflet, published apparently by the Catholics, sharply attacks wickedness and moral corruption born during the Thirty Years' War. The subject of the graphic is derived from the famous St. Paul's Epistles to the Ephesians, chapter VI: “Therefore take unto you the armour of God, … having your loins girt about with truth,... having on the breastplate of justice, … taking the shield of faith, … the helmet of salvation and the sword of the Spirit...“, etc.


443-Image of ruthless, cruel and horrible beast, which appallingly and pathetically devastated, tortured and destroyed the largest part of Germany in just a few years . A message explaining where the beast came from, who had raised and nurtured it and so on is written aside. And finally, how to get rid of the beast. Announced diversely.

Image of ruthless, cruel and horrible beast, which appallingly and pathetically devastated, tortured and destroyed the largest part of Germany in just a few years . A message explaining where the beast came from, who had raised and nurtured it and so on is written aside. And finally, how to get rid of the beast. Announced diversely.

The picture portrays a large creature with a horse's right foot and a human left one protected with an armour. The beast is holding a halberd and a flaming torch in its right hand; the left hand in the shape of a lion's paw is holding various seized objects: chalices, monstrances, chains, etc. Similarly, the mouth in the wolf head is clenching stolen liturgical gear. The monster has a mangy rat tail dragging a tangle of snakes, toads and salamanders. A wounded soldier lies supine in front of the beast. In the background we can see a burning village and its villagers running away while pursued by the army. In the background to the right there is a picture of a town, with the sun rising behind. A group of men carrying various craft tools are walking peacefully through the streets. The above described monster, struck by lightning and killed now, is lying in front of them. From its bowels cut open the stolen items fall out. - Below the image there is a German poem denouncing the horrors of war and urging humble and virtuous life.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung des unbarmhertzigen, grausam und grewlichen Thiers, welches in wenig Jahren den groszten Theil Teutschlandes erbärm- und jämmerlich verheeret auszgezehret und verderbet. Beneben einem Bericht, woher daszelbe seinen Ursprung, wer solches erzogen, ernehret, etc. Endlich durch was Mittel seiner wieder los zu werden. Männiglich an Tag gegeben.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 426/53

This anonymous and undated leaflet depicts both in image and word the horrors of war as opposed to the peaceful and salutary life in peace. It represents an enthusiastic projection of longing for peace, aptly illustrating mentality of the masses of civilians devastated by the Thirty Years' War.


489-

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name:


526-

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name:


537-Stockholm

Stockholm

Stockholm,

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Stockholm


409-A true picture of Leipzig that was besieged and bombarded from 6 to 27 January 1547 after the suburb was burnt down by John Frederick, Elector of Saxony.

A true picture of Leipzig that was besieged and bombarded from 6 to 27 January 1547 after the suburb was burnt down by John Frederick, Elector of Saxony.

Leipzig, On 06.01.1547 (do 27.01.1547)

With its time perspective and topic the engraving does not fall within the collection. In the middle is Leipzig besieged by the armies that are depicted in detail. At the right bottom corner are the gallows, and the picture of God (relatively non-artificial), beneath which are an angel with a laurel wreath and two burning balls, is depicted in the sky. Beneath the upper edge there is a long rectangle containing the above inscription. Beneath the picture, there is legend 1-21 followed by several verses.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrhafftig Abcontra-feyung der Statt Leyptzig, wie die nach Abbrennung der Vorstatt von Churfürst Johann Friedrich zu Sachsen belägert und beschossen worden von 6. bis 27. Jenner im Jahr Christi 1547.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 1/469

John Frederick, Elector of Saxony, who was born in 1503 and died in 1554, was an intransigent protestant who soon became involved in disputes with the emperor Charles V. He was one of the main members of the so-called Schmalkaldic League and fought for several years in the Schmalkaldic war against the Emperor and against his close relative the Duke Maurice of Saxony who supported the Emperor. John Frederick re-conquered Saxony that was occupied by Maurice of Saxony. The sequence of these fights also included the stated siege and conquest of Leipzig in 1547. However, in the same year, the protestant armies were defeated by the Emperor close to Mühlberg and John Frederic, Elector of Saxony, was taken captive and deprived of his electoral rank.


204-Prague

Prague

Praha, On 15.02.1611

An overall view of Prague from the south without any further time and factual details. The armed forces are campaigning in the direction from Újezd Gate and an attack has unleashed in the Lesser Town Square. The individual Prague towns are marked separately, for example, Retschin, Königl. Schloss, Altstatt, etc. In the sky there is the cartouche inscription ‘Prague’.

Signature: G. Keller
Autor: Unknown

Original name: „Praga“

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 2/331

It is undoubtedly the Passau armed forces’ invasion of Prague on 15 February 1611. They invaded the Lesser Town through Újezd Gate. The archduke Leopold of Styria wanted to rush to help Rudolf II in conquering the countries delegated by his brother Matthew and in subjugating the Czech estates. The Passau armed forces conquered and plundered the Lesser Town. The Passau soldiers wanted to go on campaigning against the Old Town as well. However, they were prevented from doing so due to the Gate to Charles Bridge being dropped. The remaining soldiers were then killed. The turmoil arisen in the whole of Prague was taken advantage of by the ordinary people who turned their anger against Catholic monasteries where they looted and killed the monks. One of these monasteries was the Franciscan Monastery attached to the Saint Mary of the Snow where fourteen monks became victims of murder. (The after-effects of these events lasted up to nowadays. In the summer 2012, the remains of these monks were reclaimed and, subsequently, the monks were beatified.) In the end, the Passau armed forces were made to leave Prague. However, their unsuccessful invasion had far-reaching consequences and the emperor Rudolph II was made to pass the ruling power onto his brother Matthew.


2-A special picture of the coronation of His Majesty, the Czech king Ferdinand II, in Prague on 21 June 1617.

A special picture of the coronation of His Majesty, the Czech king Ferdinand II, in Prague on 21 June 1617.

Pražský hrad, On 21.06.1617

The ceremonial act of coronation is depicted in 5 scenes. In the middle is a bigger picture of the coronation in St. Vitus Cathedral. On the left: the king is putting his hand on the Bible and is taking his oath; the king’s unction follows. On the right: the king is receiving the sword, the sceptre and the imperial apple. Over these pictures there is an inscription on the right side of which is a cartouche with the Czech lion, on the left side is the same cartouche with the imperial eagle. In the middle is the portrait of Ferdinand II ringed with a laurel wreath held by two angels.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: „Eigentliche Abbildung, wie Kays. Mayt. Ferdinandus secundus den 21. Junii 1617 zum böhmischen König gekrönt worden zu Prag.“

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 3/208

Ferdinand II was the son of the archduke Charles of Styria born in 1578. After long hesitations, he was appointed Matthew’s substitute since Matthew’s brothers Albrecht and Maxmillian were already relatively old and had no children at that time. However, this candidature awoke certain resistance on the part of the Protestant princes (of Palatinate, Saxony, etc.) who feared radical catholicised interventions promoted by the Styria branch of the Habsburgs’ in its inherited countries (in Carinthia, Styria, Carniola, etc.). When Matthew finally appeared before the Czech Crown estates and recommended that his cousin Ferdinand be his successor, the estates accepted the proposal. Ferdinand swore that as long as Matthew was alive, he would not intervene in the monarchical affairs of the Czech Crown and that after he ascended the throne he would preserve all the privileges of the estates and, in particular, would confirm Rudolph’s majesty of 1609. On 26 June 1617, Ferdinand was enthroned as the Czech king. The estates behaved very politely and even the king made a favourable impression with his willing and amiable behaviour. However, this seeming reconciliation turned into severe disputes that soon afterwards resulted in the Czech uprising.


477-A new suite of advisers.

A new suite of advisers.

On 01.01.1618 (do 31.12.1618)

The printing depicts an obliquely standing ladder used by the short men to take various coins up. Down by the ladder is the usurer with a treasury and a bag of money, a short way off are a peasant, a craftsman and a burgher lamenting and moaning. In the background of the picture is a hilly countryside. Over the picture is a German poem having two stanzas and requesting an intangible, inanimate item that cannot walk but may go up or down (understand: the value of money). Below is another poem dealing with various misuses of money, speculations, and other financial intrigues and ended by the deliberation that only God may guide the humankind out of these low predatory interests.

Signature: Daniel Mannaser, mědirytec v Augsburgu u Warthabruckerthor
Autor: Manasser Daniel, rytec a nakladatel v Augsburgu

Original name: Eine Newe Rätherschaft

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 8/75

A leaflet satirically condemning the usury, business speculations and other financial intrigues that were considerably spread in the 17th century, in particular, due to the Thirty Years’ War and the economic breakdown caused by such war.


6-A new description of the Czech kingdom

A new description of the Czech kingdom

Hradčany, On 01.01.1618 (do 31.12.1618)

It is a detailed, but sometimes inaccurately elaborated, map of the Czech countries, furnished with a scale on its edges. At the right bottom corner are depicted Hradčany outside which is a person wearing a coat and holding a string with the tied imperial eagle. Not far away is a person making a bow and taking off his hat. On the other side in a decorative cartouche there is the symbol with the Czech lion held by a faun leaning against the board on which there is the dedication to Eylhar Lubina, professor at the university in Rostock, from the engraver Kaeria.

Signature: P. Kaerius Excudebat Amstalodami. Anno a nato Christo 1618
Autor: Lubinus Eylhar, profesor rostocké university

Original name: Regni Bohemiae nova descriptio.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 9/93

This map of Bohemia of the period of renaissance is very interesting, in particular, with its notes stated in various towns, for example: Hec olim Bubenium quondam etiam Marobudu ab conditore dicta; Krumlov, Budějovice and Kutná Hora: Habent argenti fodines; Rakovník: Habent optimam cerevisiam; Klatovy: Praestat opt. caseis; Prachatice: Salis emporium; etc. There is a big forest drawn between Český Šternberk and the Sázava monastery. The Konopiště is called as “Konnepsch”. The importance of the persons described above and holding the symbols cannot be explained.


7-Roman Empire’s Great Global Clock.

Roman Empire’s Great Global Clock.

On 01.01.1618 (do 31.12.1618)

The picture is the symbol of political changes in the Roman German Empire in the 17th century. In the high tower with seven floors there is the emperor depicted with seven electors. Non-imperial earls are staying aside and are observing the development. The dial-plate of the clock driven by faith depicts four kings going up and down.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Des römischen Reiches grosse Welt Uhr.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 10/63

The period of the Thirty Years’ War was typical of frequent political turnarounds. This situation is aptly characterized by the picture. Alongside the year 1618 marked on the right side of the printing, Drugulin is stating the year 1630 that is, however, missing in the sheet. Thus, it is possible to deduce that the author related his satire to a longer time period than only to the year 1618.


1-The prospect of the very well-known and famous royal capital city of Prague in Bohemia, as it looks now.

The prospect of the very well-known and famous royal capital city of Prague in Bohemia, as it looks now.

Praha, On 01.01.1618 (do 31.12.1628)

The view of the entire city of Prague across both banks of the Vltava („Moltav fluvius“) has been drawn very carefully. In the left foreground there is a staffage of trees. Above the picture there is the above-mentioned text. In the sky there are coats of arms: Hradčany, Malá Strana (Little Quarter), Czech, Imperial, Staré Město (Old Town), Nové Město (New Town) and Vyšehrad. The print is not signed, but the concept is reminiscent of Hollar, or perhaps the graphic art was based on Hollar's template. This engraving is in many ways strikingly similar to Hollar's picture of Prague.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Prospect der weitberühmten Königl. Hauptstadt Prag in Böhmen, wie solche jetziger Zeit anzusehen ist.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 113/387

On several occasions, Prague was the setting for events which had a profound, determining influence on the course of the Thirty Years' War. In 1618, the Czech uprising culminated in the defenestration of Prague, in 1620 the Battle of White Mountain was fought, and a year later a bloody execution was carried out on the Old Town Square. The establishment of Waldstein's military and political power has its roots in Prague. 1633 saw the invasion of Prague by the Saxons, and in 1635 there was the so-called Prague truce between the Emperor and John George I. Elector of Saxony. Waldstein's death in 1634 also had an effect on the conditions in Prague. In 1648 Prague was besieged by the Swedes under Königsmark and Count Palatine Carl Gustav of Rhineland.


3-An actual picture of the emperor’s counsels being thrown out of the window.

An actual picture of the emperor’s counsels being thrown out of the window.

Příkop pod Pražským hradem, On 23.05.1618

It is a picture of Hradčany from the today’s Klárov. On the left side there are the new castle stairs. In the place of the today’s gardens on the slope to the Lesser Town there is a preserve (“Thiergarten”) with the deer. Under B there is the provincial office window from which the emperor’s governors are falling. At the upper corners there are the imperial eagle and the Czech lion in laurel wreaths. At the right bottom corner is legend A-C; there is an explanatory inscription in German over the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Contrafactur wie die Kays. Räthe zum Fenster hinaus geworffen worden seindt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 4/363

The Prague defenestration was an immediate inducement that triggered the Thirty Years’ War. However, the actual causes of this catastrophe could already be seen in the development of whole decades. On the fateful day of 23 May 1618, representatives of the unsatisfied Czech estates headed by Henry Matthew, the earl Thurn-Valsassina, Colonna von Fels, Pavel of Říčany and others crowded together and moved towards the castle, requiring entry to the provincial office where the emperor’s counsels Jan Bořita of Martinice, Vilém Slavata of Chlum and Košumberk, Děpold of Lobkowicz and Adam of Sternberg were having a meeting. There the rebels presented their requirements resolutely and provocatively. By his calm and conciliatory answer, the highest burgrave Adam of Sternberg tried to face the danger, but a severe exchange of opinions flared up and resulted in Lobkowicz and Sternberg being dragged to the adjacent room and Slavata and Martinic being grasped and thrown out of the window. Their faith was also shared by the scribe Fabricius who found himself in the castle ditch. Except for bruises and contusion, nobody was seriously injured. The same day Fabricius left for Vienna and informed the emperor about the events taking place in Prague. For his merits, he was awarded noble status and received the predicate “of Hohenfall”.


4-A picture of the town of Pilsen in Bohemia, which was besieged and conquered by the general Mansfeld in 1618.

A picture of the town of Pilsen in Bohemia, which was besieged and conquered by the general Mansfeld in 1618.

Plzeň, On 11.11.1618

The picture of Pilsen is painted from a bird’s eye view with accurate details of various buildings. The attack of general Mansfeld’s armed forces is targeted at the Franciscan church. At the right upper corner is the emblem of the town of Pilsen in a decorated field. On the same side down there is legend A-I in a four-edge cartouche. On the left side down there are two riders, of whom one is holding a flag, and a few infantrymen. At the left upper corner is the inscription “Obsidio urbis Pilsenae”.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Statt Pilsen in Böhmen und wie selbige durch Gen. von Mansfeld belägert und eingenommen worden. Anno 1618.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 5/196

Pilsen was struck as soon as the Thirty Years’ War began. When after the Prague defenestration the Czech estates wanted to extort their requirements towards the emperor by threatening with war, Pilsen stayed on the side of the emperor who sent a small troop commanded by the county representative Felix Dorheim to defend it. In September 1618, the earl Arnost of Mansfeld hired by the Czech estates arrived in Bohemia and his soldiers started to besiege the hostile Pilsen immediately. With the reinforcements from the neighbouring regions, his army rose to include 8,000 men with whom he intensively tried to seize the town for 9 weeks. Both the crew and the burghers defended themselves bravely. However, when two holes were shot through the town walls, the besiegers succeeded in intruding the town (in the place of the today’s savings bank close to the Franciscan monastery) during the main attack on 21 November 1618. On the morning of 22 November, the town surrendered to Mansfeld who then settled in the emperor’s house. Pilsen was severely affected by the siege: one third of houses were reduced to ashes and destroyed by shooting. Suburbs with considerable supplies of food were destroyed completely.


5-A drawing of Pilsen in Bohemia, which was besieged and conquered by the attack.

A drawing of Pilsen in Bohemia, which was besieged and conquered by the attack.

Plzeň, On 21.11.1618

The town of Pilsen is drawn with good prospects. From the west, Mansfeld’s army is getting into the town through the ruptures in the town walls. At the left upper corner there is a camp of Mansfeld’s army. On the right up there is the emblem of Pilsen and down is the Radbuza river and the orienteering compass. At the left bottom corner there is a decorative cartouche with legend A-M.

Signature: G. Keller
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Pilsen in Böhmen, wie dieselbige belägert, gestürmt und eingenommen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 6/168

General Arnost earl Mansfeld arrived to help the Czech estates. This army was hired for the Duke of Savoy and the Protestant Union, but in order not to spoil the relationship between the League and the Union, it was declared that the army was created and intended for the Czech estates. Thus, with the Czech directorate’s consent, Mansfeld arrived in Bohemia and on 21 November 1618 he conquered Pilsen, by which the emperor suffered considerable loss since there was only Ceske Budejovice left on the emperor’s side. Pilsen was always known for its loyalty to the emperor and the fact that it was controlled by Mansfeld without financial help from the Union and the Duke of Savoy. The fact that his army was plundering the whole region outrageously was very embarrassing and non-opportunistic for the emperor.


142-An actual picture of the siege of Budejovice in the Czech kingdom occupied by the royalty and the Czechs in 1619.

An actual picture of the siege of Budejovice in the Czech kingdom occupied by the royalty and the Czechs in 1619.

České Budějovice, On 01.01.1619 (do 31.12.1619)

At the front in the engraving is the town of Budejovice with walls, towers and gates, and in the background is a hilly panorama with trees, the military troops, the artillery, and the individual soldiers. The picture makes an impression of the town being only watched and experiencing only small raids against the fortress rather than the actual siege. The terrain outside the town indicates that the combat was targeted in the direction out of the town, which points to the estates’ armies not acting too belligerently.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Aygentlicher Abrisz der Belägerung der Statt Budtweisz, im Königreich Během, wie solche mit Königschem Volck besetzt, und von den Behemen in dieszem 1619 Jahr belägert.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 7/33 D

In 1618, during the estates uprising, Budejovice remained loyal to the emperor. For this reason, the states’ first military action was targeted against Budejovice. In June 1618, the earl Thurn arrived there with 4,000 men. The municipal representative Aulner of Birkenfeld promptly recruited mercenaries with whom he defended the town until the emperor’s military forces commanded by the general Buquoy arrived in November of the same year. After Buquoy left, the command over the municipal crew was assumed by the Spanish general don Baltasar Maradas. Upon the Battle of White Mountain, Ferdinand confirmed and multiplied the privileges of Budejovice.


12-The voyage of Jesuits expelled from the Czech and Hungarian Kingdoms to St. Raspin and Pon to the Amsterdam prison.

The voyage of Jesuits expelled from the Czech and Hungarian Kingdoms to St. Raspin and Pon to the Amsterdam prison.

On 01.01.1619 (do 31.12.1619)

Seven Jesuits are travelling in a big wagon drawn by six horses. The horses are wearing caps with the Czech and Hungarian emblems and another emblem on the shield of which is an open book. The travelling Jesuits are called as P. Colovrat, P. Haynal, P. Forro, P. Rumer, P. Caldi, P. Faminus, and P. Arnoudus, attorney-at-law from the Curia in Paris. There is a big group of priests walking along the wagon and loaded down with baggage and bags. In the background is a burning monastery from which the Jesuits have just been expelled; not far away, there is a monk sitting on his baggage and resignedly waiving his hand. Towards him there comes the dog loaded down with bags as well and having the devil’s tail. In the left background is a town with a port to which there leads the way the Jesuits are taking, that is, “via ad sanctum Raspinum”. Under the picture the Jesuit Order is continuously defamed and denigrated. This ends by calling on the Jesuits sarcastically to humbly and resignedly undergo the punishment waiting for them in the Amsterdam prison.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der vertriebenen Jesuiter ausz dem Königreich Böheimb und Hungern vorgenommmene Wallfahrt zu dem heiligen Raspino und Pono nach Ambsterdam ins Zuchthaus.“

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 14/142

It is a promotional defamatory article issued by the Protestants strongly criticising the Jesuits expelled from the Czech Crown countries in 1619. It is known that Jesuits always were the most agile anti-reformists and propagators of the Catholic religion and, therefore, a powerful support of the Roman-German emperor, which may easily justify the measure by which they were affected after the Czech uprising. However, after the Battle of White Mountain, they returned to Bohemia and took part in a very intensive catholic reformation of the country. The goal of their pilgrimage to St. Raspin and Pon, as it is stated on the graphics, remains unexplained.


13-The memorable secret of both the fulfilled and future prophecies pointing to the lapsed and still existing state of Czech abuses.

The memorable secret of both the fulfilled and future prophecies pointing to the lapsed and still existing state of Czech abuses.

On 01.01.1619 (do 31.12.1619)

The printing is depicting the sleeping emperor Ferdinand II, sitting on the throne under the canopy decorated with the Austrian eagle. Before him is Jesus Christ with a whisk in his hand. On the flag is the slogan: “In hoc signo vinces!” Five robust men wearing soldierly costume and armed with weapons and shields are leaving the throne. These men represent the emperor’s warriors devoted to the emperor at all times. The sleeping Ferdinand symbolizes his persuasion that he can calmly rely on the justice of his matters. In the right background are the Prague defenestration and five hands holding the Czech uprising sword. There is the following inscription there: “God shall punish the five hands raised against him!” A short way off we can see five military troops in which a short slogan is always stated. The Czech troop: “We either achieve freedom, or the power of Ferdinand’s sceptre will be extended even more!” The Moravian troops: “We were deceived by the Czech and Dutch insect!” The Silesian troops: “We, the Silesians, will stand by the Czech if we were about to be hurt!” The Lusatian troops: “The ridiculed Lusatia played a bloody game!” The Austrian troops: “Our freedom cannot be larger than that under the today’s government!” Around the military troops a large number of various insects are flying, which symbolizes the anti-emperor propaganda predominantly led from abroad. On the left is a small rider in whom the earl Thurn’s statement that a heroic and happy commander, being Maximillian of Bavaria, is mentioned. All inscriptions are Latin. Under the picture are a four-stanza poem and an extensive German explanation of allegories, citing numerous Old Testament psalms and relating their significance to the topic of the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Denkwürdiges Geheimnusz einer allbereit erfüllten und noch zukünfftigen Prophecey, welche anzeigt den vergangenen und noch continuirenden Zustand des böhemischen Unwesens.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 15/136

The leaflet was undoubtedly issued in the period between the Czech uprising and the Battle of White Mountain and expresses hope on the part of the Catholics in the emperor’s victory. What is remarkable is the large number of various thoughts, arguments, citations from the Bible, etc., by which the author tries to support the topic of his panting. The whole sheet shows the unlimited fantasy and inventiveness of the propaganda.


441-A true depiction of the pope with his God-free rights extorted from the Holy Writ.

A true depiction of the pope with his God-free rights extorted from the Holy Writ.

On 01.01.1619 (do 31.12.1619)

The picture shows the Roman pope with the donkey head, stuck-out tongue and glasses. He is wearing the monastic cowl and is playing the violin (“opiniones”). Under him there lies a book on which is the human excrement (“disctinctiones”), bagpipes (“comentaria”), and the whisk (“questiones”). The pope’s clothes are pecked at by the magpie “Aristotle”. Under the picture are three poems, French, Latin and German, denigrating the pope with unscrupulous expressions.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrhaffte Abcontrafaictung desz Babstes und seiner heylossen ausz heiliger Schrifft erzwungenen Rechtes.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 16/134

It is a very sharp pamphlet issued by the Protestants and being full of the lowest insults, which shows that the moral level and the sense of reality of part of the then publications were considerably warped. The whisk “questiones” is a satirical insinuation of the inquisition. The church’s standpoint in relation to various current issues is compared to the sound of the violin and the bagpipes. The magpie “Aristotle” symbolizes the fact that the philosophy of the Roman Church was identical, in many respects, with the Aristotle’s philosophy, in particular, when it comes to the opinion on natural sciences. The opponents of Catholicism considered and still consider this as the non-originality of the Christian philosophy and depicted a magpie (that is, the Roman church) stealing Aristotle’s brilliant thoughts, pretending these thoughts to be of their own.


15-The mirror of Czech restlessness, on which there are various and special depictions of all acts of the uprising and all violence as they took place in the lapsed year 1618 until that day in the famous Czech kingdom.

The mirror of Czech restlessness, on which there are various and special depictions of all acts of the uprising and all violence as they took place in the lapsed year 1618 until that day in the famous Czech kingdom.

Čechy, On 01.01.1619 (do 31.12.1619)

It is a set of two small pictures depicting scenes representing the course and the characteristics of the political and religious events as they took place in Bohemia from 1618 to 1619. There is, for example, the scene where the fox and the wolf “in sheep’s clothing” are approaching the Czech wolf to persuade it of the dangers associated with the Evangelic religion. Other picture shows the cardinal Khesel and some Jesuit who are holding the canvas before the emperor Matthew sitting on the throne in order to prevent him looking at the arriving envoy who wants to present the requirements and complaints of the Czech estates. In the middle is a bigger picture with a big furnace heated by many Jesuits called as “superbia, arrogantia, avaritia”, etc. A small angel “providentia” is pouring water into the fire. This scene is satirical about the anti-reformation led, in particular, by the Jesuits. Under the picture is a very detailed legend explaining the depicted events. Nearly all persons are marked with letters and the legend always states accurately who is depicted and by whom which statement was expressed.

Signature: R.C.F. (R. Custos)
Autor: Custos R., vydavatel politických letáků zpočátku 30tileté války

Original name: Böhmischer Unruh-Schauspiegel, in welchem eine artliche und eigendliche Transfiguratio und Abbildung aller deren Handlungen, Aufstand und Thätlichkeiten so im vergangenen 1618 Jahr, auch bisz auff dato in dem hochlöblichen Königreich Böhmen vorgeloffen zu sehen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 17/139

This Protestant satirical leaflet is strongly targeted against the efforts of Catholic reformation made by the emperor and the Jesuits in Bohemia at the time of the Czech uprising. There are also pictures and statements of the cardinal Khlesel, Martinic, Slavata, Fabricius, the Czech peasantry, the representative of the Czech estates, a shopkeeper selling newspapers, and others. The emperor Matthew is depicted as a good-hearted old man controlled by radical advisors. The overall tendency of the leaflets makes the impression of conciliation and calls for patience and the endeavor to reach an agreement. Only the Jesuits are insulted sharply.


69-Frederick I, the enthroned Czech king, was ignominiously called by many as the “winter king” according to the words above. However, the fact that it is the very opposite is shown by the following letters of the years, alongside the fact that this elected king with special almightiness of God will stay the Czech king for many years, both in the winter and the summer.

Frederick I, the enthroned Czech king, was ignominiously called by many as the “winter king” according to the words above. However, the fact that it is the very opposite is shown by the following letters of the years, alongside the fact that this elected king with special almightiness of God will stay the Czech king for many years, both in the winter and the summer.

On 01.01.1619 (do 31.12.1619)

MDCXIX. Fridericus I. rexhyemis XX, XXI, XXII, XXIII, XXIV, XXV, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, XXVIX, XXX & estatis: fit: sit & erat: Ingens: Bohemiae: In annos: Nestoris: fatis: Benigne: serios. In the middle of the printing is an oval portrait of Frederick Palatinate, framed on one side by roses and on the other by thorns. In his right hand, he is holding the marshal stick and has a wide collar around his neck resembling the mill wheel and a wide sash over his shoulder. On the right there is the Czech lion wearing a fur coat, in the background is a town with military camps, on the left is the Czech lion again, but this time without a fur coat, and a military troop marching in a hilly countryside. The above inscription is over the picture. Under the picture-based part of the printing is a German two-stanza poem praising the king and expressing the hope that once the winter is gone, the king’s military troops start to march towards victory and fame. In the last verse, the author is asking God to save the king Frederick and provide Czech people with peace and satisfaction.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Das Friedrich dieses Namens der erste erwählter und gekrönter König in Böheimb, von vielen nur für einen Winterkönig, ausz den Worten, der ersten oberen Zeil schimpflich ausgerufen worden ist, und dasz aber das Gegentheil hier aus erscheint, bringen solches die folgenden Jahreszahls Buchstaben mit sich, das höchst ervelter König noch viel Jahr, Sommer und Winters Zeit über, durch Gottes sonderbare Allmacht ein König in Böheimb seyn und verbleiben werde.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 18/122

Although the leaflet seems to be a pamphlet against Frederick Palatinate at first sight, it is actually intended to this unhappy Czech king’s benefit. The paper was issued in 1619, that is, prior to the Battle of White Mountain, and Frederick’s position was not unstable yet at that time. He could even rightfully hope for victory of the Czech uprising. Yet his opponent, the emperor Ferdinand, was at a very difficult situation at that time, not only owing to the disturbances in Bohemia but also owing to the rebellion of the Austrian Protestants and the danger coming from the west (Gábor Bethlen). Hence, the Czech rebels had a reason for viewing the future with trust. The stated leaflet is conceived in this spirit.


8-The sleeping Dutch lion.

The sleeping Dutch lion.

On 13.05.1619

Under the Dutch inscription ‘Doemen 1567 Schreef, wast schade dat den Leev soo lang slapende bleet’ is a countryside with a sleeping lion and a wolf standing a short way off and fixedly gazing at the basket with seven goslings and two lambs. By the basket is a fox with a duck in its mouth and on the left the guard dog is tied up. Next to the guard dog is a donkey staggering and bending under the heavy load. Two men are sleeping close to the lion. In the background are illustrated scenes depicting people’s hardship and suffering in the ravaged country. Under the engraving are 4 poems (in Dutch, French, German and Latin) relating to the described picture. Other three-stanza poem is dealing with the scene depicted in a highly accurate fashion.

Signature: Im Jaar 1619 Francisco Antony exudebat.
Autor: Antony Francisco, holandský mědirytec

Original name: Der Niederlandsche schlaffende Louw.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 11/62

The engraving is characterizing the political development of the Netherlands of the time when Philip II of Spain appointed the Duke of Alba his vicegerent in the Netherlands. Since then the Spanish started to viciously oppress the Dutch, which was followed by long-time war conflicts interrupted in 1609 by twelve-year truce entered into by Philip III with seven Dutch provinces: Holland, Seelandsk, Utrecht, Geldern, Overiejl, Frieslandsk and Groning. Since then, these so-called ‘general estates’ formed a republic. This period is depicted by the engraving: the Dutch sleeping lion represents the truce that had just been entered into. The persons depict the internal disturbances, in particular, religious, evoked by two reformed theological movements – Gomarusa and Arminianci. This dispute was intruded by the sly statesman Oldenbarnefeld depicted as a fox in a restless environment, putting the lion to sleep in order to uninterruptedly swallow one of the seven geese with the help of the wolf (Spain), that is, Utrecht. The remaining geese are representing the other countries of the general state. The declining donkey loaded down with guns is symbolizing the military defeat of Oldenbardenfeld’s uprising while the tied barking dog is representing the political parties standing against Oldenbardenfeld who was defeated by Maurice Orange of Nassau (the republic’s vicegerent) and then captured and executed.


9-The coronation of His Majesty, king Ferdinand II, the Roman emperor in 1619.

The coronation of His Majesty, king Ferdinand II, the Roman emperor in 1619.

Frankfurt na Mohanem, On 09.09.1619

The engraving depicts the act of coronation on 9 September 1619 in Frankfurt am Main. On Wednesday, the king is kneeling by the altar and the Koln archbishop is putting the crown on his head. They are surrounded by dignitaries holding the sword, the sceptre and the imperial apple. On the next field another scene is depicted: the king sitting on the throne under the imperial eagle is dubbing several men; on the sides there are tribunes from which crowd is observing the act. Under the picture on the right there is the following text: Ferdinandus hier gesalbt wirt zum Röm. Kayser und geziert mit Scepter, Schwert, Ring, Apfel, Cron, Mayntz solchs mehrentheils verrichtet schon. On the other side is the same text in Latin. In the middle under the picture are coins scattered amongst people (ausgeworfene Münz) on the occasion of the coronation. The coin is a hand partially covered by the clouds and holding the crown. On the hand is a ribbon with the inscription: “Legitime certantibus”. On the back side of the coin is the inscription: “Ferdinandus secundus Hungariae et Bohemiae Rox coronatus in reegem Romanorum, IX. Sept. MDCXIX”.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grönung ihrer Mayt. Königs Ferdinandi II. Römischen Kayser 1619.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 12/58

At the beginning of 1619, the emperor Ferdinand II found himself in a very difficult situation. The Czech estates army led by Thurn stood outside Vienna and only the determined intervention on the part of the colonel St. Hilair freed the emperor from the insisting Lower Austria estates of the Protestant confession. At the same time, it was a relief for him that Buquoy defeated Mansfeld close to Záblatí in Bohemia on 9 June 1619 and the Czech directors, fearing Buquoy’s further interventions, promptly called up Thurn to return to the country. Thanks to this, Ferdinand had a free way to the coronation in Frankfurt am Main. With his procession, he went through Munich where he was ostentatiously and heartily welcomed by the duke Maxmillian of Bavaria who even promised him help in case the Protestant Union wanted to take charge in Bohemia, which he had omitted before out of far-sighted carefulness. Thus, based on these facts, Ferdinand II arrived in the coronation town of the Roman-German emperors – Frankfurt am Main. He was accompanied by his loyal Czech estates, being Vaclav from Vrbno, Maxmilian from Valdštejn, William Vratislav from Mitrovice and Jiří from Náchod. The Chancellor of the Czech Kingdom Zdeněk Vojtěch from Lobkowicz had already arrived in Frankfurt before. However, even the Czech Protestant estates sent their representatives to Frankfurt to present their requirements of the non-Catholic Czech estates. Nevertheless, they were not allowed to participate in the coronation. The Palatinate envoys participated in the coronation, but there was nothing left for them but to silently hope that Ferdinand would be deprived of the Czech crown soon.


10-The unction (confirmation) and coronation of the grace and high-dynasty nobleman, prince Frederick V from Palatinate am Rhine, duke of Upper and Lower Bavaria and elector, as the Czech king.

The unction (confirmation) and coronation of the grace and high-dynasty nobleman, prince Frederick V from Palatinate am Rhine, duke of Upper and Lower Bavaria and elector, as the Czech king.

Praha, On 04.11.1619

The picture is divided into 9 fields in which the individual acts of coronation are depicted in detail: A. The welcome ceremony in the Hvězda castle in White Mountain. B. The arrival in Hradčany. C. The ceremonial procession towards the place of coronation. D. The king’s unction. E. The coronation. F. The Czech estates’ oath to the king. G. The king is dubbing lower nobility representatives. H. The depiction of coins minted on the occasion of the coronation. I. The ceremonial lunch after the coronation. – Under the picture is an extensive text describing the whole event in detail and legend A-I.

Signature: G. Keller
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wie der durchlauchtigste und hochgeborene Fürst und Herr, Herr Friedrich dieses Namens der V. Pfalzgraff bey Rhein, Herzog in Ober und Nieder Bayern des heil. röm. Reichs Ertz Trucksesz und Churfürst etc. zum König in Böheimb zu Prag gesalbt /confirmiert/ und gekrönet worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 13/302

Frederick Palatinate, the so-called “winter king”, arrived in Prague on 31 October 1619 and was greeted by the representatives of the Czech estates, country, capital, etc. close to the Hvězda castle. It is noteworthy that the act of greeting was also participated by a group of the peasantry holding the Hussite flag and armed with the originally known Hussite armour and wagons. The main person in the coronation (alongside the king) was the administrator, that is, the head of the Calvin Church in Prague. It is obvious that it was necessary to quickly adjust the coronation ceremonials and the etiquette to the Calvin religion because the common coronation rules were predicated on the Catholic religion. The king was enthroned on 4 November 1619 and the queen was enthroned 3 days later.


17-Austrian estates’ tribute to the emperor.

Austrian estates’ tribute to the emperor.

On 01.01.1620 (do 31.01.1620)

The picture part of the printing is divided into four fields depicting four scenes from the ceremonial tribute paid by the Austrian estates to Ferdinand II: 1. Emperor’s procession led by Ferdinand on the horse and with the crown and the scepter. In front of him is a courtier whose privilege is to carry the emperor’s sword. 2. Scene when the estates’ oath is read in the presence of the emperor on the throne. 3. Estates’ greetings intended for, and their tribute paid to, the emperor. 4. Ceremonial feast when the emperor is sitting at his own small table close to which is a big table at which the estates representatives are dining, at the front are musicians.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Kayserliche Huldigung von den Ständen in Oesterreich.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 19/159

After his coronation, Ferdinand II experienced a lot of troubles. An uprising flared up in the Czech Crown countries, from the east the emperor was jeopardized by attacks of the seven-castle prince Gabor Bethlen, and in the inherited countries the non-Catholic estates rebelled and even jeopardized the emperor in his residence in Vienna. However, the determined intervention of his loyal army managed to liquidate the Austrian storm. Then Ferdinand left for the coronation as the Roman emperor to Frankfurt am Main on 9 September 1619. During his way to Frankfurt, an agreement was reached in Munich with respect to the war alliance between Ferdinand II and Maxmillian of Bavaria – the duke of Bavaria and the head of the Catholic League – an alliance of the Catholic principality within the Holy Roman empire. Maximillian did not support the Habsburgs at the beginning but despite this, he had his army fought by the emperor’s side after the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War. Thanks to this, Ferdinand’s position of power so consolidated that the Austrian estates considered as appropriate to express their loyalty towards the emperor after emperor’s return to Vienna, which expression of loyalty is the topic of this engraving. It was at the beginning of 1620.


14-A willful and obstinate persecution of the Roman pope, the apparent antichrist in the whole world, inimically and viciously led against religious and God loving Christians for many years.

A willful and obstinate persecution of the Roman pope, the apparent antichrist in the whole world, inimically and viciously led against religious and God loving Christians for many years.

On 01.01.1620 (do 31.12.1620)

The picture depicts a large group of princes and monks headed by the Pope, who have started to panic as a consequence of some sort of natural disaster. The princes are desperately raising their hands towards the heaven, are falling to the ground and yelling. The pope has fallen down from his descending horse. On the ground are rosaries, praying books, crosses, bells, and the pope’s tiara and cross. From behind the cloud there comes a bright beam with the following inscription: “Pope, pope, why are you following me?” (The same words heard by Pavel of Taras outside Damask). The rain and hails are falling. Under the picture is a German three-stanza poem explaining the depicted event and calling on the readers to reject the Roman church’s efforts for catholic reformation.

Signature: Gedruckt zu Rom in Bapst Agnes Triumphgasses, Anno MDCXX
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Aygensinnige, halsstarrige Vervolgung, desz nunmehr in aller Welt geoffenbahrten Antichrists, des Bapstes zu Rom. welche er wider fromme Gottliebende Christen nun viel Jahr hero feindselig und tyrannischer Weisz für genommen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 29/129

The Protestant promotional leaflet drastically condemning the Catholic efforts (emperor, pope and Jesuits) to have the lapsed Czechs returned to the Church. The sheet states the bishops Becker, Bader and Khlesel as radical Catholic officials. The first two of them are quite unknown. Khlesel operated within the scope of the Catholic reformation, but for his lenient action towards the Lutherans, he was imprisoned in the Tyrol at the time of Matthew’s death, was grounded in Angel Castle and returned to his diocese in 1627. The poem deals with the pope punished by God, that is, by a natural disaster, close to Budejovice, Krumlov and Jindřichův Hradec on his way to Prague for persecuting non-Catholic Christians viciously. This means Thurn’s military success close to the stated towns over the imperial generals Buquoy and Dampier. However, Thurn failed to instruct the imperial church points as to the “injustice and perversity” of their behavior but rather inflicted “blindness” on the pope since the persecution of the reformed Czechs deteriorated even more.


38-A picture of a weird devil-like spinning mill made up by the devil viper litter to suppress the pure Evangelic religion in many noble countries and provinces, which spinning wall was, however, destroyed by the king of all kings.

A picture of a weird devil-like spinning mill made up by the devil viper litter to suppress the pure Evangelic religion in many noble countries and provinces, which spinning wall was, however, destroyed by the king of all kings.

On 01.01.1620 (do 31.12.1620)

On the right side of the engraving is a big room with curtains (that is, the spinning mill), where there is the pope on the throne with a sword and the keys. On both sides of the throne there sit several Jesuits spinning threads. By the table are members of the Catholic League. On the left side is the Czech lion driving the Jesuits out of the Czech countries to Rome. In the heaven is God condemning evil souls and calling up the good souls through the angel. At the bottom there is a German-Latin poem detailing the depicted theme.

Signature: Gedruckt zu sich dich für Durch Christianum von Warenhausen und Traw jnen nit vil MDCXX.
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz einer Wundersettzamen mehr dann Sathanischen Spinnstuben von dem Sattaunischen Ottergescheys zu Unterdruckung in vielen vornehmen Ländern und Provincien Reiner Evangelischer Religion erdacht aber von Könige aller Königen zu nichte gemacht.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 30/80

The leaflet was issued by the Protestants and criticized the pope’s policy at the time after the Czech uprising. The threads spinning by the Jesuits at the pope’s request shall mean the plans and intentions of the pope’s policy, led in agreement with the Catholic League and the emperor (that is, 5 persons at the table) against the Evangelicals’ efforts to maintain the power in some countries. The Czech lion that managed to drive the Jesuits out of Bohemia after the Czech uprising is considered by the author of the leaflet as the instigator of the significant success of the reformation.


40-They seem to be three haughty princes!

They seem to be three haughty princes!

On 01.01.1620 (do 31.12.1620)

The printing depicts three men in various costumes, close to whom there are the shields with emblems. Two messengers have just met behind the third men. One of these men is carrying a tray and the other is carrying a spear and a leaf. In the background is the countryside with a burning house and a bonfire on which some person is burning. On the right is a crowd of people desperately clasping their hands and confusedly running from one place to another (probably the emigrants). Under the picture part of the printing is an extensive German poem pointing to the three depicted persons called as Peter Job, Herr Matz and Vater Abraham. Each of them is expressing himself on the religious situation after the Battle of White Mountain.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Dieses lasz mir drey stoltzer Pfaffen sein!

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 31/79

The leaflet very aptly characterizes the religious relationships after the Battle of White Mountain. In fact, Peter Job is P. Lamormain whose first name is William and who is a Jesuit born in Luxembourg in 1570 and who died in 1648 in Vienna. In 1590, he acceded to the Jesuit Order and in 1614 he became the rector in Štýrský Hradec and later in Vienna. Since 1624 he had been Ferdinand II’s confessor, gained great influence over him and was one of the main powers of the anti-reformation. However, he opposed the Valdštejn and the Spaniards. His correspondence with Ferdinand II was issued in 1867 by Dudík. Herr Matz was actually Matyáš Hoe von Hoheneck, Lutheran theologian, who was born in Vienna in 1580 and died in Dresden in 1645. In 1602, he became the courtyard preacher in Dresden, in 1603 the superintendant in Plavná and in 1613 the chief courtyard preacher in Dresden. He completely controlled the weak Saxon elector John George I and demanded that he be on the emperor’s side in the outbreak of the Thirty Years’ War and conclude, in 1635, the so-called Prague peace with the emperor after the short hostility. Vater Abraham is Abraham Scultetus, a Calvinist and the courtyard preacher of Frederick Fels (the Czech “winter king”). He was born in Grünberg in 1566, was a professor in Heidelberg and died in Emden in 1625. It is obvious that the religious opinions expressed in the poem by these three personas significantly differed. The author of the printing concluded and deduced that it was not good if rulers were subordinated to the influence of their spiritual advisors, but that it was good when they decided based on their own good semblance. We can see a very rare phenomenon when the author of the political leaflet of the 17th century stems from the objective standpoint and does not support any of the disputable parties.


41-A picture of the long severe hardship, torture and sadness of the Czech lion during its treatment and recovery.

A picture of the long severe hardship, torture and sadness of the Czech lion during its treatment and recovery.

Hradčany, On 01.01.1620 (do 31.12.1620)

The engraving is divided into four fields: The first field depicts the Czech lion surrounded by thick, non-penetrable thorns (that is, the situation prior to the Czech uprising). On the next field is the lion who has just managed to get out of the thorn bush (that is, the Czech uprising). The third picture depicts Frederick Palatinate kneeling by the lying lion and removing the thorns from its injured legs. The last scene shows the king Frederick Palatinate peacefully strolling at large with the Czech lion; in the background is the panorama of Hradčany. Under the pictures are two-line Latin glosses and a German four-stanza poem describing the faith of the Czech lion until its liberation by Frederick Palatinate and ended by the wishful request that God grant long life to the king and increased the Czech fame.

Signature: M.P.F.S.
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz desz Böhmischen Löwens langwieriger harter Bedrangnüssen Qual und Trübsal sampt angehängter Curation und Heilung.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 32/74

The engraving depicts, with no irony, the relationships in the Czech countries prior to the uprising in 1618 up to the election of Frederick Palatinate the Czech king. The winter king is described there as the liberator and the savior of the Czechs.


45-The geographical picture of Kurfalc with Wettera and the adjacent dominions surrounded by all emblems and the towns conquered by the marquis Spinola for the imperial Majesty Ferdinand II from August 1620 to March 1621.

The geographical picture of Kurfalc with Wettera and the adjacent dominions surrounded by all emblems and the towns conquered by the marquis Spinola for the imperial Majesty Ferdinand II from August 1620 to March 1621.

On 01.08.1620 (do 01.03.1621)

It is a map of the Porýní (Kurfalc), around which 58 various towns, castles, fortresses, etc. conquered by Spinola’s army during the campaign through Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621 are drawn in small square fields. Under the picture part of the printing is a small portrait and the arms of the marquis Spinola.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Geographische Delineation der Churpfaltz mit der Wetterauw undt angrensenten Herrschaften mit allen den Schlösseren en Stetten umgeben, welche Margiso Spinola von wegen Kayserlich Majest. Ferdinando secundo von Augusto 1620 bys auff Martium 1621 erobbert.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 35/309

As soon as the uprising of the non-Catholic estates, which constituted a great danger for the continuity of the Roman-German empire, broke out in Bohemia in 1618 against the emperor, Ferdinand II was looking for allies who would help him face the danger. He elected, not accidentally (due to family and religious reasons), the Spanish king who satisfied the emperor’s request and promptly empowered the marquis Ambroz Spinola to recruit the army in the western countries and help the emperor suppress the rebelling non-Catholics. Thus, when Spinola was campaigning with his army towards central Europe, he invaded the hereditary country of the emperor’s opponent and the king of the Czech rebels Frederick Palatinate – Lower Palatinate – to stab into his most sensitive place. The beautiful and rich Palatinate was conquered and plundered by Spinola in less than a year. At the same time, there was the White Mountain catastrophe, by which the fate of Frederick Palatinate was sealed. The castles, fortresses and towns conquered by Spinola in Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621 are depicted in this engraving.


163-A picture of the town of Linz that was conquered by His Majesty, prince of Bavaria, in the name of His Imperial Majesty on 4 August 1620.

A picture of the town of Linz that was conquered by His Majesty, prince of Bavaria, in the name of His Imperial Majesty on 4 August 1620.

Linec, On 04.08.1620

The engraving is typical of its distinctive front side (a big stump on the rock). In the middle is the town of Linz on the Danube. An army is marching on the bridge over the river. In the background is the panorama of a hilly countryside.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Stadt Lintz von Ihrer fürstl. Durchlaucht in Bayern im im Namen der Kays. Mayt: eingenommen den 4. Augusti 1620.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 20/48 D

When the alliance against the rebels in Bohemia was entered into between Maximillian of Bavaria and Ferdinand II, Maxmillian arrived, out of the blue, from Schärding to Upper Austria with his big army on 14 July 1620. This unexpected event caused panic. Some Upper-Austria estates confusedly paid tribute to Maxmillian while others, led by Lord of Tschernembel. After a short opposition, Linz was conquered on 4 August 1620. Then Maxmillian of Bavaria crossed the Czech borders by Frystadt and headed inland to unite with Buquoy standing with his army by Zwettle in Lower Austria, close to the Czech borders.


43-The true picture of the towns and castles that were conquered by his Excellence marquis Ambroz Spinola, general in the name of the imperial Roman Majesty in the electorate Palatinate upon Rhine, and that can be seen in the following.

The true picture of the towns and castles that were conquered by his Excellence marquis Ambroz Spinola, general in the name of the imperial Roman Majesty in the electorate Palatinate upon Rhine, and that can be seen in the following.

On 17.08.1620 (do 15.01.1621)

On the graphics are 45 small square pictures of towns, fortresses, castles and strongholds. The last three fields remained empty. In the middle is the oval portrait of the marquis Spinola with the marshal stick on the horse, around is the military staffage. Over the table is the above German explanatory text. Under the pictures is a detailed German description of Spinola’s campaign through Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621, ended by the prayer towards God for peace and general satisfaction.

Signature: Zu Augspurg bey Andreas Güntsch Kupfferstecher bey Barfusser Thor.
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrhafftige Abbildung derjenigen Stätt und Schlösser, welche Ihr. Excell. Marquis Ambrosius Spinola General im Namen der Röm. Kay. May. in der Chur-Pfalz am Rhein eingenommen, wie zu sehen hernach folgt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 34/299

As soon as the uprising of the non-Catholic estates, which constituted a great danger for the continuity of the Roman-German empire, broke out in Bohemia in 1618 against the emperor, Ferdinand II was looking for allies who would help him face the danger. He elected, not accidentally (due to family and religious reasons), the Spanish king who satisfied the emperor’s request and promptly empowered the marquis Ambroz Spinola to recruit the army in the western countries and help the emperor suppress the rebelling non-Catholics. Thus, when Spinola was campaigning with his army towards central Europe, he invaded the hereditary country of the emperor’s opponent and the king of the Czech rebels Frederick Palatinate – Lower Palatinate – to stab into his most sensitive place. The beautiful and rich Palatinate was conquered and plundered by Spinola in less than a year. At the same time, there was the White Mountain catastrophe, by which the fate of Frederick Palatinate was sealed. The castles, fortresses and towns conquered by Spinola in Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621 are depicted in this engraving.


18-A picture of the capital of Budyšín in Upper Lusatia, which was conquered by His Elector Grace of Saxony in 1620.

A picture of the capital of Budyšín in Upper Lusatia, which was conquered by His Elector Grace of Saxony in 1620.

Budyšín, On 07.09.1620 (do 05.10.1620)

The picture depicts in detail the course of conquering Budyšín. The burning town is depicted in the middle; fights are raging around between the Saxon and Lusatian armies. You can see a lot of square military structures, the chances, the firing positions of the artillery and the camp. Minor scenes are accompanied with succinct explanatory inscriptions. In the bottom third of the picture is a rosette showing the cardinal points. On the left is legend A-Y.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Hauptstadt Bautzen in der Oberlausitz, wie dieselbe von Ihrer Churfürstlichen Gnaden von Sachsen erobert worden 1620.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 21/185

Already at the beginning of the Czech uprising, the Saxon elector John George I decided to support the emperor against the rebelling Czech estates. In planning the military counter-measures against the rebels, both time and local cooperation between the emperor’s, Bavaria’s and Saxon’s armies was agreed. Based on this agreement, John George I, Elector of Saxony left for Lusatia with his army in September 1620, besieged Budyšín on 5 September, and conquered it on 5 October, that is, approximately a month before the Battle of White Mountain. Although John George I of Saxony was a Protestant, his policy showed, nearly throughout the period of the Thirty Years’ War, certain favor for emperor’s central power in the empire, with reservation of the tolerant and just relationship between both main religions. However, when the radical Catholics around Ferdinand frustrated these efforts of the Saxon elector, he found himself, out of a sudden, in the battle of Breitenfeld in 1631 at the side of Gustav Adolf of Sweden.


19-A picture of the town of Budyšín or Bautzen that was conquered by His Grace, elector of Saxony, in September 1620.

A picture of the town of Budyšín or Bautzen that was conquered by His Grace, elector of Saxony, in September 1620.

Budyšín, On 07.09.1620 (do 05.10.1620)

On the elevation there lies the town of Budyšín in flames and smoke. The trajectories of the bullets from mortars are marked with curves. At the front is John George I of Saxony on his horse and behind him is a troop with flags. There is a group of captives kneeling by his feet and escorted by a group of riders led by the commissioned officer taking his hat off to the elector. Under the above text is the Latin inscription: “Delineatio Budissini obsessi ab electore Saxoniae ab obsequium mense septembri anno 1620”. Legend 1-15 follows.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Stat Budissin oder Bautzen, wie dieselbe von Ch. F. Durchlaucht zu Sachsen erobert worden im Sept. 1620.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 22/200

Already at the beginning of the Czech uprising, the Saxon elector John George I decided to support the emperor against the rebelling Czech estates. In planning the military counter-measures against the rebels, both time and local cooperation between the emperor’s, Bavaria’s and Saxon’s armies was agreed. Based on this agreement, John George I of Saxony left for Lusatia with his army in September 1620, besieged Budyšín on 5 September, and conquered it on 5 October, that is, approximately a month before the Battle of White Mountain. Although John George I of Saxony was a Protestant, his policy showed, nearly throughout the period of the Thirty Years’ War, certain favor for emperor’s central power in the empire, with reservation of the tolerant and just relationship between both main religions. However, when the radical Catholics around Ferdinand frustrated these efforts of the Saxon elector, he found himself, out of a sudden, in the battle of Breitenfeld in 1631 at the side of Gustav Adolf of Sweden.


20-A true picture of the capital city of Budyšín or Bautzen in Upper Lusatia besieged on 30 August and conquered on 25 September 1620 by the brightest, high-dynasty prince and lord John George I, Elector of Saxony, elector of His Majesty Roman emperor and highly honored commissioner and earl Wolf of Mansfeld, general lieutenant of His Elector Majesty.

A true picture of the capital city of Budyšín or Bautzen in Upper Lusatia besieged on 30 August and conquered on 25 September 1620 by the brightest, high-dynasty prince and lord John George I, Elector of Saxony, elector of His Majesty Roman emperor and highly honored commissioner and earl Wolf of Mansfeld, general lieutenant of His Elector Majesty.

Budyšín, On 07.09.1620 (do 05.10.1620)

The engraving is made in detail but relatively non-artificially. In the middle is Budyšín in fire. On the left is a cartouche with an oval portrait of John George I of Saxony with an inscription and elements. Over the picture is the inscription stated above. At the left bottom corner is legend A-Z in a square field. Under the picture part of the printing is a German text with four paragraphs explaining the topic of the picture with a lot of details, for example, the accommodation of the commissioned officers in the town, a list of buildings and various types of property destroyed by the fire, etc.

Signature: Peter Isselburg excudit Norimbergi
Autor: Isselburg Peter, mědirytec z Norimberka

Original name: Wahre Abbildung der Hauptstatt Budissin oder Bautzen in der Oberlausitz, wie dieselbe von dem durchlauchtig. Hochgeb. F. und H. Johann Georgen Hertzogen zu Sachsen Churfürstl. der röm. kays. Majestät hochansehlichen Commisario und des Grafen Wolf zu Mansfeld ihr. Chur. Gn. Generalleutnampt den 30. Augusti Anno 1620 belägert und 25. September erobert worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 23/399

Already at the beginning of the Czech uprising, the Saxon elector John George I decided to support the emperor against the rebelling Czech estates. In planning the military counter-measures against the rebels, both time and local cooperation between the emperor’s, Bavaria’s and Saxon’s armies was agreed. Based on this agreement, John George I of Saxony left for Lusatia with his army in September 1620, besieged Budyšín on 5 September, and conquered it on 5 October, that is, approximately a month before the Battle of White Mountain. Although John George of Saxony was a Protestant, his policy showed, nearly throughout the period of the Thirty Years’ War, certain favor for emperor’s central power in the empire, with reservation of the tolerant and just relationship between both main religions. However, when the radical Catholics around Ferdinand frustrated these efforts of the Saxon elector, he found himself, out of a sudden, in the battle of Breitenfeld in 1631 at the side of Gustav Adolf of Sweden.


22-The actual position of the Czech and imperial formation in White Mountain close to Prague in 1620. The muster shape of the Czech army in White Mountain. The position of the imperial and Bavarian armies.

The actual position of the Czech and imperial formation in White Mountain close to Prague in 1620. The muster shape of the Czech army in White Mountain. The position of the imperial and Bavarian armies.

Bílá Hora, On 08.11.1620

The engraving schematically depicts the battle position of the imperial and Bavarian armies (in the printing below) and the Czech estates soldiers (up). The tactical concept of both muster shapes significantly differs, in particular, when it comes to the sequence of the individual types of weapons. The regiments and their commanders are marked with names at their stations.

Signature: přisuzováno Abelinově, resp. Merianově „Theatru Europaeu
Autor: Abellnus, spoluvydavatel světových dějin "Theatrum Europeum", vydaných M.Merianem ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation der Kays. und Böhmischen Schlachtordnung auf dem Weissen Berg bei Prag 1620.“ Ordnung der Böhm. Armee auffm Weissenberg. – Ordnung der Kayser. und Bayerischen Armeen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 24/13

The consequence of the Czech uprising in 1618 was the war between the Czech estates and the emperor whom Maxmillian of Bavaria came to help. The conflict resulted in the unlucky Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620. The Czech estates had hastily several chances built in White Mountain in order to reinforce the Czech army’s position in the battle that was about to break out soon. The number of the estates’ soldiers is estimated to approximately 20,000 men who, however, were partially untrained and undisciplined. After the beginning of the battle, it was also necessary to hastily call to arms a lot of commissioned officers and soldiers from Prague to their battleground. On the morning of 8 November, the earl Christian of Anhalt, commander of the estates’ armies, built an arc-shaped army in White Mountain, one side of which was formed by the newly built fortifications and the other reached for the Hvězda castle’s enclosure. The left side was protected by a steep slope. In the back were Hungarian riders. Matthew Thurn recommended an immediate attack against the enemy as the army was lining up and mustering. Anhalt agreed with this opinion, but Hohenlohe advised to wait for the enemy’s attack and the steady position of their army. His tactical plan was finally accepted by the other commanders. There also existed disputes between the commanders of the imperial and Bavaria armies as to how to launch the attack. The duke of Bavaria and Tilly promoted immediate attack, while the emperor’s general Buquoy (who got injured not long ago) considered the Czech position as too strong for direct attack. The Spaniard William Verdugo agreed with the Bavaria commanders’ opinion. When the Bavarians started their attack and defeated the estate’s advanced patrols, the emperor’s army had nothing left but to proceed forward and join the Bavarians’ attack. Maxmillian of Bavaria tactically delayed the advancement of his units so as not to interrupt the continuous front line of both armies. However, Tilly’s and Tiefenbach’s first attack was demolished by the counter-attack of the riders of the younger prince of Anhalt. Emperor’s two regiments, Lichenstein’s and Bauer’s, commanded by the colonel Kratz rectified the defeat of their Bavarian allies. At that very moment, the Hungarian riders mustered from the Czech side to complete Anhalt’s victory. However, when the Hungarian riders noticed that the situation changed to their disadvantage in the meantime, they started running away confusedly and made the foot soldiers run away too. The enemy made use of the opportunity and completed his victory by advancing quickly. Everyone on the Czech side was running away, only Matthew Thurn and the younger earl Šlik obstinately defended themselves along with their renowned Moravians by the enclosure wall until nearly all of them were slaughtered. Šlik was taken captive and Thurn then fled abroad through Prague. The fateful defeat in White Mountain was so completed.


25-Picture I: Muster of soldiers and the battle that took place close to Prague, the Czech capital, on 7 November 1620.

Picture I: Muster of soldiers and the battle that took place close to Prague, the Czech capital, on 7 November 1620.

Bílá Hora, On 08.11.1620

The engraving depicts the beginning of the Battle of White Mountain. At the front are the imperial and Bavarian armies; first clashes between both opponents are taking place in the middle. The Czech estates’ army starts running away on the top of the mountain. In the right background is the city of Prague and on the left is the enclosure of the Hvězda castle. At the bottom is a three-line legend with letters A-H.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tabula I. Delineationis Aciei et pugnae ad Pragam Bohemiae Metropolim factae 7. Novemb. 1620.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 25/16

The consequence of the Czech uprising in 1618 was the war between the Czech estates and the emperor whom Maxmillian of Bavaria came to help. The conflict resulted in the unlucky Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620. The Czech estates had hastily several chances built in White Mountain in order to reinforce the Czech army’s position in the battle that was about to break out soon. The number of the estates’ soldiers is estimated to approximately 20,000 men who, however, were partially untrained and undisciplined. After the beginning of the battle, it was also necessary to hastily call to arms a lot of commissioned officers and soldiers from Prague to their battleground. On the morning of 8 November, the earl Christian of Anhalt, commander of the estates’ armies, built an arc-shaped army in White Mountain, one side of which was formed by the newly built fortifications and the other reached for the Hvězda castle’s enclosure. The left side was protected by a steep slope. In the back were Hungarian riders. Matthew Thurn recommended an immediate attack against the enemy as the army was lining up and mustering. Anhalt agreed with this opinion, but Hohenlohe advised to wait for the enemy’s attack and the steady position of their army. His tactical plan was finally accepted by the other commanders. There also existed disputes between the commanders of the imperial and Bavaria armies as to how to launch the attack. The duke of Bavaria and Tilly promoted immediate attack, while the emperor’s general Buquoy (who got injured not long ago) considered the Czech position as too strong for direct attack. The Spaniard William Verdugo agreed with the Bavaria commanders’ opinion. When the Bavarians started their attack and defeated the estate’s advanced patrols, the emperor’s army had nothing left but to proceed forward and join the Bavarians’ attack. Maxmillian of Bavaria tactically delayed the advancement of his units so as not to interrupt the continuous front line of both armies. However, Tilly’s and Tiefenbach’s first attack was demolished by the counter-attack of the riders of the younger prince of Anhalt. Emperor’s two regiments, Lichenstein’s and Bauer’s, commanded by the colonel Kratz rectified the defeat of their Bavarian allies. At that very moment, the Hungarian riders mustered from the Czech side to complete Anhalt’s victory. However, when the Hungarian riders noticed that the situation changed to their disadvantage in the meantime, they started running away confusedly and made the foot soldiers run away too. The enemy made use of the opportunity and completed his victory by advancing quickly. Everyone on the Czech side was running away, only Matthew Thurn and the younger earl Šlik obstinately defended themselves along with their renowned Moravians by the enclosure wall until nearly all of them were slaughtered. Šlik was taken captive and Thurn then fled abroad through Prague. The fateful defeat in White Mountain was so completed.


31-Picture II: Defeat of the Czech military formation by the emperor’s and Bavarian armies on 7 November 1620.

Picture II: Defeat of the Czech military formation by the emperor’s and Bavarian armies on 7 November 1620.

Bílá Hora, On 08.11.1620

The sheet represents the Battle of Big Mountain drawing to its unlucky end. At the front are the emperor’s and Bavarian armies fiercely attacking the Czech estates army the fighting continuity of which is broken. The defeated soldiers are running away towards Prague that is painted in the right background of the picture with the Vltava river and the stone bridge. The scattered Hungarian riders are drowning in the river. On the left is the royal enclosure with the Hvězda castle. Under the picture is two-line legend with letters A-H.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tabula II. Bohemorum aciei a Cesareanis et Bavaricis die VII. Nov. 1620. Profligatae Delineationem exhibens.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 26/17

The consequence of the Czech uprising in 1618 was the war between the Czech estates and the emperor whom Maxmillian of Bavaria came to help. The conflict resulted in the unlucky Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620. The Czech estates had hastily several chances built in White Mountain in order to reinforce the Czech army’s position in the battle that was about to break out soon. The number of the estates’ soldiers is estimated to approximately 20,000 men who, however, were partially untrained and undisciplined. After the beginning of the battle, it was also necessary to hastily call to arms a lot of commissioned officers and soldiers from Prague to their battleground. On the morning of 8 November, the earl Christian of Anhalt, commander of the estates’ armies, built an arc-shaped army in White Mountain, one side of which was formed by the newly built fortifications and the other reached for the Hvězda castle’s enclosure. The left side was protected by a steep slope. In the back were Hungarian riders. Matthew Thurn recommended an immediate attack against the enemy as the army was lining up and mustering. Anhalt agreed with this opinion, but Hohenlohe advised to wait for the enemy’s attack and the steady position of their army. His tactical plan was finally accepted by the other commanders. There also existed disputes between the commanders of the imperial and Bavaria armies as to how to launch the attack. The duke of Bavaria and Tilly promoted immediate attack, while the emperor’s general Buquoy (who got injured not long ago) considered the Czech position as too strong for direct attack. The Spaniard William Verdugo agreed with the Bavaria commanders’ opinion. When the Bavarians started their attack and defeated the estate’s advanced patrols, the emperor’s army had nothing left but to proceed forward and join the Bavarians’ attack. Maxmillian of Bavaria tactically delayed the advancement of his units so as not to interrupt the continuous front line of both armies. However, Tilly’s and Tiefenbach’s first attack was demolished by the counter-attack of the riders of the younger prince of Anhalt. Emperor’s two regiments, Lichenstein’s and Bauer’s, commanded by the colonel Kratz rectified the defeat of their Bavarian allies. At that very moment, the Hungarian riders mustered from the Czech side to complete Anhalt’s victory. However, when the Hungarian riders noticed that the situation changed to their disadvantage in the meantime, they started running away confusedly and made the foot soldiers run away too. The enemy made use of the opportunity and completed his victory by advancing quickly. Everyone on the Czech side was running away, only Matthew Thurn and the younger earl Šlik obstinately defended themselves along with their renowned Moravians by the enclosure wall until nearly all of them were slaughtered. Šlik was taken captive and Thurn then fled abroad through Prague. The fateful defeat in White Mountain was so completed.


32-A true picture of the bloody battle and the main clash that took place close to the city of Prague in October 1620.

A true picture of the bloody battle and the main clash that took place close to the city of Prague in October 1620.

Bílá Hora, On 08.11.1620

The engraving depicting the Battle of White Mountain is carried out very primitively. At the right upper corner is the enclosure of the Hvězda castle, on the left is a burning village. The space between the square military formations is strewn with dead, injured and fleeing soldiers of the Czech estates, at the right bottom corner are three buglers.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrhaffte Abbildung der blutigen Schlacht und Haupttreffens bey der Statt Praag vorgangen im Jahr 1620 Monats Octobris.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 27/359

The consequence of the Czech uprising in 1618 was the war between the Czech estates and the emperor whom Maxmillian of Bavaria came to help. The conflict resulted in the unlucky Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620. The Czech estates had hastily several chances built in White Mountain in order to reinforce the Czech army’s position in the battle that was about to break out soon. The number of the estates’ soldiers is estimated to approximately 20,000 men who, however, were partially untrained and undisciplined. After the beginning of the battle, it was also necessary to hastily call to arms a lot of commissioned officers and soldiers from Prague to their battleground. On the morning of 8 November, the earl Christian of Anhalt, commander of the estates’ armies, built an arc-shaped army in White Mountain, one side of which was formed by the newly built fortifications and the other reached for the Hvězda castle’s enclosure. The left side was protected by a steep slope. In the back were Hungarian riders. Matthew Thurn recommended an immediate attack against the enemy as the army was lining up and mustering. Anhalt agreed with this opinion, but Hohenlohe advised to wait for the enemy’s attack and the steady position of their army. His tactical plan was finally accepted by the other commanders. There also existed disputes between the commanders of the imperial and Bavaria armies as to how to launch the attack. The duke of Bavaria and Tilly promoted immediate attack, while the emperor’s general Buquoy (who got injured not long ago) considered the Czech position as too strong for direct attack. The Spaniard William Verdugo agreed with the Bavaria commanders’ opinion. When the Bavarians started their attack and defeated the estate’s advanced patrols, the emperor’s army had nothing left but to proceed forward and join the Bavarians’ attack. Maxmillian of Bavaria tactically delayed the advancement of his units so as not to interrupt the continuous front line of both armies. However, Tilly’s and Tiefenbach’s first attack was demolished by the counter-attack of the riders of the younger prince of Anhalt. Emperor’s two regiments, Lichtenstein’s and Bauer’s, commanded by the colonel Kratz rectified the defeat of their Bavarian allies. At that very moment, the Hungarian riders mustered from the Czech side to complete Anhalt’s victory. However, when the Hungarian riders noticed that the situation changed to their disadvantage in the meantime, they started running away confusedly and made the foot soldiers run away too. The enemy made use of the opportunity and completed his victory by advancing quickly. Everyone on the Czech side was running away, only Matthew Thurn and the younger earl Šlik obstinately defended themselves along with their renowned Moravians by the enclosure wall until nearly all of them were slaughtered. Šlik was taken captive and Thurn then fled abroad through Prague. The fateful defeat in White Mountain was so completed.


33-A picture of both the imperial and Czech field camps and the subsequent bloody battle and defeat of the Czech army in the Prague area.

A picture of both the imperial and Czech field camps and the subsequent bloody battle and defeat of the Czech army in the Prague area.

Bílá Hora, On 08.11.1620

The engraving depicts the military campaign and the subsequent Battle of Big Mountain on 8 November 1620 in four scenes: A) Army’s position close to Rakovník. B) Beginning of the Battle of Big Mountain. C) The battle is raging to full extent. D) The estates’ soldiers are running away towards Prague. The pictures are very detailed and well elaborated, but the engraver’s work is not very good.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz beyder Keyserischen und Böhmischen Feldläger und derauff erfolgten blutigen Schlacht und Niederlag der böhmischen Armada im Prager Revier.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 28/317

The consequence of the Czech uprising in 1618 was the war between the Czech estates and the emperor whom Maxmillian of Bavaria came to help. The conflict resulted in the unlucky Battle of White Mountain on 8 November 1620. The Czech estates had hastily several chances built in White Mountain in order to reinforce the Czech army’s position in the battle that was about to break out soon. The number of the estates’ soldiers is estimated to approximately 20,000 men who, however, were partially untrained and undisciplined. After the beginning of the battle, it was also necessary to hastily call to arms a lot of commissioned officers and soldiers from Prague to their battleground. On the morning of 8 November, the earl Christian of Anhalt, commander of the estates’ armies, built an arc-shaped army in White Mountain, one side of which was formed by the newly built fortifications and the other reached for the Hvězda castle’s enclosure. The left side was protected by a steep slope. In the back were Hungarian riders. Matthew Thurn recommended an immediate attack against the enemy as the army was lining up and mustering. Anhalt agreed with this opinion, but Hohenlohe advised to wait for the enemy’s attack and the steady position of their army. His tactical plan was finally accepted by the other commanders. There also existed disputes between the commanders of the imperial and Bavaria armies as to how to launch the attack. The duke of Bavaria and Tilly promoted immediate attack, while the emperor’s general Buquoy (who got injured not long ago) considered the Czech position as too strong for direct attack. The Spaniard William Verdugo agreed with the Bavaria commanders’ opinion. When the Bavarians started their attack and defeated the estate’s advanced patrols, the emperor’s army had nothing left but to proceed forward and join the Bavarians’ attack. Maxmillian of Bavaria tactically delayed the advancement of his units so as not to interrupt the continuous front line of both armies. However, Tilly’s and Tiefenbach’s first attack was demolished by the counter-attack of the riders of the younger prince of Anhalt. Emperor’s two regiments, Lichtenstein’s and Bauer’s, commanded by the colonel Kratz rectified the defeat of their Bavarian allies. At that very moment, the Hungarian riders mustered from the Czech side to complete Anhalt’s victory. However, when the Hungarian riders noticed that the situation changed to their disadvantage in the meantime, they started running away confusedly and made the foot soldiers run away too. The enemy made use of the opportunity and completed his victory by advancing quickly. Everyone on the Czech side was running away, only Matthew Thurn and the younger earl Šlik obstinately defended themselves along with their renowned Moravians by the enclosure wall until nearly all of them were slaughtered. Šlik was taken captive and Thurn then fled abroad through Prague. The fateful defeat in White Mountain was so completed.


42-The actual map and layout of the field encampment of the allied princes close to Oppenheim under the command of the margrave Jáchym Arnošt of Brandenburg, general lieutenant of the same army. All accommodations in 1621 are divided and mapped according to the correct dimensions.

The actual map and layout of the field encampment of the allied princes close to Oppenheim under the command of the margrave Jáchym Arnošt of Brandenburg, general lieutenant of the same army. All accommodations in 1621 are divided and mapped according to the correct dimensions.

Oppenhaim, On 01.01.1621 (do 31.01.1621)

It is a schematic plan of the military camp in symmetrical squares. At the front is a swamp under which is the measuring scale. Over the picture part of the printing is the above text, under which are legends: A-R and 1-11. This sketch is a significant document for the war history of the 17th century since it accurately depicts the organization (local) of the military encampment. The printing depicts accommodation, battle, administrative premises, the intendancy stocks, etc.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation und Grundrisz des Feldlägers der unierten Fürsten bey Oppenheim undter dem Commando Markgrafen Joachim Ernst von Brandenburg Generalleutnaant derselben Armee. Nach seinem rechten Masz alle Quartiere ausgeteilt und verzeichnet. Anno 1621.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 33/332

When inimical armies started to concentrate in Bohemia and the adjacent countries after the Czech uprising, the armies of the so-called Protestant Union was also created on the upper Rhine. The Union shall mean the association of Protestant princes of the German opponents of the emperor, who supported Frederick Palatinate in his endeavors for the Czech throne. This new army of the Protestant Union was to attack the marquis Spinola, commander of the Spanish armies, campaigning towards the lower Fels. The army of the Union was then commanded by the margrave Arnošt Jáchym of Brandenburg who substituted for Arnošt Mansfel, the field marshal Frederick Palatinate. The margrave of Brandenburg led the military operations very unskillfully and with complete failure so he was suspected of having an agreement with Spinola. The defeat of the Czech estates in White Mountain finally led, alongside these failures in Lower Palatinate, to the liquidation of the Protestant Union. Oppenheim, the place of the military camp of the Union’s army, lies approximately 20 km south from Mohuč.


58-A picture of the Veltlin countryside taken from the Spanish by the French general marquis di Covure.

A picture of the Veltlin countryside taken from the Spanish by the French general marquis di Covure.

jezero Como, On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

The engraving depicts the territory northwards from the Como lake along the Addy valley in the today’s province Sondrio. On the right side of the picture is the lake Como. The whole countryside is scattered with mountains with countless identifications of various places. Over the picture are the cited text and the legend.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Landschaft Veltlin, vom französischen General marquis di Covure den Spanischen wieder abgenommen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 45/335

After 1620, the Spanish and Austrian armies appeared in Grisonsk (Graubünden), which also affected the interests of the adjacent regions, in particular, Veltlin that was part of Grisonsk for a certain period of time. Spain and Austria both pursued the support of the Catholics against the Swiss Calvinists and wanted to besiege the strategically important Alpine passes. France, which was obstinately waging war in several places under the command of Richelieue against Spain, sent an army headed by the general marquis di Covur to Veltlin, defeated the Spanish there and besieged the territory. Veltlin was an extremely strategically important territory for all the parties involved in the war. There led the so-called Spanish path on which the armies and material were streaming to the Spanish Netherlands and along which there were important commercial routes. Thus, France and Spain competed with the Habsburg empire.


59-A picture of Inhringen enclosed with George Frederick margrave Badensky’s chances in 1621.

A picture of Inhringen enclosed with George Frederick margrave Badensky’s chances in 1621.

Ihringen, On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

The small picture depicts the hilly countryside on the foot of which is the fortified town Ingringen. There are the chances depicted among various hillocks. In the background are the towns of Brysach and Höhingen. At the front are several trees and two musketeers. Over the picture is the text stated above.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung des Ohrts Iringen von Georg Friedrich Markgrafen zu Badeen verschantzet worden. Anno 1621.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 46/266

George Frederick margrave of Baden-Durlach recruited Swiss mercenaries and equipped the army of approximately 8,000 men with arms. His army was equipped with excellent artillery and special wagons from which it was possible (similar to the Hussite war wagons) to build a fortress in a short time. This army was prepared to defend the Czech king Frederick Palatinate. To this effect, the margrave of Baden arrived in Breisgau and closed the access to upper Rhine for the archduke Leopold who collected his army in Alsace. George Frederick of Baden also obstructed the way for the Spaniards campaigning towards the Netherlands against the emperor’s foes. He besieged the bridges across the Rhine and various strongholds and fortresses, for example, Brysach. To the same effect, he fortified Ihringen lying on the foot of Kaiserstuhl and being extremely fitting for his strategic intentions.


567-The siege of Montalban by the French Majesty.

The siege of Montalban by the French Majesty.

Mont Alban, On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

The engraving depicts the fortified town (from above) at the bank of the river Tar (correctly: Tarn). The correct name of the besieged town is Montauban. The town lies in the Tarn et Garonne department. At the left corner there is the king’s main tent depicted on the hill. The above inscription is stated on the engraving.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der Statt Montalban Belagerung von König. Mayst. in Frankreich.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 47/87

It is an episode from the long and bloody fight between the French government and the Hugenots. It was a sect of French Calvinists that was cruelly persecuted for several years. The siege of the town of Montauban in the south of France was part of this fight and was led by king Ludvík XIII in 1621.


61-A true picture of the fortified town of Montauban besieged by the French Majesty in 1621.

A true picture of the fortified town of Montauban besieged by the French Majesty in 1621.

Mont Alban, On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

The front side of the picture shows the groups of soldiers and buglers. There is the river Tarn flowing in the centre of the countryside. On its bank there lies the fortress Montauban. On the left near the river Lauarion is the king’s main tent – Pique Cox. Under the engraving is legend 1-13.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Bildnusz der vesten Statt Montauban und wie die selbe von Königl. May. in Frankreich belägert worden. Anno 1621.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 48/55

It is an episode from the long and bloody fight between the French government and the Hugenots. It was a sect of French Calvinists that was cruelly persecuted for several years. The siege of the town of Montauban in the south of France was part of this fight and was led by king Louis XIII in 1621.


47-A new picture of all towns, fortresses and castles conquered and besieged by the army of His Excellence marquis Spinola in both Germany and Palatinate from 1620 to 1621.

A new picture of all towns, fortresses and castles conquered and besieged by the army of His Excellence marquis Spinola in both Germany and Palatinate from 1620 to 1621.

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

Through the small ovals structured to form a spiral, the graphics depicts 50 towns, castles and fortresses. In the middle are Spinola’s portrait and arms. Below is a Dutch and French text describing subjectively, from the perspective of the Spanish winners, the course of the Palatinate war in 1620-1621.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Verhoeven Abraham, tiskař v Antverpách

Original name: Nouvelle putraicture de toutes les villes, forteresses et chateaux, que son excellence le marquis Spinola á gangé et prit, tant en Allemagne comme au Palatinat aveque sa puissance militaire, depuis l´an 1620 jusques l´an 1621.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 49/137

As soon as the uprising of the non-Catholic estates, which constituted a great danger for the continuity of the Roman-German empire, broke out in Bohemia in 1618 against the emperor, Ferdinand II was looking for allies who would help him face the danger. He elected, not accidentally (due to family and religious reasons), the Spanish king who satisfied the emperor’s request and promptly empowered the marquis Ambroz Spinola to recruit the army in the western countries and help the emperor suppress the rebelling non-Catholics. Thus, when Spinola was campaigning with his army towards central Europe, he invaded the hereditary country of the emperor’s opponent and the king of the Czech rebels Frederick Palatinate – Lower Palatinate – to stab into his most sensitive place. The beautiful and rich Palatinate was conquered and plundered by Spinola for less than a year. At the same time, there was the White Mountain catastrophe, by which the fate of Frederick Palatinate was sealed. The castles, fortresses and towns conquered by Spinola in Lower Palatinate in 1620-1621 are depicted in this engraving.


62-Fortune and misfortune of the former palsgrave.

Fortune and misfortune of the former palsgrave.

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

A Anvers, par Abraham Verhoeven, imprimeur juré demerant sur la Lombaerde Veste, au soleil d´or 1621.The engraving depicts a wheel on the shaft spun by two men. There is Frederick Palatinate depicted on the wheel in three various positions symbolizing the individual phases of his troubled life. On the left he is holding onto the wheel and is going up. In the highest point in the middle is the king on the throne and on the right he is falling from the wheel down into the sea from which he is being got out by the Dutch fishermen. In the background is the hilly countryside and under the picture is a German two-stanza poem describing the unlucky fate of the Czech winter king.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Dess gewesten Pfalzgrafen Glück und Unglück.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 50/94

It is a political leaflet satirically describing and illustrating the picture of “fortune and misfortune” of Frederick Palatinate, a short-time Czech king. In the figure going up there is the additional inscription “Frederick Elector” whose significance and political power is growing. On the top of the wheel is “Frederick the king” ruling in the Czech kingdom and comparing himself with the powerful Roman-German emperor. On the right side lifeless Frederick is falling into the sea and is being got out to the coast by the Dutch fishermen. The fall into the chasm symbolizes Frederick’s defeat in White Mountain and Lower Palatinate. After the long and miserable pilgrimage, he finally found an asylum in Calvinist Holland (rescued by Dutch fishermen). The two persons spinning the wheel are Scultetus, Bedřich’s courtyard preacher, and Camerarius, his most powerful advisor.


63-The true and actual picture and the apparition of the expelled winter king and his frightening resolution: to take revenge on everyone who despised him. It also depicts his powerful (military) campaign where he first intended to establish his field camp and God help us with your mercy!

The true and actual picture and the apparition of the expelled winter king and his frightening resolution: to take revenge on everyone who despised him. It also depicts his powerful (military) campaign where he first intended to establish his field camp and God help us with your mercy!

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

The engraving represents the winter king Frederick wearing a fur coat and sitting on the throne. Instead of the scepter he is holding the Hussite mace. Along both sides of the throne there stand his commanders in classic military costumes and with shields depicting the signs of the northern (winter) constellations of Scorpio, Capricorn, etc. One of the military personas is passing the king two pieces of little fish in a bowl. Under the picture is a German three-stanza poem ridiculing Frederick Palatinate.

Signature: Getruckt zu Augspurg, In Verlegung Daniel Manassers Kupferstecher beym Klenckerthörlein.
Autor: Manasser Daniel, rytec a nakladatel v Augsburgu

Original name: Wahrhafftige und eygentliche Abbildung und Contrafactur desz verjagten Winterkönigs auch sein erschreckliches vornemmen wie er sich will rechen an allen denjenigen, so ihn veracht haben, auch wie stark er im Anzug ist und wo er sich mit seinem Feldläger am ersten wird hingeben, Gott wöll uns mit Gnaden beistehen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 51/55

It is a pamphlet ridiculing the Czech winter king Frederick Palatinate. The sheet stems from the ridiculous name “winter king” and names his commanders according to the winter months (November, December, January, February and March) or uses the names of the Catholic patrons whose remembrance is celebrated in the winter months, for example, Martin, Mikuláš, Baltazar, Blažej and others. The poem is ridiculously warning the west European countries against the danger of invasion on the part of the armies of the winter king who is going to avenge all the defeats suffered. However, at that time, Frederick was already a defeated expatriate fleeing westwards and seeking asylum from his pursuers.


64-The lift from Anhalt’s office, that is, a drawing depicting how the Calvinist ghost (procedure) with its secret advisors is practicing against the Roman empire and thoroughly against the Catholic Roman church, but these advisors’ practices fail. What the scientists perceive based on the writ can be learnt from the picture of an ordinary man.

The lift from Anhalt’s office, that is, a drawing depicting how the Calvinist ghost (procedure) with its secret advisors is practicing against the Roman empire and thoroughly against the Catholic Roman church, but these advisors’ practices fail. What the scientists perceive based on the writ can be learnt from the picture of an ordinary man.

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

The graphics depicts the Catholic church as a high, robust building with four towers symbolizing the emperor, the pope, the elector of Bavaria, and Spain. Strong chains pulled by various enemies of the church, being Frederick Palatinate, Bethlen Gabor, the margrave Krnovský, Kryštof of Dohna and several devils wanting to pull down the Roman church building, are fastened on the towers. At the right and left corners of the printing are the towns of Heilborn and Crailsheim where there was the so-called Anhalt’s office, that is, all correspondence and other written documents of the prince of Anhalt, the known instigator of the Czech uprising and the commander of the estates’ army in White Mountain. This documentary material considerably discredited both Anhalt himself and many other persons participating in the Czech uprising. After the Battle of White Mountain, Anhalt’s office became the emperor’s supporters’ booty and allowed them to accurately ascertain the rebels’ intentions and the level of their traitor activity. Around the picture are many statements of persons who either were involved in the Czech uprising or stood on the emperor’s side. Under the picture part of the engraving is an extensive German poem, the so-called “sincere warning” convincing the readers about the betrayal and immorality of the anti-Catholic uprising in 1618.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Extrract der Anhaltischen Cantzley das ist Abrisz wie der Calvinische Geist durch seine gehaime Räth, wider das röhmische Reich und consequenter wider die catholische römische Kirchen practiciert, doch die Rathschläger ob ihren Practicken zuschanden werden. „Was Glehrte durch die Schrift verstahn, Das lehrt das Gemähl den gemeinen Mann.“

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 52/84


65-An eagle lying awake. Do not sleep but patrol!

An eagle lying awake. Do not sleep but patrol!

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

In the engraving there is a post on which the imperial eagle is sitting and is holding a ring in its beak and a laurel twig under its wing. On its head is the imperial crown and under its left leg is the sun with the inscription: “Sol iustitae”. On the left is a shooter (England) who is aiming at the eagle and two men with spears (Mansfeld and the duke Krnovský), stabbing the eagle. However, their action is being prevented by two angels with shields containing the inscriptions: “It is useless!” and “Complete Mistake!” The fox (Bethlen Gábor) and the bear (the Netherlands) trying to pull the post down are leaning against the post. In front of the post is the deer (Braunschweig) digging under them. However, it is bitten by a snake. On both sides of the post there are the lion and lioness (Sweden) and the inscription: “We are watching!” Under the picture is a three-stanza poem.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wachender Adler. Iam vigilia vano nec somno deditu esto!

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 53/131

The leaflet issued by the emperor’s side illustrates the difficult political position of the Roman-German empire at the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. The emperor’s foes are England, the Netherlands, Braunschweig, Mansfeld, the duke Krnovský, Bethlen Gábor, and Sweden that has not intervened in the fights yet but is lurking in the background. The poem describes in detail the jeopardy of the Holy Roman Empire by the stated enemies. The author is asking how the old Romans, Brutus, Corvinus, Manlius and others, would comment this situation. However, the imperial eagle is lurking and patrolling, is defeating all troubles and calling on the political neutrals to come to help him.


66-A fight between the eagle and the lion.

A fight between the eagle and the lion.

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

In the centre of the picture is a post over which angels are holding a laurel wreath with the Czech crown and the scepter. There are stairs leading to the top of the post on which the Czech lion is standing on the left with the crown on its head and the cross (reformation) is falling opposite to it. The Saxon elector John George has injured the lion’s leg with his sword. The marquis Spinola (Spain) is pulling the lion’s tail and the duke Maxmillian of Bavaria is stabbing its left leg. On the other side of the stairs there is the imperial eagle on the head of which the sword is falling (that is, the execution of the Czech lords). Both Mansfeld and the duke Krnovský are shooting at the eagle and the seven-castle prince Bethlen is threatening the eagle with his sword. In the background behind the post there is the battle between Mansfeld and Maxmillian of Bavaria depicted. Under the engraving is a German two-stanza poem.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Desz Adlers und Löwen Kampff.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 54/60

The engraving symbolizes the fight between Ferdinand II and Frederick Palatinate for the Czech crown. On both sides there are barriers frustrating both rulers’ efforts. Frederick Palatinate is chased by Maxmillian of Bavaria, Spinola and John George of Saxony. The cross falling on the lion’s head represents the intensive and precipitous introduction of the reformed church in Bohemia after the estates’ uprising to the new king’s disadvantage. On the other side, we can see the emperor’s enemies, being Mansfeld, Bethlen – attacking again after Buqouy’s death -, and the duke Krnovský. The sword that has fallen on the eagle’s head symbolizes the execution of the Czech lords in the Old Town Ring in 1621, which evoked repulsion towards Ferdinand II.


67-The triumphing eagle. In the shadow of your pinions the Czech kingdom shall flourish.

The triumphing eagle. In the shadow of your pinions the Czech kingdom shall flourish.

On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

On the post there is the eagle on the throne with the crown and the scepter. In the clouds there is a hand with a sword touching the imperial apple held by the eagle in its left talon. On the right side of the post there is standing Jan George I, Elector of Saxony and on the left Mansfeld, Bethlen and the duke Krnovský. Behind the post is a crowd of Czech, Moravian and Silesian people. At the front on the right there is lying the injured Czech lion from which a tree to which the sword and the shield are tied up is growing. Under the picture part of the graphics is an extensive rhymed German text.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Triumphierender Adler, sub umbra alarum tuarum florebit regnum Bohemuae.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 55/61

The engraving depicts, from the emperor’s perspective, the political situation after the victory over the Czech uprising. The winning imperial eagle is spreading out its wings over the subjugated countries of the Czech crown. His allies are marked with the inscriptions: sic volo, sic iubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas, etc. In the opponents of the imperial eagle is the inscription: iuro, moror, etc. In the injured Czech lion is the inscription: Fortunae causa – the fate. In the background are the Czech inhabitants whose opinions on the situation differ a lot. Some of them are lamenting, some cheering and some discussing lively. It is interesting that both this and the previous sheets (No. 54/60 on page 47) show the unusual impartiality of the author who even was not afraid of calling the execution of the Czech lords as an act that considerably damaged the emperor’s reputation in the Czech countries.


180-Depiction of Stein cellar in Electoral Palatinate which lies above Rhein.

Depiction of Stein cellar in Electoral Palatinate which lies above Rhein.

Türkheim, On 01.01.1621 (do 31.12.1621)

It is a small high-altitude painting with the Rhein river with a bridge across it. A ship is painted on Rhein and Rhein-Türkheim lies on the shore. The upper part of the paintings shows the Stein castle, encircled with a water course and swamps. There is a Spanish camp, chances and various trees in the landscape. Above the painting, there is the aforementioned text, and below the painting is a legend.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Kellerei zum Stein in der Churpfaltz am Rhein gelegen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 56/396

In the hereditary region of the Czech king Frederick Palatine, in Rhenish Palatinate, a war was waged against Spaniards lead by Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases, who had conquered the entire Rhenish Palatinate. Later, Tilly took his forces there too. When a large rebellion of non-Catholic estates against the emperor erupted in Bohemia in 1618, a rebellion, which posed a great threat to the continuity of the Holy Roman Empire, Ferdinand II. was looking for allies which would help him face the danger. He selected – not by an accident – (because of reasons of religion and kinship) the Spanish king, who fulfilled the emperor's request and immediately commissioned Ambrogio Spinola to recruit an army in the western countries and help the emperor defeat the rebelling non-Catholics. So, when Spinola took his forces to Central Europe, he invaded the hereditary region of the emperor's enemy and the king of rebelling Bohemians, Frederick V, Elector Palatine – the Rhenish Palatinate, so that he could hurt Frederick in the most vulnerable place. Beautiful and rich Palatinate was conquered and devastated by Spinola in less than a year. At the same time, there was a crushing defeat in the Battle of the White Mountain, and so the fate of Frederick V, Elector Palatine and the fate of both his countries was sealed. Castles, fortresses and cities conquered by Spinola in the Rhenish Palatinate in 1620–1621 are depicted in this engraving.


53-A picture of the fortress Nové Zámky besieged by the army of His imperial Majesty under the command of the general Buquoy.

A picture of the fortress Nové Zámky besieged by the army of His imperial Majesty under the command of the general Buquoy.

Nové Zámky, On 01.06.1621 (do 30.06.1621)

The engraving maps the fortress Nové Zámky with five advanced chances and surrounded by water. From the fortress shots are being fired at the emperor’s camp located on the left. In the background behind the town, the riders clashed. On the right is the river Nitra. At the right bottom corner is a four-edge cartouche with a view of Bratislava. In the background are hills.

Signature: G. Keller
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Festung Neuheisel, wie solche von Kay. May. Armada underm General Buquoy belagert gewesen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 38/170

When the Czech uprising was liquidated by the imperial and Bavarian armies in the whole territory of Bohemia and Moravia, Buquoy and his army were sent to the east to fight against Bethlen Gabor, prince of the seven castles, who dangerously jeopardized the emperor’s possessions in the east. Even Bratislava was conquered by Bethlen when Dampierre’s attempt at conquering the town back failed. Dampierre himself died there (see page 368 in part II!). Bethlen Gabor aspired for the Czech crown, but when he was pushed out in this intention of his by Frederick Palatinate, the hatred against the Czechs who gave preference to other pretender arose inside him. His torn-apart and treacherous tamper caused that he continued fighting against the emperor. Buquoy intruded into Slovakia, seized Trnava, Staré Hrady and Bratislava. In besieging Nové Zámky, he died at the beginning of the fights as he and his riders came to help other riders defeated by the enemy. Bethlem gained courage and intruded, with the help of his allies, the margrave Krnovský and several Hungarian noblemen, into Moravia and his riding gaggles were plundering there severely. Only after Valdštejn’s intervention, Bethlen Gábor was defeated and concluded, upon agreement with the margrave Krnovský, the so-called Peace of Mikulov with the emperor. Nové Zámky was besieged by Buquoy in June 1621.


52-A sketch of the fortress Nové Zámky besieged by His Majesty’s army under the command of the general Burquoy.

A sketch of the fortress Nové Zámky besieged by His Majesty’s army under the command of the general Burquoy.

Nové Zámky, On 01.06.1621 (do 30.06.1621)

The engraving depicts the fortress Nové Zámky in 1621. Except for the missing view of Bratislava, the graphics is nearly identical with sheet No. 38/170 on page 35. Only the riders’ clash is somewhat differently conceived. It is undoubtedly the fight in which Buquoy died. According to Drugulin G. Keller, both engravings are undoubtedly created by the same author and have the same dimensions.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Festung Neuheusel wie solche von Kay: May: Armada underm General Buquoy belagert gewesen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 39/205

When the Czech uprising was liquidated by the imperial and Bavarian armies in the whole territory of Bohemia and Moravia, Buquoy and his army were sent to the east to fight against Bethlen Gabor, prince of the seven castles, who dangerously jeopardized the emperor’s possessions in the east. Even Bratislava was conquered by Bethlen when Dampierre’s attempt at conquering the town back failed. Dampierre himself died there (see page 368 in part II!). Bethlen Gabor aspired for the Czech crown, but when he was pushed out in this intention of his by Frederick Palatinate, the hatred against the Czechs who gave preference to other pretender arose inside him. His torn-apart and treacherous tamper caused that he continued fighting against the emperor. Buquoy intruded into Slovakia, seized Trnava, Staré Hrady and Bratislava. In besieging Nové Zámky, he died at the beginning of the fights as he and his riders came to help other riders defeated by the enemy. Bethlem gained courage and intruded, with the help of his allies, the margrave Krnovský and several Hungarian noblemen, into Moravia and his riding gaggles were plundering there severely. Only after Valdštejn’s intervention, Bethlen Gabor was defeated and concluded, upon agreement with the margrave Krnovský, the so-called Peace of Mikulov with the emperor. Nové Zámky was besieged by Buquoy in June 1621.


49-Execution decided and carried out on 11/21 June 1621 in Prague.

Execution decided and carried out on 11/21 June 1621 in Prague.

Praha, On 11.06.1621 (do 21.06.1621)

The picture is divided into seven parts depicting various events associated with the conviction and execution of 27 Czech lords in the Old Town Square. The depicted episodes represent the pronouncement of the judgment, the presentation of the petition for pardon by the convicts’ wives and children, the convicts are transported in covered carriages to the Old Town Square Hall, the bloody execution on its own and the Old Town Square bridge tower to which the heads of the executed persons and the Jesenius’s tongue were fastened as a warning.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Execution so zu Prag den 11. /21. Juny 1621 ist abgestellt und vollzogen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 36/358

A day after the defeat of the Czech estates’ army in White Mountain, Maxmillian of Bavaria arrived in Prague and started to command there. The city’s representatives and various significant personas paid him homage and asked for pardon. The far-sighted due of Bavaria carefully avoid interfering in the emperor’s monarchal rights in Bohemia, however, he dealt with the delegations coming to him politely and leniently. On 17 November, he left Prague and returned with his soldiers to Munich. In Prague he left only a small crew subordinated to the general Tilly. Buquoy treated his injuries and then campaigned towards Moravia. There was peace for a short time. On 20 February, the emperor’s vicegerent and prince Charles Lichtenstein had many of the persons participating in the Czech uprising arrested. Shortly thereafter, the court was called up and condemned most of the accused persons, of whom 27 were sentenced to death penalty. The court trial took quite a long time and Ferdinand II was called on to punish the rebels’ treason as strictly as possible. It was said that mainly Martinic, Slavata and the emperor’s confessor P. Lamorain were those who promoted such strict punishment. In the end, Lichtenstein was ordered by the emperor to carry out the execution of those sentenced to death on 21 July 1621 in the Old Town Square. In the evening before the execution, a lot of wives and children of the convicts came to Lichtenstein and asked for pardon for their husbands and fathers. However, he could not change the emperor’s decision even if he wanted to. On 21 June 1621, 27 convicts out of 43 were executed in the Old Town Square. The execution related to Jáchym Ondřej Šlik, Václav Budovec of Budov, Kryštof Harant of Polžice and Bezdružice, Kašpar Kaplíř of Sulevic, Prokop Dvořecký of Olbramovice, Bedřich of Bihle and Řehlovice, Jindřich Ota of Losy, Vilém Konecchlumský, Diviš Černín of Chudenice, Bohuslav of Michalovice, Leander Rippel, Jiří Hauenschild, the rector of the Charles University Jan Jesenuis, Jan Kutnauer and three others were hung. Twenty persons in total were executed with the permanent sound of drums in order to drown out any possible undesirable statements on the part of the convicts. Through this cruel intervention, the emperor completed his cruel victory over the Czech estates uprising.


51-A picture of the field camps of His prince Majesty, duke of Bavaria, etc. and Mansfeld’s camp as they lay opposite each other close to Rozvadov in Bohemia and close to Weidhausen in Upper Palatinate in 1621.

A picture of the field camps of His prince Majesty, duke of Bavaria, etc. and Mansfeld’s camp as they lay opposite each other close to Rozvadov in Bohemia and close to Weidhausen in Upper Palatinate in 1621.

Rozvadov, On 15.06.1621 (do 15.07.1621)

Signature: Not available
Autor: Sadeler R., mědirytec

Original name: Abrisz Ihr: Fürstl: Durchl: in Bayrn: etc. und des Manssfeldischen Lägers, wie sie beiderseits zu Rosshaupten in Böheim und zu Weydhausen in der Ober Churpfaltz gegen einander gelegen, im 1621Jahr.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 37/6

The picture depicts a perspective view of the Šumava countryside from the east. In the background are the Šumava forest mountains, on the right down is the village Royvadov lying approximately 20 km west from Bor. Nearby is the town of Weidhausen in Bavaria. In the countryside there are scattered military troops, camps, fortifications, etc. Under the picture is legend 1-28. After the Battle of White Mountain, there were less extensive fights, in particular, in western and eastern Bohemia. Mansfeld, who became the field marshal of Frederick Palatinate in the meantime, so far kept Pilsen conquered in 1618 (see No. 5/196 on pages 4 and 5) and lost it only now. The Protestant Union knew that its resistance in western Germany would be successful due to the preponderance of the army of the Spanish marquis Spinola and, thus, it dispersed. However, its armies gathered in droves under Mansfeld’s flags concentrated close to Weidhausen, at the border of Upper Fels and Bohemia in mid 1621. Against him, in the Czech village Rozvadov, there was Tilly with his army standing against him and reinforced by the army of Maxmillian of Bavaria. However, in Mansfeld’s camp, epidemics spread soon due to the large number of unburied dead horses. Alongside this, it was necessary to urgently help Frederick’s inherited Lower Palatinate affected by the Spanish invasion. For this reason, the camp close to Weidhausen was liquidated and Mansfeld moved to the northwest.


60-Imperial earthwork close to Damgarten.

Imperial earthwork close to Damgarten.

Damgarten, On 01.08.1621 (do 30.09.1621)

It is a small picture, probably cut out from some work (maybe Theatrum Europaeum), with no specific time indication. It depicts riders with flags. On the left are the fortified tower and the river Regnitz across which a way is leading to the fortified camp with soldiers. In the background is fire.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Kayserliche Schantz bey Damgarten.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 40/222

It is not possible to determine exactly which war event was in question. However, it is highly probable (based on the indicated location) that the printing depicts a battle scene of the autumn 1621 in Upper Palatinate. Here (close to Weidhausen) there was the field encampment of Mansfeld’s army and frequent scuffles with the imperial army under the command of the general Tilly took place there. It was in the period when Mansfeld hastily left for Upper (Rhine) Palatinate to fight against the marquis Spinola. Regnitz is a small river flowing into Sala. The described territory lies approximately 20km westwards from the town of As.


54-Mansfeld’s army with 5,000 riders and 13,000 foot soldiers had 17 cannons and 2,000 wagons, arrived on 4 October 1621 in the depicted place of Willhelmsdorf, stayed there overnight and started to march towards Lower Palatinate on the 5th day of the same month.

Mansfeld’s army with 5,000 riders and 13,000 foot soldiers had 17 cannons and 2,000 wagons, arrived on 4 October 1621 in the depicted place of Willhelmsdorf, stayed there overnight and started to march towards Lower Palatinate on the 5th day of the same month.

Wilhermsdorf, On 04.10.1621 (do 05.10.1621)

In the picture is the town of Willhermsdorf upon Aurach lying 34km northwestwards from Norimberk, and the castle Bürckmischling with “Lusthaus” on the hill overgrown with grapevine. The river Aurach splits close the town into two arms, of which one flows around the castle that is the water stronghold. Over the castle is the coat of arms, undoubtedly owned by the family of the then holder. Both inside and around the town is the camping army. In the background are 4 military troops structured in the distinctive square shapes. The above text and legend 1-4 are under the picture part of the printing.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Das Mansfeldische Volk, welches zu Ross 5.000 und zu Fuhs 13.000 stark gewest, bey sich habent 17 Stück Grob Geschütz und bey 2.000 Wagen ist anno 1621 den 4. October in dieszem abgebilten Ort Willhermsdorf ankumen, alldar mit der ganzen Armada über Nacht gelegen und den 5. disz wider uffgebrochen und nach der untern Pfalz marschiert.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 41/175

The war against the Czech rebels ended by the conquest of Tabor in November 1621. However, before it happened, Mansfeld left for Upper Palatinate (westwards from Cheb) after he lost Pilsen. His army grew considerably when it was joined by many of those released from the liquidated Protestant Union. His situation in Upper Palatinate deteriorated when Tilly, the commander of the Catholic League, started to threaten him. When the infectious epidemics started to decimate his army in the camp in Weidhausen close to Koburk, Mansfeld decided to leave for Lower Palatinate. Through his skilful dealings with the emperor, he succeeded in covering his strategic movement so he appeared absolutely unexpectedly in Lower Palatinate. The depicted overnight stay of the whole army from 4 to 5 October 1621 in Wilhelmsdorf comes from the hurried march towards Lower Palatinate.


55-The town of Tabor besieged in 1621.

The town of Tabor besieged in 1621.

Tábor, On 13.11.1621

The etching is made masterfully. However, based on the style, it is not made by Hollar but rather by Sadeler and is not signed. Tabor is depicted from above, the church tower is partially demolished and on the left is the pond Jordan. Around the town are military groups, chances, incursions, etc. Everything is engraved with an astonishing accuracy and carefulness. The cited inscription is over the picture. At the bottom is an extensive legend on a decorative vignette field.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tabor civitas anno 1621 obsessa et capta.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 42/325

Ferdinand II was not happy with the victory in White Mountain and ordered to liquidate estates’ all supporting points that had not surrendered so far. However, this action was aggravated by the fact that Buquoy and a big part of the imperial army left eastwards to face the incursions of the seven-castle prince Bethlen Gabor. The Bavarian army commanded by Tilly was forced to march towards Lower Palatinate where Mansfeld started to move after the loss of Pilsen and several other west Bohemian towns. Thus, only the general Don Baltasar Maradas from Spain stayed in Bohemia and his task was to defeat, with not too many soldiers, the last point of the Czech estates resisting so far. After the heroic resistance, Tabor was conquered by agreement with his crew on 13 November 1621.


56-A picture of the town of Frankental besieged by the deputy general Don Goncal Ferdnand de Cordova in 1621.

A picture of the town of Frankental besieged by the deputy general Don Goncal Ferdnand de Cordova in 1621.

Frankenthal, On 20.11.1621 (do 30.11.1621)

The town is painted from above. A short way off, the riders have clashed. On the left is Rhine and on the right is a forest with a small village and the church tower. Around the town are banks and chances. The trajectories of the cannon shots are depicted by curves. At the bottom on the left is a decorative cartouche with legend A-L.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Stadt Franckenthal, wie solche von dem Vicegeneral Don Goncalo Fernandes de Cordova belagert worden. 1621.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 43/194

The Spanish general Cordova was ordered by his commander, marquis Spinola, to fight with his large army against Lower Palatinate, the hereditary country of Frederick Palatinate. The conquest of numerous towns and strongholds required more time than originally expected. When Cordova was busy with besieging the town of Frankfurt upon Rhine, Arnst Mansfeld suddenly appeared in Lower Palatinate. The message of his arrival with an army of 25,000 men caused that Cordova immediately turned around from Frankenthal and left for Oppenheim, Kreuznach, Stein and other places to stay in the winter camps.


57-The siege of the town of Frankenthal in 1621.

The siege of the town of Frankenthal in 1621.

Frankenthal, On 20.11.1621 (do 30.11.1621)

The picture depicts only the fortification facilities around the town of Frankenthal, the remaining part is empty. The flow of the river Rhine is depicted in the forest countryside. On the right side up there is a decorative cartouche with two figures of Fidelitas and Constantia, on which are the coats of arms and the above inscription. Under the picture of the printing are legends A-R and 1-12.

Signature: Deliniert durch Heinrich van der Borsch
Autor: Borcht Heinrich van der, nizozemský mědirytec

Original name: Belägerung der Statt Frankenthal im Jahr 1621.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 44/218

The Spanish general Cordova was ordered by his commander, marquis Spinola, to fight with his large army against Lower Palatinate, the hereditary country of Frederick Palatinate. The conquest of numerous towns and strongholds required more time than originally expected. When Cordova was busy with besieging the town of Frankfurt upon Rhine, Arnošt Mansfeld suddenly appeared in Lower Palatinate. The message of his arrival with an army of 25,000 men caused that Cordova immediately turned around from Frankenthal and left for Oppenheim, Kreuznach, Stein and other places to stay in the winter camps.


99-The interpretation of the most important places in Westphalia and elsewhere which were conquered by the Duke Christian the younger of Brunswick.

The interpretation of the most important places in Westphalia and elsewhere which were conquered by the Duke Christian the younger of Brunswick.

On 01.01.1622 (do 31.12.1622)

In front of us, there is a tableau of the Duke Christian of Brunswick and Wolffenbüttel, also called of Halberstadt, on horseback, without a hat, with a big sash, holding the Marshal’s cane in his right hand. There are 38 small viewpoints on different towns and castles, which he conquered, around his portrait. The entire engraving, although unsigned, indicates considerable artistic qualities of the author; especially the images of towns are very skillfully made.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der fürnehmbsten Orter in Westphalen und sunst so von Hertzog Christian in Braunschweig eingenommen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 80/113


468-The actual drawing of the town and fortress of Hanau.

The actual drawing of the town and fortress of Hanau.

Hanau, On 01.01.1622 (do 31.12.1622)

The schematic illustration of the town of Hanau, which lies close to the river Main, about 20 kilometers west from Frankfurt. A small river Künzig flows around the town. In the landscape, few individual trees are drawn. In the left top corner, there is a rectangle with an inscription above, without a given time and specification. Also, the image does not show, except for three cannons located in the town square, any military motives.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation der Statt und Vestung Hanau.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 81/164

The town and fortress of Hanau is located very close to the battlefield of Hochst, where a great battle between Tilly and Christian of Brunswick – Halberstadt took place on 20 June 1622. In the context of this battle, there were without any doubt combat actions near Hanau which thematically inspired the author of this graphic to picture the town.


68-On the top, a malicious moneylender and counterfeiter, as a teacher of destructing money, country and people.

On the top, a malicious moneylender and counterfeiter, as a teacher of destructing money, country and people.

On 01.01.1622 (do 31.12.1622)

In the middle of the engravings, an old man with devil horns, a massive beard, a wooden stump instead of his right leg is displayed together with the left leg of a bird covered with fish scales on calf and with a crutch in his armpit. The old man raises his right hand with a pointing finger, in his left hand, he holds a sheet of paper with a seal on which is written: 'The apprenticeship certificate of counterfeiters and moneylenders, down, deep to the hell!'. The back basket on his back is filled with similar sheets and inscriptions: 'We counts and nobles, clergy, we Jews, we traders', etc. The figure has a pouch with money attached to his waist and a rat's tail protrudes in the back. On both sides of the described image, there is a long German poem depicting intentions and activities of moneylenders and the easiest way how to become a moneylender and counterfeiter. In the next one, however, the poem warns against this vice, because it corrupts people and essentially leads to hell.

Signature: Gedruckt zu Augspurg, in Verlegeung Daniel Manassers, Kupferstechers, beim Klenkerthörlein.
Autor: Manasser Daniel, rytec a nakladatel v Augsburgu

Original name: Der hochschädlichen Wipperer und Kipperer, als Geld, Land und Leute verderber Lehr maister.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 82/56

The Thirty Years' War, as all the wars, resulted in a general moral decline that was mainly manifested in the fact that a lot of people took advantage of a general breakdown and gained fortune by various intrigues and frauds. Counterfeiting money and usury were common among many plunderers. Our leaflet was no doubt supposed to show the harmfulness of these abuses and to act to rectify the situation.


70-True depiction of famous Gulch (Jülich) fortress, besieged by Count Henry of Berg from 5 September 1621 in the name of His Imperial Majesty, abandoned on 12 December and conquered upon agreement on 3 February 1622.

True depiction of famous Gulch (Jülich) fortress, besieged by Count Henry of Berg from 5 September 1621 in the name of His Imperial Majesty, abandoned on 12 December and conquered upon agreement on 3 February 1622.

Jülich, On 03.02.1622

The engraving is quite crude. In the centre, there is the Jülich fortress with troops marching around and enemy units leaving the town. Wide neighbourhood of the city is dotted with various chances, fortifications and military camps. A hill will gallows on top is in the foreground. A portrait of Henry, Count of Berg is in the left upper corner, on the right, there is a coat of arms with a lion. German description of the situation with marking of camps of Berg and Spinola is below the painting on the board. Under it, there is a detailed description of the event in Latin, which celebrated the heroism and credit of general of Berg.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Abcontrafaitung der berümbten Vestung Gulch vom Herrn Graven Heinrich von Berg im Namen Röm. Kai. mt. den 5. September Annno 1621 geschen von newem abgeressen den 12. Decb. Anno 1622 den 3. Februar mitt Accord genommen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 57/154

Truce between the Netherlands and Spain only existed from 1609 to 1621. Then there were military conflicts between both countries again; the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire took the side of Spain. The Spaniards were lead by Marquise Spinola, Henry, Count of Berg was the commander of imperial forces. The siege of the Jülich fortress, which lies approximately 30 km to the west from Cologne, and which was conquered by general Berg on 3 February 1622, was one of the first joined battle actions against the Netherlands. The emperor's interest in the campaign was caused by the fact that House of Habsburg owned certain, very extensive, lands in the Netherlands (currently Belgium). The alliance with Spain was conditioned by common Catholic religion and the affinity of ruling houses. The House of Habsburg ownership of lands in the Netherlands lasted up to Napoleon I.


72-Drawing of Jülich fortress, which was conquered by Spaniards. 162.. (1622).

Drawing of Jülich fortress, which was conquered by Spaniards. 162.. (1622).

Jülich, On 03.02.1622

The painting shows the Jülich fortress and city near the Dutch borders with its surroundings. The upper part of the painting shows the Roer (Ruhr) river, a wide circle of fortifications, chances and various fortification objects, military camps, movements of military units etc. A hill with gallows is in the foreground. Some settlements in the area are marked with names.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Keller G., mědirytec

Original name: Abrisz der Festung Gülch wie dieselbe von den Spanischen eingenommen worden ist. 162.. (1622).

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 58/178

Truce between the Netherlands and Spain only existed from 1609 to 1621. Then there were military conflicts between both countries again; the emperor of the Holy Roman Empire took the side of Spain. The Spaniards were lead by Marquise Spinola, Henry, Count of Berg was the commander of imperial forces. The siege of the Jülich fortress, which lies approximately 30 km to the west from Cologne, and which was conquered by general Berg on 3 February 1622, was one of the first joined battle actions against the Netherlands. The emperor's interest in the campaign was caused by the fact that House of Habsburg owned certain, very extensive, lands in the Netherlands (currently Belgium). The alliance with Spain was conditioned by common Catholic religion and the affinity of ruling houses. The House of Habsburg ownership of lands in the Netherlands lasted up to Napoleon I.


73-Odd appearance of three suns and rainbows which appeared on 25 January (or 4 February, according to the new calendar) 1622. Odd “chasma”, which was seen at night above Heidelberg on 5/15 February 1622.

Odd appearance of three suns and rainbows which appeared on 25 January (or 4 February, according to the new calendar) 1622. Odd “chasma”, which was seen at night above Heidelberg on 5/15 February 1622.

On 04.02.1622 (do 15.02.1622)

Heidelberg above Neckar is depicted in the foreground, a hill with vineyards is on the right, above it is an inscription: “Chur Pfältzische Residentz Statt Heidelberg.” The aforementioned odd appearance of three suns and rainbows is painted on the sky, the sky is dotted with stars, a cross with two clouds and several rays of light is between the stars.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wundergesicht der 3 Sonnen und Regenboegen den 15. Jan: oder 4. Feb:N:Cal: 1622 erschienen. Seltzam Chasma Nachtszeit über Haydelberg den 5/15 Feber: 1622 gsehen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 59/34d

This is an atmospheric or other natural phenomenon, which was very rare and that is why it caused such interest. Similar phenomena played an important role in the 17th century, because it was customary to attribute them a supernatural significance; for example, it was believed that a large catastrophe, war or something similar will take place. The same opinion remained in people's minds in not so distant past: In 1914, the comet was being related to the World War I and an aurora borealis in 1939 was being related to the World War II.


74-True drawing of Pratigov in Meyefeldst estate, which lies around Chur, and surrounding lands; battle of Pündtners against their enemies. In 1622.

True drawing of Pratigov in Meyefeldst estate, which lies around Chur, and surrounding lands; battle of Pündtners against their enemies. In 1622.

Pratigov, On 24.04.1622 (do 22.05.1622)

We can see a hilly Swiss country with the Rhein river and Chur city, near which is a battle of armies, which come from all directions. Cities and villages are named. Territorial borders are marked with dotted line. Below the painting, there is the aforementioned text.

Signature: H. C. Gyger desig.
Autor: Gyger H. C., mědirytec

Original name: Wahrhaffte Verzeichnus desz Prattigöws der Herrschaft Meyenfeldt Gelegenheit umb Chur und angrenzender Landschaften sampt dem Treffen so die Pündtner mit ihren Feinnden gethan. Im Jahr 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 60/174

Already during the Reformation in 16th century, persistent conflicts and fights between Catholics and Calvinists were occurring in the Swiss canton Graubünden; these culminated in notorious slaughter of Calvinists and Protestants in Valtellina. In 1620, Swiss and Spanish army invaded Graubünden and garrisoned the entire land. However, constant fights with local population were occurring during this period – until the Calvinists managed to conquer the Chur fortress on 22 May 1622. The imperial-Spanish army, lead by colonel Balderon, withdrew. The reasons of the imperial campaign into Graubünden were not only religious, but in the first place, there was a strategic interest to seize important Alpine mountain passes. For the imperial ally – Spain, these passes were of vital importance, because they were a part of the so-called Spanish road, which enabled the Spanish crown to supply the armies in the Netherlands and in the Holy Roman Empire with supplies and soldiers. Because of Dutch ships and pirates, the sea route was off-limits for Spain.


76-On 28 July MDCXXII according to the old calendar or on 8 April of the new calendar, his noble Highness the Archduke Leopold besieged the town of Hagenau and kept attacking the forward walls and fortification so strongly that the garrison finally left walls and withdrew into the town where they fought heroically until his Excellency count Mansfeld helped them to free the town and the Archduke Leopold hastily withdrew.

On 28 July MDCXXII according to the old calendar or on 8 April of the new calendar, his noble Highness the Archduke Leopold besieged the town of Hagenau and kept attacking the forward walls and fortification so strongly that the garrison finally left walls and withdrew into the town where they fought heroically until his Excellency count Mansfeld helped them to free the town and the Archduke Leopold hastily withdrew.

On 28.04.1622 (do 08.05.1622)

The engraving is very gently and carefully carved. In the middle, there is the town of Hagenau and the town’s emblem is above. In the foreground, chances, seven cannons, several tents, two men, a woman and a dog can be seen – in the background, we can see a forest. On the left, near the river Moder, we see the main tent of Archduke Leopold, the path leading to Strasbourg is on the right. Below the image, there are the explanatory notes: A-N.

Signature: Gedruckt bey Jac. von der Heyden
Autor: Heyden Jacob van der, holandský rytec a nakladatel se sídlem ve Strasburku

Original name: Anno MDCXXII den 28. April A. und 8. Mai neuen Calenders hat ihre hochf. Durchlaucht Erzherzog Leopold die Statt Hagenau belägert und den Vorwerken und Verschantzungen derselben so stark zugesetzt, dass die Garnison solche endlich verlassen und in die Statt gewichen, allda sich ritterlich gewehret bis ihr excellenz der Graff von Mansfeld sie entsetzt und der Erzherzog Leopoldus durch einen eyligen Auffbruch abgezogen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 62/182

It is the pamphlet which mocks the Bohemian King Frederick V, Elector Palatine, nicknamed the Winter King. It is based on the mocking nickname the Winter King, because it names his commanders according to the winter months (November, December, January, February, March), or the names of Catholic patrons whose commemoration is celebrated during winter months, e.g. Martin, Nicholas, Balthazar, Blaise and others. The mocking poem was supposed to warn West European states against the dangers of the invasion of the Winter King’s armies, who planned to revenge all the defeats he had suffered. In fact, Frederick was already a defeated refugee fleeing to West and looking for a refuge from pursuers at that time.


75-Plan view of Hagenau

Plan view of Hagenau

Hagenau, On 03.05.1622

It is a schematically drawn city plan without figures and any staffage. In the right corner, there is a city coat of arms with a rose, on the left, there is a fortress founded by Mansfeld, which was subsequently closed down. Under the painting, there is a legend.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grundriss der Statt Hagenau.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 61/109

After the defeat of the Bohemian revolt in 1620, the war moved to lands to the west from Cheb – into Upper Palatinate, where, however, the situation of marshal of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Ernst von Mansfeld, became very difficult, mostly because of epidemic outbreak and because of strong pressure of Tilly's army from the south. That was why Mansfeld decided to withdraw to Rhenish Palatinate. He performed this tactic movement so skilfully that his enemies were completely surprised. The Spanish army, lead by Spinola and Cordoba, laid in Rhenish Palatinate; however, Mansfeld had avoided any encounter, taken Hagenau and forced the city to pay 100 000 gold pieces. Then he moved to Saarland because of supply reasons and he left a garrison in Hagenau. In the meantime, a situation, which lead to Tilly's victory over Protestant armies near Wimpfen on 8 May 1622, was created. After an unsuccessful attempt to take the city of Zabern in Alsace, Mansfeld returned to Hagenau, where in the meantime emperor's brother, archduke Leopold, was trying to reoccupy the city that was taken by Mansfeld. Five days before Tilly's victory at Wimpfen, Mansfeld had liberated Hagenau from encirclement of Leopold's armies at the eleventh hour; Leopold's armies retreated hastily.


77-Sketch of the battle, which happened between Margrave of Baden-Durlach and Tilly, the Imperial and Bavarian General.

Sketch of the battle, which happened between Margrave of Baden-Durlach and Tilly, the Imperial and Bavarian General.

Wimpfen, On 08.05.1622

The engraving is done (superficially and apparently hastily) in the manner of maps; streams are drawn as in reality. Cities and villages are marked with their names. Heilbronn at the bottom left and Wimpfen at top right. The explanatory notes A to L contain explications of the depicted events. In the middle of the engraving, there is a distinguishable wagon fortification with the mark 'D'. There is the inscription above: 'Palatinatus', and: 'Pars Ducatus Würtenbergensis' is below.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Schlacht, so zwischen Herrn Markgrafen von Durlach und Monsieur Tilly, als Kays. und Bayerischen Generalen vorgangen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 63/5

The first phase of the Thirty Years' War ended in the defeat of the Bohemian revolt. The centre of the combat moved from the Bohemia to the Rhine Palatinate, hereditary territory of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. He was regarded as the main representative of the Protestant opposition in the Empire by the Emperor. Frederick V, Elector Palatine's power position was shaken by the defeat of the revolting troops in the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620. But he was not alone in his fight. Many of his followers were involved in the campaign: Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Christian the Younger of Brunswick, Ernest von Mansfeld and many more. They also received support from abroad, notably from the King James I of England, who was the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The main commander of the Imperial-Bavarian army, who was appointed to lead the combat in the Palatinate, was the General Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly. One of the important events of the Palatinate campaign was the Battle of Wimpfen on 6 May 1622. Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach encountered Tilly with the Spanish General Córdoba. Luck was on the side of the Catholic forces. Due to successful strategic actions, Tilly and Córdoba had a strong superiority. George Friedrich relied only on his 'wagenburg' – outdated tactics of armed wagons. The battle lasted from early morning until noon, when Tilly withdrew his troops to have a rest into the nearby Dornet forest. Margrave of Baden-Durlach had armed wagons in the middle of his formations and in the background, there is another group of armed wagons with supplies of ammunition. In the afternoon, Tilly launched a new attack on the 'wagenburg', which was unsuccessful at first but later he managed to destroy the ammunition supply by precise artillery which caused confusion in the Protestant army. Tilly’s troops then intruded into the enemy’s position and, at the same time, joined the attack of the Córdoba’s cavalry that consistently finished their task. The Protestant troops fled back over the Böllinger stream, which flowed behind them, but the only bridge was insufficient for a quick escape of the disorganized, defeated and completely destroyed army. Margrave of Baden-Durlach lost virtually the whole army here, so he withdrew hurriedly with only small remnants. He then sought refuge outside Germany, because the Emperor had given him the imperial ban.


78-The actual illustration of the famous encounter of Margrave of Baden-Durlach and General Tilly in the Battle of Wimpfen on 7 May 1622.

The actual illustration of the famous encounter of Margrave of Baden-Durlach and General Tilly in the Battle of Wimpfen on 7 May 1622.

Wimpfen, On 08.05.1622

The engraving shows the progress of the battle in the clouds of blowing dust and smoke from exploding ammunition supply. On the left, there is the river Neckar and the Böllinger stream in the background, which as a natural obstacle caused catastrophic losses to the army of Margrave of Baden-Durlach during their escape. The town of Wimpfen is at bottom right. The battle wagons are clearly visible in the Protestant position. The given inscription is above the image, the explanatory notes A-R are below.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung des berübtnen Treffens so zwischen dem Markgrafen von Durlach und General Tilly bey Wimpfen vorgangen. Anno 1622 7. Mai.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 64/18

The first phase of the Thirty Years' War ended in the defeat of the Bohemian revolt. The centre of the combat moved from the Bohemia to the Rhine Palatinate, hereditary territory of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. He was regarded as the main representative of the Protestant opposition in the Empire by the Emperor. Frederick V, Elector Palatine's power position was shaken by the defeat of the revolting troops in the Battle of the White Mountain in 1620. But he was not alone in his fight. Many of his followers were involved in the campaign: Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Christian the Younger of Brunswick, Ernest von Mansfeld and many more. They also received support from abroad, notably from the King James I of England, who was the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The main commander of the Imperial-Bavarian army, who was appointed to lead the combat in the Palatinate, was the General Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly. One of the important events of the Palatinate campaign was the Battle of Wimpfen on 6 May 1622. George Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach encountered Tilly with the Spanish General Córdoba. Luck was on the side of the Catholic forces. Due to successful strategic actions, Tilly and Córdoba had a strong superiority. George Friedrich relied only on his 'wagenburg' – outdated tactics of armed wagons. The battle lasted from early morning until noon, when Tilly withdrew his troops to have a rest into the nearby Dornet forest. Margrave of Baden-Durlach had armed wagons in the middle of his formations and in the background, there is another group of armed wagons with supplies of ammunition. In the afternoon, Tilly launched a new attack on the 'wagenburg', which was unsuccessful at first, but later, he managed to destroy the ammunition supply by precise artillery which caused confusion in the Protestant army. Tilly’s troops then intruded into the enemy’s position and, at the same time, joined the attack of the Córdoba’s cavalry that consistently finished their task. The Protestant troops fled back over the Böllinger stream, which flowed behind them, but the only bridge was insufficient for a quick escape of the disorganized, defeated and completely destroyed army. Margrave of Baden-Durlach lost virtually the whole army here, so he withdrew hurriedly with only small remnants. He then sought refuge outside Germany, because the Emperor had given him the imperial ban.


79-Actual depiction and short report of a bloody battle and the main clash of imperial forces on one side and Margrave of Durlach, Mansfeld and Palatine armies on the other side, which occurred between Wimpfen and Hailbron on 26 April/6 May 1622.

Actual depiction and short report of a bloody battle and the main clash of imperial forces on one side and Margrave of Durlach, Mansfeld and Palatine armies on the other side, which occurred between Wimpfen and Hailbron on 26 April/6 May 1622.

Wimpfen, On 08.05.1622

In the right bottom corner of the engraving, there is a double portrait of Tilly and Corduba in an oval cartouche. The print also shows the flow of Neckar, town of Wimpfen and panorama of the battle with an explosion of ammunition of Margrave of Durlach. Above the painting, there is the mentioned text, an A–R legend is below the painting.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Aigentliche Abbildung und kurze Erzelung deren zwischen der kayserlichen und Markgraff. Durlach Mansfeld und Pfalzischen Armaden den 26. April / 6. Mai 1622 zwischen Wimpffen und Haibron gehaltenen Blutigen Schlacht und Haupttreffens.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 65/148

The first phase of the Thirty Years' War ended with a defeat of the Czech Estate Revolt. The seat of battles moved from Bohemia to Palatinate, hereditary region of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The emperor considered him to be the main representative of the Protestant opposition in the empire. The position of power of Frederick V, Elector Palatine was endangered by the defeat of Estate army in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. However, he was not alone in his fight. Many of his followers joined the fight: George Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Christian the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Ernst von Mansfeld and others. They were also supported by foreign countries, namely by the English king James I, who was a father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. General Johann Tserclaes Tilly was the chief commander of the imperial-Bavarian army and was charged with fighting in the Palatinate. The Battle of Wimpfen on 6 May 1622 was one of the important events of the Palatinate campaign. George Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach met Tilly and Spanish general Cordoba in battle here. Catholic forces were more fortunate. Because of more successful strategic tactics, Tilly and Cordoba had a strong superiority in numbers. George Frederick relied only on his “wagenburg” – obsolete tactics of armed carts. The battle lasted from early morning till noon, when Tilly withdrew his forces to rest to the near Dornet forest. Margrave of Durlach had placed the armed carts in the centre of his ranks and another group of armed carts with ammunition in the rear. In the afternoon, Tilly had commenced a new attack on the “wagenburg”, which was futile initially, but later, precision artillery fire managed to hit the ammunition, which exploded and caused panic in the Protestant army. Tilly's forces then penetrated the position of the enemy easily and at the same time, Cordoba's cavalry attacked and finished the battle. The Protestant forces were fleeing over the Bellingr brook, which flew directly behind their positions, however, single bridge was not sufficient for the retreat of disorganised, defeated army, which was completely crushed. Margrave of Durlach lost almost the entire army, and he withdrew quickly with small remains of his army. Margrave himself sought refuge outside of Germany, because the emperor issued an imperial anathema upon him.


81-Depiction of bloody battle between Margrave of Durlach and Count of Tilly, the Imperial and Bavarian General.

Depiction of bloody battle between Margrave of Durlach and Count of Tilly, the Imperial and Bavarian General.

On 08.05.1622

The painting shows the Battle of Wimpfen, which took place on 8 May 1622, and it is very similar to the engraving 63/5 except for some non-essential differences. Upside on the left, there is an A-L legend in the corner

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abcontrafactur der blutigen Schlacht so zwischen Herrn Markgrafen von Durlach und Monsieur Tilly als Kays: und Bayrischen Generalen vorgangen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 66/281

The first phase of the Thirty Years' War ended with a defeat of the Czech Estate Revolt. The seat of battles moved from Bohemia to Palatinate, hereditary region of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. The emperor considered him to be the main representative of the Protestant opposition in the empire. The position of power of Frederick V, Elector Palatine was endangered by the defeat of Estate army in the Battle of White Mountain in 1620. However, he was not alone in his fight. Many of his followers joined the fight: George Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach, Christian the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Ernst von Mansfeld and others. They were also supported by foreign countries, namely by the English king James I, who was a father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatine. General Johann Tserclaes Tilly was the chief commander of the imperial-Bavarian army and was charged with fighting in the Palatinate. The Battle of Wimpfen on 6 May 1622 was one of the important events of the Palatinate campaign. George Frederick, Margrave of Baden-Durlach met Tilly and Spanish general Cordoba in battle here. Catholic forces were more fortunate. Because of more successful strategic tactics, Tilly and Cordoba had a strong superiority in numbers. George Frederick relied only on his “wagenburg” – obsolete tactics of armed carts. The battle lasted from early morning till noon, when Tilly withdrew his forces to rest to the near Dornet forest. Margrave of Durlach had placed the armed carts in the centre of his ranks and another group of armed carts with ammunition in the rear. In the afternoon, Tilly had commenced a new attack on the “wagenburg”, which was futile initially, but later, precision artillery fire managed to hit the ammunition, which exploded and caused panic in the Protestant army. Tilly's forces then penetrated the position of the enemy easily and at the same time, Cordoba's cavalry attacked and finished the battle. The Protestant forces were fleeing over the Bellingr brook, which flew directly behind their positions, however, single bridge was not sufficient for the retreat of disorganised, defeated army, which was completely crushed. Margrave of Durlach lost almost the entire army, and he withdrew quickly with small remains of his army. Margrave himself sought refuge outside of Germany, because the emperor issued an imperial anathema upon him.


84-Depiction of battle between the army of Elector of Bavaria, Spanish army and Brunswick army near Höchst.

Depiction of battle between the army of Elector of Bavaria, Spanish army and Brunswick army near Höchst.

Höchst, On 20.06.1622

The engraving shows a well-arranged map of the entire battlefield. The Main river, which flows through Frankfurt and Sachsenhausen, flows through the map diagonally; the town of Höchst with a bridge over Main, on which the defeated Brunswick army crowds, lies near the mouth of the Nidda river on the right shore of Main. Several castles and settlements, which are marked with names, are in the background in hilly terrain.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Contrafactur des Treffens zwischen der Churf: Bayr: Spanisch und Braunschwigen Armaden bey Höchst.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 67/8

The second part of the Thirty Years' War was the Palatine war. It followed after the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt on the White Mountain in 1620. Imperial, Bavarian and Spanish armies stood on one side and they were resisted by armies of several German Protestant nobles, who relied mostly upon the financial aid of the English king James I, who supported the interests of his son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, with substantial sums of money. These were: Ernst von Mansfeld, field marshal of the “Winter King”, Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach and Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who, with his army, stood on the right shore of Main under Frankfurt. Near the town of Höchst, the units of Duke of Brunswick built a bridge over Main, so that they could join the Mansfeld's army, which laid nearby on the other shore. However, when Tilly's army, which wanted to defend Frankfurt, appeared, the Duke of Brunswick and his army fought back. Tilly's forces had superior numbers and they had more artillery. The tactical situation of the Protestant army was bad – for case of retreat, there was nothing but one, quickly built bridge over Main. The battle was not a typical field battle; it was an unclear clash of forces near the town of Höchst and villages named Schäferberg and Sossenheim. Christian Brunswick was being constantly pushed to retreat by the bigger Catholic army and consistent artillery fire. However, the Protestant army lost the most men while retreating. Many men drowned in Main during the confused retreat. A confused crowd of retreating units, which did not manage to cross to the other shore in time, assembled at the bridge in Höchst. The formations of Christian Brunswick resisted heroically, but the result of combat could not be changed any more. Christian Brunswick had achieved his tactical plan to join his and Mansfeld troops, but it cost him 2 000 men. The Catholics probably lost only a little over 100 men.


83-True and certain report with depiction of how Christian, Duke of Brunswick captured Höchst, electoral town of Main, and how his army was defeated and disbanded by all the imperial armies on 20 June of the new calendar, or 10 June of the old calendar, in 1622. Printed in 1622.

True and certain report with depiction of how Christian, Duke of Brunswick captured Höchst, electoral town of Main, and how his army was defeated and disbanded by all the imperial armies on 20 June of the new calendar, or 10 June of the old calendar, in 1622. Printed in 1622.

Höchst, On 20.06.1622

The painting shows landscape near Höchst and Frankfurt. The Nieda river joins Main near Höchst. On the left, there is the ongoing battle, the defeated army of Christian Brunswick retreats over the bridge over Main. Large column of imperial forces is approaching from Frankfurt. In the left corner of the sheet, there is an A-K legend and on the bottom, there is a German text, describing the course of battle in detail and all relevant facts.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrer und gewisser Bericht sambt Abbildung welcher Gestalt Herzog Christian zu Braunschweig das Churf: Maintzische Stättlin Höchst eingenommen auch wie dessen Armada von den sämbtlichen Kayserlichen Armeen den 20. Juni N.C. oder 10. A.C. dieses lauffenden 1622 Jahrs bey Höchst geschlagen und zerstreut worden. Gedruckt im Jahr 1622

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 68/160

The second part of the Thirty Years' War was the Palatine war. It followed after the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt on the White Mountain in 1620. Imperial, Bavarian and Spanish armies stood on one side and they were resisted by armies of several German Protestant nobles, who relied mostly upon the financial aid of the English king James I, who supported the interests of his son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, with substantial sums of money. These were: Ernst von Mansfeld, field marshal of the “Winter King”, Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach and Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who, with his army, stood on the right shore of Main under Frankfurt. Near the town of Höchst, the units of Duke of Brunswick built a bridge over Main, so that they could join the Mansfeld's army, which laid nearby on the other shore. However, when Tilly's army, which wanted to defend Frankfurt, appeared, the Duke of Brunswick and his army fought back. Tilly's forces had superior numbers and they had more artillery. The tactical situation of the Protestant army was bad – for case of retreat, there was nothing but one, quickly built bridge over Main. The battle was not a typical field battle; it was an unclear clash of forces near the town of Höchst and villages named Schäferberg and Sossenheim. Christian Brunswick was being constantly pushed to retreat by the bigger Catholic army and consistent artillery fire. However, the Protestant army lost the most men while retreating. Many men drowned in Main during the confused retreat. A confused crowd of retreating units, which did not manage to cross to the other shore in time, assembled at the bridge in Höchst. The formations of Christian Brunswick resisted heroically, but the result of combat could not be changed any more. Christian Brunswick had achieved his tactical plan to join his and Mansfeld troops, but it cost him 2 000 men. The Catholics probably lost only a little over 100 men.


82-Drawing of battle between imperial, Bavarian, Spanish and Brunswick armies, in which Duke Christian was defeated.

Drawing of battle between imperial, Bavarian, Spanish and Brunswick armies, in which Duke Christian was defeated.

On 20.06.1622

The print shows the battle of Höchst on 20 June 1622. The defeated army of Duke of Brunswick retreats over the bridge over Main. In the right upper side, there are cities of Frankfurt, Steinheim and Offenbach, on the left, the course of battle under number of hills is depicted; the river Nieda flows through the middle of the landscape.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz des ritterlichen Treffens zwischen der Keys: Bayr: Spanischen und Braunschweigischen Armaden darinen Hertzog Christian den kürtzeren gezogen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 69/173

The second part of the Thirty Years' War was the Palatine war. It followed after the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt on the White Mountain in 1620. Imperial, Bavarian and Spanish armies stood on one side and they were resisted by armies of several German Protestant nobles, who relied mostly upon the financial aid of the English king James I, who supported the interests of his son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, with substantial sums of money. These were: Ernst von Mansfeld, field marshal of the “Winter King”, Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach and Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who, with his army, stood on the right shore of Main under Frankfurt. Near the town of Höchst, the units of Duke of Brunswick built a bridge over Main, so that they could join the Mansfeld's army, which laid nearby on the other shore. However, when Tilly's army, which wanted to defend Frankfurt, appeared, the Duke of Brunswick and his army fought back. Tilly's forces had superior numbers and they had more artillery. The tactical situation of the Protestant army was bad – for case of retreat, there was nothing but one, quickly built bridge over Main. The battle was not a typical field battle; it was an unclear clash of forces near the town of Höchst and villages named Schäferberg and Sossenheim. Christian Brunswick was being constantly pushed to retreat by the bigger Catholic army and consistent artillery fire. However, the Protestant army lost the most men while retreating. Many men drowned in Main during the confused retreat. A confused crowd of retreating units, which did not manage to cross to the other shore in time, assembled at the bridge in Höchst. The formations of Christian Brunswick resisted heroically, but the result of combat could not be changed any more. Christian Brunswick had achieved his tactical plan to join his and Mansfeld troops, but it cost him 2 000 men. The Catholics probably lost only a little over 100 men.


85-True depiction of the town of Höchst and the surrounding landscape with battle between the imperial and Brunswick army, which took place in 1622.

True depiction of the town of Höchst and the surrounding landscape with battle between the imperial and Brunswick army, which took place in 1622.

Höchst, On 20.06.1622

The town of Höchst is in front of us, on the right, there is a wide river, Main, over which the armies of Duke of Brunswick are fleeing; behind the town, the battle is in full progress yet. Fitting perspective and perfect engraving technique reminds of Václav Hollar. However, the engraving is not signed. Under the pictorial part of the print, there is an A–Z legend.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Vorbildung des Stettleins Höcchst und der beiliegenden Gelegenheit sampt der Schlacht so zwischen der Kays: und Braunsch: Armee geschehe 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 70/149

The second part of the Thirty Years' War was the Palatine war. It followed after the defeat of the Bohemian Revolt on the White Mountain in 1620. Imperial, Bavarian and Spanish armies stood on one side and they were resisted by armies of several German Protestant nobles, who relied mostly upon the financial aid of the English king James I, who supported the interests of his son-in-law, Frederick V, Elector Palatine, with substantial sums of money. These were: Ernst von Mansfeld, field marshal of the “Winter King”, Georg Friedrich, Margrave of Baden-Durlach and Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who, with his army, stood on the right shore of Main under Frankfurt. Near the town of Höchst, the units of Duke of Brunswick built a bridge over Main, so that they could join the Mansfeld's army, which laid nearby on the other shore. However, when Tilly's army, which wanted to defend Frankfurt, appeared, the Duke of Brunswick and his army fought back. Tilly's forces had superior numbers and they had more artillery. The tactical situation of the Protestant army was bad – for case of retreat, there was nothing but one, quickly built bridge over Main. The battle was not a typical field battle; it was an unclear clash of forces near the town of Höchst and villages named Schäferberg and Sossenheim. Christian Brunswick was being constantly pushed to retreat by the bigger Catholic army and consistent artillery fire. However, the Protestant army lost the most men while retreating. Many men drowned in Main during the confused retreat. A confused crowd of retreating units, which did not manage to cross to the other shore in time, assembled at the bridge in Höchst. The formations of Christian Brunswick resisted heroically, but the result of combat could not be changed any more. Christian Brunswick had achieved his tactical plan to join his and Mansfeld troops, but it cost him 2 000 men. The Catholics probably lost only a little over 100 men.


96-A true depiction of the elector city of Heidelberg which was besieged and conquered by the General Tilly. In the year 1622.

A true depiction of the elector city of Heidelberg which was besieged and conquered by the General Tilly. In the year 1622.

On 21.06.1622 (do 06.09.1622)

The town of Heidelberg is situated under a high hill, there is an elector castle on the left, a bridge over the river Neckar at the bottom, the army of Tilly is wading through the Neckar on the right side. In the foreground, there are approaching attacking columns. The city is besieged from all sides and combat actions are everywhere. On a cloud in the sky, there is the Palatine Elector coat of arms that is held by two angels and the inscription: 'Haydelberga capitur'. There are explanatory notes 1 – 20 below. Around the coat of arms, there is a ribbon with the inscription: 'Houi soi qui mal y pense.' It is the motto of the English Order of the Garter whose bearer was the Frederick V, Elector Palatine as a son-in-law of James I of England.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Contrafactur der Churfürstlichen Statt Heidelberg, und wie dieselbige von General Tilly belägert und eigenommen worden. Anno 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 78/162

Just after the battle of Hochst on 20. June 1622, during which the Christian the younger of Brunswick, also called “of Halberstadt', succumbed to Tilly, who had besieged Heidelberg, the capital of the Lower Palatine, on 21 June and already conquered on 6 September. Heidelberg was the capital of the Rhinish (Lower) Palatine and the seat of the elector. The defeat of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate was completed by the conquest of the seat.


89-Drawing of city of Bergen op Zoom, which was besieged by Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases and strongly defended by the townspeople. 1622.

Drawing of city of Bergen op Zoom, which was besieged by Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases and strongly defended by the townspeople. 1622.

Bergen op Zoom, On 18.07.1622 (do 27.08.1622)

The city of Bergen op Zoom is depicted from above, from the so-called bird's-eye view. In the surroundings, there are various Spanish battle structures, which served for approaching and storming the city. The town of Sternbergen is foreshadowed in the upper left part. Probably artificially created floods of the river Scheldt, which were supposed to be an impassable obstacle for any enemies, are extraordinary. Above the painting, there is the mentioned text.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Bergen op Zoom, wie solche von Marquis Spinola belägert, hingegen von Stadtischen starck defendirt worden. 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 74/190

Spain – as a Catholic great power under the reign of Spanish side of the House of Habsburg – was an ally of the Habsburg monarchy in the battle against Frederick V, Elector Palatine and his allies. Apart from the war in the empire, another war erupted in the Netherlands. Calvinist Netherlands supported anti-Catholic forces in the empire. The siege of Bergen op Zoom by armies of general Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases from 18 July to 2 August 1622 was a part of this conflict between Spain and the Netherlands. However, the Battle of Fleurus on 29 August 1622 had put everything into motion. The Protestant army, lead by Mansfeld and Christian Brunswick, managed to fight through to the Netherlands, even though they suffered heavy losses, and they joined the Dutch army of Maurice, Prince of Orange. Spinola's siege of Bergen op Zoom was not safe any more, and thus he had to terminate the siege. Christian Brunswick lost an arm in this battle.


90-Drawing of the city of Bergen op Zoom with the Spanish camp from 1622.

Drawing of the city of Bergen op Zoom with the Spanish camp from 1622.

Bergen op Zoom, On 18.07.1622 (do 27.08.1622)

The fortified city of Bergen op Zoom is in the centre of the painting. The land around the city shows chances of besieging Spaniards, camps, tents, positions of military units, marching regiment and several banners. The river Scheldt is swollen around the city. There is a Latin inscription above: „Delineatio urbis Bergenobsooma una cum hispanorum castris ad illam factis, anno 1622.“ German text is under the painting on the right. On the left, there is a writing on the water: „Verdroncken Landt – i.e. flooded ground“. To fortify the city, his surroundings were flooded.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Bergen op Zoom sampt dem spänischen Läger im Jahr 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 75/204

Spain – as a Catholic great power under the reign of Spanish side of the House of Habsburg – was an ally of the Habsburg monarchy in the battle against Frederick V, Elector Palatine and his allies. Apart from the war in the empire, another war erupted in the Netherlands. Calvinist Netherlands supported anti-Catholic forces in the empire. The siege of Bergen op Zoom by armies of general Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases from 18 July to 2 August 1622 was a part of this conflict between Spain and the Netherlands. However, the Battle of Fleurus on 29 August 1622 had put everything into motion. The Protestant army, lead by Mansfeld and Christian Brunswick, managed to fight through to the Netherlands, even though they suffered heavy losses, and they joined the Dutch army of Maurice, Prince of Orange. Spinola's siege of Bergen op Zoom was not safe any more, and thus he had to terminate the siege. Christian Brunswick lost an arm in this battle.


86-True and real drawing of strong fortress Pfaffenmütz, which was besieged by Neuburg army on both sides of Rhein, as well as on the water, on 25 July 1622. Printed in 1622.

True and real drawing of strong fortress Pfaffenmütz, which was besieged by Neuburg army on both sides of Rhein, as well as on the water, on 25 July 1622. Printed in 1622.

Rheindorf, On 25.07.1622

Wide Rhein river flows through the centre of the painting, we can see the heavily fortified island of Pfaffenmütz. Two ships sail on Rhein. Lower on the Rhein, there is a village of Rindorb (Rheindorf), Berchen is on the upper left. In the right upper corner of the painting, there is a legend with letters A–H. Above the painting, there is the mentioned text, below the painting, there is a four verse long German poem which describes the course of the siege.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrer und eigentlicher Abrisz der starcken Vestung Pfaffenmütz, welche von ihrer Fürstl: Durchl: Newburgerischer Armata zu beyden Seiten des Reyhns, wie auch zu Wasser belägert wordem, im Jahr 1622 den 25. Julij. Gedruckt im Jahr 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 71/114

In the second part of the Thirty Years' War, the battles moved from Bohemia to Palatinate. At that time, Dutchmen, who were Calvinists and supported Frederick V, Elector Palatinate, had taken the Rhineland island of Pfaffenmütz near Bonn. Soon after Battle of Höchst, where the army of Christian Brunswick–Wolfenbüttel was defeated by general Tilly on 10 June 1622, the island fortress of Pfaffenmütz was besieged by Neuburg and (according to this engraving) Spanish armies on 25 July 1622. Neuburg is a city on Danube, approximately 25 km to the west from Ingolstadt and the capital of so-called Neuburg Palatinate, whose rulers were relatives of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, but who stood on the side of Maxmilian I, Elector of Bavaria and his Catholic league. The Spanish forces were lead by general Hendrik van den Bergh.


87-Depiction of Dutch fort Pfaffenmütz between Cologne and Bonn on Rhein. 1622.

Depiction of Dutch fort Pfaffenmütz between Cologne and Bonn on Rhein. 1622.

Pfaffenmütz, On 25.07.1622

The small painting portrays the fortified island of Pfaffenmütz in the middle of Rhein. In front of us, there is the village of Graen Rhindorf (correctly Gross-Rheindorf). Small stream Sieg joins Rhein. On the left side, in landscape covered in trees, there is a settlement called Berchen.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der holländischen Schantz Pfaffenmütz zwischen Köln und Bonn im Rhein erbowen. Anno 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 72/220

In the second part of the Thirty Years' War, the battles moved from Bohemia to Palatinate. At that time, Dutchmen, who were Calvinists and supported Frederick V, Elector Palatinate, had taken the Rhineland island of Pfaffenmütz near Bonn. Soon after Battle of Höchst, where the army of Christian Brunswick–Wolfenbüttel was defeated by general Tilly on 10 June 1622, the island fortress of Pfaffenmütz was besieged by Neuburg and (according to this engraving) Spanish armies on 25 July 1622. Neuburg is a city on Danube, approximately 25 km to the west from Ingolstadt and the capital of so-called Neuburg Palatinate, whose rulers were relatives of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, but who stood on the side of Maxmilian I, Elector of Bavaria and his Catholic league. The Spanish forces were lead by general Hendrik van den Bergh.


88-Military report of the Dutch king, Duke of Brunswick and Count Mansfeld, concerning their heroic advances, especially the large defeat of Count Tilly by Duke of Brunswick, in which Tilly lost 4 000 men and was personally captured by Brunswick. Sung on the tune of Haue at the spaniard.

Military report of the Dutch king, Duke of Brunswick and Count Mansfeld, concerning their heroic advances, especially the large defeat of Count Tilly by Duke of Brunswick, in which Tilly lost 4 000 men and was personally captured by Brunswick. Sung on the tune of Haue at the spaniard.

On 06.08.1622

There is a small wood carving on every side of the sheet. The left one portrays drummer, flautist and 4 pikemen. The right one shows a commander leading his army. Under the painting, in two columns, there are verses of a song, which ironically describes the Duke of Brunswick and his heroism. Every verse ends with refrain: “Lord Tilly was captured by Brunswick!”

Signature: Vytisknuto v Londýně Janem Trundlerem.
Autor: Trundle John, vydavatel letáků v Londýně

Original name: Warlike Newes from the king of Denmark, the duke of Brunswicke, and count Mansfield, of their valiant proceedings; chiefly of a great ouerthrow given to monsieur Tilly by the doke of Brunswicke, wherein Tilly lost foure thousend men, and himselfe was taken prisoner by Brunswickes own hand. To the tune of Haue at the spaniard.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 73/69

It is a very interesting, unknown and surely a rare sheet, which ironically describes the military failures of Mansfeld, Brunswick and Dutch king against Tilly. While fighting the mentioned commanders, Tilly suffered only one, completely meaningless, defeat by Mansfeld at Wiesloch near Mingolsheim on 27 April 1622. However, Brunswick had never defeated Tilly, but he himself was defeated near Höchst (20 June 1622) and near Stadtlohn (6 August 1623), so Tilly could hardly ever be “personally captured by Brunswick”. This lampoon is interesting, because it was published in England; in a country, which supported Frederick V, Elector Palatine, for whom the 3 mentioned commanders (which are mocked in the pamphlet) fought. The English king James was a father-in-law of Frederick and he supported the Protestants, especially financially.


91-Depiction of battle between Ernst von Mansfeld and Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on one side and Don Corduba on the other side, between Flory and Gemblours in Belgium on 29 August 1622.

Depiction of battle between Ernst von Mansfeld and Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on one side and Don Corduba on the other side, between Flory and Gemblours in Belgium on 29 August 1622.

mezi Fleurus a Gembloux, On 29.08.1622

The mentioned Dutch text is at the upper side of the sheet. Portraits of Ernst von Mansfeld and Christian Brunswick are below. They both have large hats and marshal batons. The portraits have dimensions 6 x 9.5 cm and they were engraved by S. de Passe. The lower half of the sheet contains a painting of the actual battle. In the right front, there are riders with banners with dead horse nearby. The main scene of the painting is the cavalry attack lead by Duke of Brunswick, who decided the battle in his and Mansfeld's favour by this decisive attack of his. At the horizon, town of Flory is on the left and town of Gemblours is on the right. Under the painting, there is an extensive Dutch text concerning the course of the battle.

Signature: Rytina tištěna v tiskárně Jana Amelissza v Utrechtu.
Autor: Zeidlerus Andreas, poručík, kreslíř map a plánů

Original name: Waerachtighe Af-Conterfeytinghe vanden grooten slach, gheschiet tusschen die van Manveld ende Brunns-wijcksche aen d´eene zijde ende Don Cordova aen d´ander zijde: Opden 29. August 1622 Tusschen Gembeloers ende Flory.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 76/2

Rhenish Palatinate, hereditary region of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, the symbol of resistance against the Catholic power of the emperor, was the main theatre of fights between 1620 and 1623. General Johann Tserclaes Tilly lead the imperial armies of the League. Protestant armies, which were mainly supported from England, because the English king James I was a father-in-law of Frederick, consisted mostly of the army of Ernst von Mansfeld and of units of Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who entered the war side by side with the “Winter king”, because of knight's honour to his wife, queen Elisabeth, whom he loved. Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was also being called “Halberstadt” after a cloister of the same name, whose foundation he administered. After various tactical movements and small, insignificant fights, prior to the joining of Mansfeld's and Brunswick's units, Christian Halberstadt suffered a crushing defeat near Höchst upon Main on 20 June 1622. This combat failure of Protestants changed the balance of power so significantly that Frederick V, Elector Palatine started to think about some settlement with the emperor and he had released Mansfeld and Christian Brunswick from his services because of this settlement. However, Christian Brunswick and Mansfeld had kept their forces, joined into one strong army and searched for more military adventures, which they soon found in connection with so-called general countries of the united Netherlands. They immediately withdrew to liberate Bergen op Zoom, which was under siege by Spaniards lead by Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases. General Cordoba with his army intended to prevent the liberation, and the battle this print shows occurred. Spanish general was able to inflict great losses on the Protestant army, but he was not able to prevent them from entering the Netherlands. Spinola was then forced to withdraw from Bergen op Zoom. However, the Dutch soon felt unbearable economic stress which was caused by armies from Germany; Mansfeld and Brunswick were forced to part ways and search for new adventures, which they were able to find very soon in these turbulent times.


95-Actual depiction of severe fight which occurred between Mansfeld and Spanish (armies) on Brabant borders. 1622. Battle between Spanish and Mansfeld

Actual depiction of severe fight which occurred between Mansfeld and Spanish (armies) on Brabant borders. 1622. Battle between Spanish and Mansfeld's (armies) near Fleurus in Brabant duchy.

Fleurus, On 29.08.1622

The engraving shows the battle of Fleury on 29 August 1622. In the front, we see Mansfeld's retreating army, in the middle, the fight is in full progress. On the left, there is a depiction of an attack of cavalry of Duke Christian of Brunswick, who, even though he was wounded on arm, had decided this battle in his favour, because it was a draw for a long time and Mansfeld's units were already partially retreating. In the end, Spaniards were defeated. The horizon of the landscape is a forest. In the front of us on the right, there are three fleeing musketeers of Mansfeld. Under the painting, there is an A–N legend.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung des harten Treffens so zwischen Mansfeldischen und Spanischen auff den Brabändischen Grentzen vorgangen, Anno 1622. Praelium inter Hispanos et Mansfeldicos ad Floreacum in Brabantia.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 77/146

Rhenish Palatinate, hereditary region of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, the symbol of resistance against the Catholic power of the emperor, was the main theatre of fights between 1620 and 1623. General Johann Tserclaes Tilly lead the imperial armies of the League. Protestant armies, which were mainly supported from England, because the English king James I was a father-in-law of Frederick, consisted mostly of the army of Ernst von Mansfeld and of units of Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, who entered the war side by side with the “Winter king”, because of knight's honour to his wife, queen Elisabeth, whom he loved. Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was also being called “Halberstadt” after a cloister of the same name, whose foundation he administered. After various tactical movements and small, insignificant fights, prior to the joining of Mansfeld's and Brunswick's units, Christian Halberstadt suffered a crushing defeat near Höchst upon Main on 20 June 1622. This combat failure of Protestants changed the balance of power so significantly that Frederick V, Elector Palatine started to think about some settlement with the emperor and he had released Mansfeld and Christian Brunswick from his services because of this settlement. However, Christian Brunswick and Mansfeld had kept their forces, joined into one strong army and searched for more military adventures, which they soon found in connection with so-called general countries of the united Netherlands. They immediately withdrew to liberate Bergen op Zoom, which was under siege by Spaniards lead by Ambrogio Spinola, 1st Marquis of the Balbases. General Cordoba with his army intended to prevent the liberation, and the battle this print shows occurred. Spanish general was able to inflict great losses on the Protestant army, but he was not able to prevent them from entering the Netherlands. Spinola was then forced to withdraw from Bergen op Zoom. However, the Dutch soon felt unbearable economic stress which was caused by armies from Germany; Mansfeld and Brunswick were forced to part ways and search for new adventures, which they were able to find very soon in these turbulent times.


97-The siege and conquest of the town and fortress of Mannheim in 1622.

The siege and conquest of the town and fortress of Mannheim in 1622.

Mannheim, On 11.09.1622 (do 23.10.1622)

This is a schematic plan of the town of Mannheim with the river Rhine into which the Neckar flows. The landscape is studded with trees, which are all equally carved. The fortress of Mannheim is drawn without the construction details, just fortified facilities are carefully drawn up. Around the area, there are scattered individual soldiers and lines of shooting musketeers.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung und Einnehmung der Statt und Vestung Mannheim. Anno 1622.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 79/209

After the defeat of the Protestant allies of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate in the Battle of Hochst (20 June, 1622), and Wimpfen (6 May 1622), Tilly continued in the conquest of the entire Lower Palatine, the inherited land of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate. He captured the capital city of Heidelberg on 6 September 1622. At the same time, the fortress of Mannheim was besieged and conquered; it finally surrendered to Tilly on 23 October 1622.


98-Sketch of the city and fortress of Mannheim, which was besieged and conquered by the imperial and the Bavarian (troops).

Sketch of the city and fortress of Mannheim, which was besieged and conquered by the imperial and the Bavarian (troops).

Mannheim, On 11.09.1622 (do 23.10.1622)

In the middle of the image, there is a schematic drawing of the fortress of Mannheim with the rivers Rhine and Neckar. In the surroundings of the city, there are deployed cannons and many trees with spherical treetops. Explanatory notes A-T under the image are missing (cut off).

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt und Vestuung Mannheim von Kayserisch, Bayrisch belägert und erobert.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 79a/480

After the defeat of the Protestant allies of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate in the Battle of Hochst (20 June, 1622), and Wimpfen (6 May 1622), Tilly continued in the conquest of the entire Lower Palatine, the inherited land of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate. He captured the capital city of Heidelberg on 6 September 1622. At the same time, the fortress of Mannheim was besieged and conquered; it finally surrendered to Tilly on 23 October 1622.


106-The illustration of the Royal Majesty of England confirming the wedding conditions of Spaniards. In 1623.

The illustration of the Royal Majesty of England confirming the wedding conditions of Spaniards. In 1623.

London, On 01.01.1623 (do 31.12.1623)

The image is divided into 4 parts: 1. The scene in the Catholic Church; the King is sitting in an armchair with several courtiers around him; the priest is reading from the book of marital conditions at the altar. 2. The King at the ceremony feast; the King is washing his hands in the foreground. 3. The parade which is led by the King. 4. Remote view on London (“Lunden”) with the River Thames.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abilltung wie königliche Majestät in Engelandt die Artickel desz spanischen Heyraths Iur. bekräftiget. Anno 1623.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 88/210

King James I of England, the first of the House of Stuart, was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, and was born on 10 June 1566, entered the matrimony with Anne of Denmark on 24 November 1589, was enthroned on the English throne in 1603 and died on 27 March 1625. His reign is considered unsuccessful, because he was in constant conflict with the Parliament over religious issues in the country as a result of his obstinate character. One of his unfortunate ideas was an arrangement of a marriage of his son Charles with the Princess of Spain which is the subject of this graphic. Judging by the press, the King's idea had already become real in 1623, when the marital conditions were officially negotiated in London. However, the wedding did not happen. England and Spain were permanent opponents in wars during the 17th century, furthermore, the Spanish Royal family was an anathema to the Catholic majority of the English Parliament. This situation no doubt prevented the King's intention of marriage from happening. James I was the father-in-law of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate, nicknamed the Winter King of Bohemia, whom James I also had heavily supported since the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. His successor was his son Charles I, who was born on 19 September 1600, married to Henrietta Maria of France, sister of Louis XIII, and executed on 30 January 1649 during the Oliver Cromwell’s revolution.


102-A sketch of the Brunswick Castle in Friedland, which was sieged by the count Tilly and the futile trying of the Duke Christian to repulse.

A sketch of the Brunswick Castle in Friedland, which was sieged by the count Tilly and the futile trying of the Duke Christian to repulse.

Friedland, On 16.07.1623

Engraving is drawn quite incompetently. In the foreground, there is the Friedland Castle in Göttingen and the town of Rüstenberg in the background. On the left side, there is a number of Brunswick troops’ camps and the encounter of the cavalry is in the middle. Various units of troops are scattered throughout the surroundings. In the background, there is a camp of the imperial troops under the Rüstenberg Castle.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz des Braunschweigischen Schloss Friedland von Graff Tilly eingenommen, und wie solches zu entsetzen Herzog Christian sich vergebens unterstanden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 83/92

As soon as the Palatine phase of war ended by the complete defeat of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate, and his Electoral rank was removed and transferred to Maximilian I. of Bavaria, it was crucial to solve the complex political situation in Lower Saxony. The situation in this country was absolutely unclear, because Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, had exposed himself militarily on the side of the Emperor's opponents, and then he stood with his army, which had been recruited, similarly as Mansfeld, against the Emperor, in the Lower Saxon. The King Christian IV of Denmark had a certain influence here. The Emperor negotiated with the Duke of Brunswick – Halberstadt, who, however, significantly prolonged the negotiations, because he intended to strengthen his army in the meantime. Tilly apparently revealed the cunning intentions of the Duke of Halberstadt and invaded into Göttingen and despite Brunswick’s resistance; he conquered the castle of Friedland. At the same time, Tilly said that he would leave Friedland only if Halberstadt dissolved his armies and submitted to the overall policy of the Lower-Saxon. However, Halberstadt could not be forced to this, because in the meantime, the Duke Julius Ernest of Saxe-Lauenburg, serving under Tilly, was defeated by Halberstadt in the attempt to conquest the castle of Plesse, and then he even freed the Friedland.


101-The real and original description and drawing of the tower house and castle of Friedland, which was sieged by two centuriae of dragoons, conquered by the highly noble and highborn man, General and Count Tilly on the 16 July of the current year 1623. He was being bombarded by six and a half kartouwes and 214 shots until the breakthrough and attack, then the garrisons gave up and left about 200 weapons and horses to the mercy of the enemy; They were forced to leave a lot of provisions and ammunition, and to promise that they would not serve against the Catholics for next five months.

The real and original description and drawing of the tower house and castle of Friedland, which was sieged by two centuriae of dragoons, conquered by the highly noble and highborn man, General and Count Tilly on the 16 July of the current year 1623. He was being bombarded by six and a half kartouwes and 214 shots until the breakthrough and attack, then the garrisons gave up and left about 200 weapons and horses to the mercy of the enemy; They were forced to leave a lot of provisions and ammunition, and to promise that they would not serve against the Catholics for next five months.

Friedland, On 16.07.1623

On the engraving, the story of the battle is quite primitively drawn. On the hill, there is the castle of Friedland and in its neighborhood, there are many military divisions, shooting cannons, camps, fortification system and several villages. A comprehensive inscription above can be found below the printed images, it is followed by a German text which is divided into three columns, as well as the explanatory notes A-Z and 1-10.

Signature: Franckfort bey Eberhard Kiesern.
Autor: Kleser Eberhard, nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Wahrhafftige und eigentliche Beschreibung auch Abrisz desz Castells und Schlosses Friedland, welches mit zwo Compagnien Dragonern besetzt gewesen und von dem hoch wohlgebornen Graffen und Herrn Herrn Generalen Tilly, den 16. Juli, dieses jetzt laufenden 1623 Jahres ausz 6 halben Carthaunen mit 214 Schüssen zur Bresche und Sturm geschossen, darauf die Besatzung sich ergeben aber ihre Oberwehr und Pferd derer in die 200 gewesen im Stich lassen müssen viel Proviant und Munition erobert neben Versprechung dass sie in 5 Monaten wider die Catholischen nit dienen wollten.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 84/300

As soon as the Palatine phase of war had ended by the complete defeat of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate, and his Electoral rank had been removed and transferred to Maximilian I. of Bavaria, it was crucial to solve the complex political situation in Lower Saxony. The situation in this country was absolutely unclear, because Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, had exposed himself militarily on the side of the Emperor's opponents, and then he stood with his army, which had been recruited, similarly as Mansfeld, against the Emperor, in the Lower Saxon. The King Christian IV of Denmark. The Emperor negotiated with the Duke of Brunswick – Halberstadt, who however significantly prolonged the negotiations, because he intended to strengthen his army in the meantime. Tilly, however, apparently revealed the cunning intentions of the Duke of Halberstadt, invaded into Göttingen and despite Brunswick’s resistance, he conquered the castle of Friedland. At the same time Tilly said that he would leave Friedland only if Halberstadt would dissolve his armies and submit to the overall policy of the Lower-Saxon. However, Halberstadt could not be forced to this, because in the meantime, the Duke Julius Ernest of Saxe-Lauenburg, serving under Tilly, had been defeated by Halberstadt in the attempt to conquest the castle of Plesse, and then he even freed the Friedland.


103-The original depiction of the encounter of the Duke Christian the younger of Brunswick with the General Tilly in the Bishop’s residence of Munster, which took two days and the Brunswicks were finally forced to flee by eight broken ravines in the battle of Stadtlohn on 6 August 1623.

The original depiction of the encounter of the Duke Christian the younger of Brunswick with the General Tilly in the Bishop’s residence of Munster, which took two days and the Brunswicks were finally forced to flee by eight broken ravines in the battle of Stadtlohn on 6 August 1623.

Stadtlohn, On 05.08.1623 (do 06.08.1623)

The image is divided into two parts: the upper one shows the retreat and the persecution of the Brunswicks by eight broken ravines by the armies of General Tilly. At the bottom left, there is the situational map of the battlefield, final battle of both armies of Stadtlohn and the defeated Brunswick troops fleeing to the Netherlands. The inscription is above the printed images, there are the explanatory notes A-Z at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Aigentliche Delineation des Treffens zwischen Herzog Christian von Braunschweig und General Tilly im Stift Münster, welcher zwen Tag gewehret und durch VIII Päss geschlagen, entlich bei Stadtlon die Braunschw. de VI. August 1623 ganz in die Flucht gebracht worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 85/171

When the combat finished in Bohemia and later in the Rhinish Palatine as well, the political situation in the Lower-Saxon country remained unclear because of the hesitation between alliances, neutrality or open resistance to the emperor. Long and complex negotiations were led, in which even Christian IV of Denmark participated. The Duke Christian of Brunswick, also called Halberstadt, defeated by Tilly, also participated in the negotiations and meanwhile transferred his troops’ camp from Friesland to the Vézère. Mansfeld, also previously defeated by Tilly, remained in Friesland. After long and fruitless negotiations of all participants, Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, declared that he could no longer be responsible for the ravages of the Lower-Saxon countries by the Emperor’s troops and entered into an open war with the Tilly’s troops, but he retreated, being chased by Tilly from the area east of Steinfurt to Stadtlohn (approx. 60 km), here he was apprehended and forced to fight during which he was devastatingly defeated. The remnants of his scattered army fled to the Netherlands (Stadtlohn is situated near the Dutch border). About 3,000 men with the General Knyphausen and younger Count Thurn fled. The Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Frederick of Saxe-Altenburg and the Count von Schlick were captured. Mansfeld passively observed the disaster of his allies. The battle events, described here, occurred about 70 kilometers north of the Ruhr area.


104-The real and original illustration of how Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, with his army was defeated in the territory of the Bishop’s residence of Munster on 6 August 1623.

The real and original illustration of how Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, with his army was defeated in the territory of the Bishop’s residence of Munster on 6 August 1623.

Münsterské biskupství, On 06.08.1623

The artwork is quite primitive. Throughout the area, there are scattered the square infantry and cavalry regiments, which were partly fighting. On the upper left, there is portrayed the scene in front of the command tent in the presence of the cavalry and infantry regiment with many flags and banners. Next to this one, there is a portrait of Christian Halberstadt with a probably ridiculed face on a circular field. In the middle of the image, there is the inscription 'Statlo', i.e. the name of the town Stadtlohn; the town itself, however, is not pictured. It is also remarkable that there is depicted the General Tilly with disproportionately tall and massive body on the right side, while Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, leading his fleeing units, is pictured vanishingly small on the left side. The author without any doubt wanted to express the disparity of their skills as military leaders by the disproportioned size of both generals.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre und eigentliche Abbildung wes massen Hertzog Christian v. Braunschweig armada den 6. August 1623 im Stifft Münster aufs Haupt erlegt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 86/201

When the combat finished in Bohemia and later in the Rhinish Palatine as well, the political situation in the Lower-Saxon country remained unclear because of the hesitation between alliances, neutrality or open resistance to the emperor. Long and complex negotiations were led, in which even Christian IV. of Denmark participated. The Duke Christian of Brunswick, also called Halberstadt, defeated by Tilly, also participated in the negotiations and meanwhile transferred his troops’ camp from Friesland to the Vézère. Mansfeld, also previously defeated by Tilly, remained in Friesland. After long and fruitless negotiations of all participants, Christian, the Duke of Brunswick, declared that he could no longer be responsible for the ravages of the Lower-Saxon countries by the Emperor’s troops and entered into an open war with the Tilly’s troops, but he retreated, being chased by Tilly from the area east of Steinfurt to Stadtlohn (approx. 60 km), here he was apprehended and forced to fight during which he was devastatingly defeated. The remnants of his scattered army fled to the Netherlands (Stadtlohn is situated near the Dutch border). About 3,000 men with the General Knyphausen and younger Count Thurn fled. The Duke of Saxe-Weimar, Frederick of Saxe-Altenburg and the Count von Schlick were captured. Mansfeld passively observed the disaster of his allies. The battle events, described here, occurred about 70 kilometers north of the Ruhr area.


105-A drawing of the siege of the town of Lippe, which was given to the Royal Majesty of Spain by agreement on 2 November. In 1623.

A drawing of the siege of the town of Lippe, which was given to the Royal Majesty of Spain by agreement on 2 November. In 1623.

Lippe, On 02.11.1623

The town is illustrated in perspective from above. The troops of Brunswick retreat by crossing the bridge over the river Lippe. Around the town, there are fortification systems and defensive bastions from which it is possible to shoot. Four military troops in square positions are located nearby the town. In the background, there are several ponds. The individual troops are marked by inscriptions.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Belägerung der Statt Lippe und wie solche den 2. Novembris mit Accord Kön: May: in Spanien ist Übergeben worden. Anno 1623.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 87/181

After the defeat of Christian, the Duke of Brunswick – Halberstadt, by General Tilly in the Battle of Stadtlohn on 6 August 1623, and even some other places in the County of Lippe, which used to be occupied by Brunswick since June 1623, when he had broken up with Lower-Saxon countries, were conquered. Among these places, there was also the town of Lippe, which was conquered on the basis of agreement by the Spaniards who were led by the Marquess Spinola on 2 November 1623. Brunswick garrisons withdrew. Lippe is approximately 60 to 70 km southwest from Hannover.


107-The invasion of the Count Henry I of Berg into Velawe in 1624. The Dutch campaign against the enemy in 1624.

The invasion of the Count Henry I of Berg into Velawe in 1624. The Dutch campaign against the enemy in 1624.

Velaw, On 01.01.1624 (do 31.12.1624)

The image is divided into four parts: There are three separate scenes, i.e. the attack of cavalry, the expulsion of robbed inhabitants from their homes and plundering of farmhouses. At the bottom, there is illustrated the march of the Dutch defenders against the enemy, guns in fire positions, marching infantry and construction of fortifications; several wagons with the fleeing civil populations meet the approaching Dutch army halfway. It is remarkable that the sleighs (snow is rare in the Netherlands) are dispersed among all the wagons; It's probably some sort of sliding wagons, which were effective on the Dutch sand. The artwork has a typical style of Dutch painters á la Brueghel, etc.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eynfall des Grafen Heinrich von dem Berg in die Velawe im Jahr 1624. Der Holländer Anzug wider ihre Feindt 1624.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 89/195

The Netherlands happened to be in war with Spain in 1621, which lasted long time, after the expiry of the truce. Even the imperial troops participated in this campaign alongside the Spaniards, because the Netherlands was an ally and supporter of Frederick V, Elector Palatinate. The Commander of these troops was Count Henry I of Berg, who fought in the service of Infanta Isabella, daughter of Philip II of Spain and the wife (now widow) of Albert VII, Archduke of Austria, who was the ruler of the separate Habsburg Netherlands (now Belgium) until 1622.


108-"Breda was besieged and conquered by the arms of Philip IV of Spain etc. by the heroism of Ambrogio Spinola, etc. in 1624 and 1625, during the dukedom of Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain.

"Breda was besieged and conquered by the arms of Philip IV of Spain etc. by the heroism of Ambrogio Spinola, etc. in 1624 and 1625, during the dukedom of Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain.

Breda, On 24.08.1624 (do 05.06.1625)

The image depicts a rather schematic map of the area around the fortress of Breda, which is displayed in the centre of the sheet. There are extensive fortifications around it and the sea on the left side. The surrounding landscape is heavily covered by individual trees. In the foreground, there are two musketeers and the cavalry is nearby. The Latin inscription above is on the decorative cartouche on the left side.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Breda obsessa et expugnata armiis Philippi IV., regis Hispaniae etc Ducatu Isabellae Clarae Eugeniae Hisp. infantis Virtute Ambrosio Spinolae etc. Annis 1624 et 25.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 90/152

Spain was constantly in the state of war with the Netherlands, which was interrupted by a truce from 1609 until 1621. Then Spain was involved in the Bohemian-Palatine phase of war and fought again against the Netherlands as an ally of the Emperor. The Commander of the Spaniards was the Marquis Spinola, who turned against the States General (i.e. of the Netherlands) after defeating Frederick V, Elector Palatinate, and his allies. In this campaign, he fought against Maurice, Prince of Orange, whose father was William I, Prince of Orange, who launched an armed resistance against Spain and also sieged the town of Breda. It is located approximately 50 km south from Rotterdam in Flanders, or rather, in the territory of dukedom of Infanta Isabella Clara, the widow of Albert VII, Archduke of Austria. For the same reason, it is given in the above cited Latin text. Breda resisted the Spanish siege since 24 August 1624 to 5 June 1625, when it was finally conquered.


109-An illustration of the imperial walls near the Dessau bridge

An illustration of the imperial walls near the Dessau bridge

soutok Labe s Muldy, On 15.04.1626

In the middle of the image, the confluence of Mulda and Elbe is illustrated. On the left bank of the Elbe, there is the imperial wall, a bridge behind it and a dam over the peninsula to Mulda, which is crossed by a bridge again. The whole landscape is heavily covered with individual trees. The town of Dessau is pictured on the right side of the print. Troops or camps of the troops are not here. Dessau lies approximately 100 kilometers southwest from Berlin.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der kayserischen Schantz an der Tessawer Brücken.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 91/158

In the second half of the year 1625, Wallenstein led his newly recruited and very large army via Cheb to West Germany, where he, however, did not unite with his wartime partner Tilly (probably for reasons of supply), but after unsuccessful negotiations for a truce with the Duke of Brunswick and Christian IV of Denmark, he went to the middle of Germany. To secure his position at the Dessau bridge, Wallenstein had a bridge across the Elbe and a defensive wall built. When his enemies saw that the construction became dangerous for them, they sent Mansfeld with a reasonably strong army to conquer the fortress of Dessau, and thus made it impossible for Wallenstein to cross the river Elbe. The imperial garrison in the fortress was commanded by Aldringen who successfully repulsed Mansfeld’s attacks, then the defenders’ resistance weakened and Aldringen was forced to call Wallenstein on assistance and he immediately intervened. First, he sent Henry von Schlick with several regiments of cavalry, he came with an infantry himself later on, but still in time to help endangered Aldringen; by his large artillery, he reversed the situation of the battle and prepared an overwhelming defeat to Mansfeld and his troops which never recovered. It was also the last major combat encounter for Mansfeld who then soon disappeared from the scene of the Thirty Years’ War, because he withdrew to Bosnia and suddenly died there in the village of Rakovica. The battle of the Dessau bridge on 15 April 1626.


110-Dessau

Dessau

Dessa, On 15.04.1626

It is a print without a more detailed textual explanation which depicts the defeated Mansfeld by Wallenstein at the Dessau bridge on 15 April 1626. The engraving is done in detail with many realistic particularities. There is a bridge across the river Elbe, fortress, Mansfeld’s chances and explosion of his ammunition supplies. On the right side we can see the town of Zerbst.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Dessa

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 92/338

In the second half of the year 1625, Wallenstein led his newly recruited and very large army via Cheb to West Germany, where he, however, did not unite with his wartime partner Tilly (probably for reasons of supply), but after unsuccessful negotiations for a truce with the Duke of Brunswick and Christian IV of Denmark, he went to the middle of Germany. To secure his position at the Dessau bridge, Wallenstein had a bridge across the Elbe and a defensive wall built. When his enemies saw that the construction became dangerous for them, they sent Mansfeld with a reasonably strong army to conquer the fortress of Dessau, and thus made it impossible for Wallenstein to cross the river Elbe. The imperial garrison in the fortress was commanded by Aldringen, who successfully repulsed Mansfeld’s attacks, then the defenders’ resistance weakened and Aldringen was forced to call Wallenstein on assistance and he immediately intervened. First, he sent Henry von Schlick with several regiments of cavalry, he came with an infantry himself later on, but still in time to help endangered Aldringen; by his large artillery, he reversed the situation of the battle and prepared an overwhelming defeat to Mansfeld and his troops which never recovered. It was also the last major combat encounter for Mansfeld who then soon disappeared from the scene of the Thirty Years’ War, because he withdrew to Bosnia and suddenly died there in the village of Rakovica. The battle of the Dessau bridge on 15 April 1626.


111-The actual illustration of the Mansfeld’s defeat at the Dessau bridge, which happened on 25 April, the day of St. Mark, in 1626.

The actual illustration of the Mansfeld’s defeat at the Dessau bridge, which happened on 25 April, the day of St. Mark, in 1626.

Dessa, On 15.04.1626

Heavily forested landscape with the Elbe, into which the river Mulde flows. The battle and fleeing of Mansfeld’s army are displayed on the shore behind the bridge that crosses both rivers. On the left side, there is a compass. Above the image, there is a text, at the bottom, there are the explanatory notes A-Z.

Signature: M. Merian
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung der Mansfeldischen Niederlag bey der Tessawer brücken geschehen den 25. Aprilis an S. Marx tag Anno 1626.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 93/330

In the second half of the year 1625, Wallenstein led his newly recruited and very large army via Cheb to West Germany, where he, however, did not unite with his wartime partner Tilly (probably for reasons of supply), but after unsuccessful negotiations for a truce with the Duke of Brunswick and Christian IV of Denmark, he went to the middle of Germany. To secure his position at the Dessau bridge, Wallenstein had a bridge across the Elbe and a defensive wall built. When his enemies saw that the construction became dangerous for them, they sent Mansfeld with a reasonably strong army to conquer the fortress of Dessau, and thus made it impossible for Wallenstein to cross the river Elbe. The imperial garrison in the fortress was commanded by Aldringen who successfully repulsed Mansfeld’s attacks, then the defenders’ resistance weakened and Aldringen was forced to call Wallenstein to assist and he immediately intervened. First, he sent Henry von Schlick with several regiments of cavalry, he came with an infantry himself later on, but still in time to help the endangered Aldringen; by his large artillery, he reversed the situation of the battle and prepared an overwhelming defeat of Mansfeld and his troops which never recovered. It was also the last major combat encounter for Mansfeld who then soon disappeared from the scene of the Thirty Years’ War because he withdrew to Bosnia and suddenly died there in the village of Rakovica. The battle of the Dessau bridge on 15 April 1626.


112-The actual illustration of Münden, which was conquered and seized in 1626 by the Imperial General, Count Tilly.

The actual illustration of Münden, which was conquered and seized in 1626 by the Imperial General, Count Tilly.

Münden, On 30.05.1626

On the engraving, there is the Tilly’s army shooting across the river Vézère, which is crossed by the bridge to the town of Münden. On the other bank of Vézère, there is an additional units’ attack. The background of the image is a forested, hilly panorama, in the right foreground, there is the gallows and a big wheel.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Abildung der Stadt Münden, wie dieselbe vom kays. Herrn Gen. Gr. Tilly erob. und eingenommen 1626.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 94/106

The victory over Mansfeld in the Battle of the Dessau bridge on 25 April 1626, escape and collapse of his army allowed Wallenstein to enter to Silesia and further East to confront raids of Gabriel Bethlen, the Prince of Transylvania, and his allies, who was later on forced to conclude peace with the Emperor. This, however, made everything easier for Tilly as well, whose current adversary was Christian IV of Denmark. Tilly’s campaign against the Danes led to the North, and on 30 May 1626, he conquered the town of Mülden and on 27 August of the same year, he defeated King Christian IV in the great battle of Lutter.


113-A true depiction of the town of Elbing, which was fortified by His Royal Majesty of Sweden, etc. in 1626.

A true depiction of the town of Elbing, which was fortified by His Royal Majesty of Sweden, etc. in 1626.

Elbing, On 01.06.1626 (do 30.06.1926)

In wide plateau, with the sea in the background, there is the besieged town of Elbing, from which a high church tower protrudes, and it is surrounded by powerful moats. On the right side, the same river runs through the town. Towards the upper edge of the image, there is the emblem of the town. Elbing is located in East Prussia on the sea coast, approximately half the distance between Kaliningrad and Gdynia. Below the image, there are explanatory notes A-S.

Signature: M. Merian fecit.
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Wahre Contrafactur der Statt Elbing, wie dieselbe von Königl. May. zu Schweden etc. befestigt worden. Anno 1626.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 95/161

Before Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden entered into war against the Emperor and Catholics (1630), he fought for a long time against the Polish King Sigismund with whom he then concluded a short-term truce lasting until 1625. However, the war started again and ended in Swedish victory over the Poles, who were commanded by the Prince Lew Sapieha, on 3 January 1626. Then Gustavus Adolphus turned to East Prussia which was a Polish fief, which was given to his brother-in-law George William, Elector of Brandenburg. The Swedes were threatened with annexing this area to Poland. East Prussian towns, however, opened their gates to the Swedes without resistance. These were: Braunsberg, Marienburg and Elbing, whose fortifications were strengthen by Gustavus Adolphus.


116-The illustration of the Swedish chances on the River Vistula in Prussia in 1626.

The illustration of the Swedish chances on the River Vistula in Prussia in 1626.

Visla, On 01.07.1626 (do 31.12.1626)

The engraving shows the flow of the River Vistula which divides into two. The bridge crosses the river and there are several sailing ships on the surface. On the furthest tip of the peninsula, which is created by both shoulders of the Vistula, is a Swedish fortress with a cleared forest behind it. In the bottom right corner of the image, there are two private soldiers, one with a pike, the other with a musket, holding a map of the area of Lower Vistula River and the Baltic Sea with a visible compass. There is a square with the explanatory notes 1-10 at the bottom left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Schwedischen Schantz auff dem Weysselstrom in Preussen gelegen 1626.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 98/337

During the 1730s, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden permanently fought with Sigismund III of Poland whom he defeated several times. Then he campaigned against his brother-in-law George William, Elector of Brandenburg, to prevent him from helping the Poles, because Prussia was back then the feudal Duchy of Poland. Several attempts of Poles to free the oppressed town remained unsuccessful. The siege lasted the entire year 1627 and Gustavus Adolphus was wounded twice. Later, he concluded a truce with Poland which was promoted by Imperialists through Wallenstein’s troops. The truce was arranged by France and thus Gustavus Adolphus was free to fight against Anti-Catholics in Germany.


114-The actual illustration of the great victory, which achieved Count Tilly, the Imperial General, over the King of Denmark on 22 August 1626, according to the new calendar.

The actual illustration of the great victory, which achieved Count Tilly, the Imperial General, over the King of Denmark on 22 August 1626, according to the new calendar.

Lutter, On 22.08.1626

The engraving shows the situation of the battle between Tilly and the Christian IV of Denmark near Lutter. There are marked the towns of Wolfenbüttel, Lutter, Northeim, Göttingen and Duderstadt. From Lutter to Duderstadt, there flows a stream, which separates the positions of both armies. In the right corner, there is a rectangle with the explanatory notes A-F.

Signature: M. Merian
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Eigentliche Abbilldung der trefflichen Victori, welche Graf Tilly, Kays: General wider den König in Denemarck 22. August 1626 St. Novo erhalten.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 96/172

One of the most important war events of the so called Danish phase of the Thirty Years’ War was the defeat of Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter by the troops of General Tilly on 22 August 1626. The ability of Mansfeld’s army to fight was destroyed by Wallenstein’ victory in the battle of Dassau and Christian IV of Denmark remained on his own against Tilly. He tried to march to better positioning and conquered the Wolfenbüttel on his way, however, he moved his troops so clumsily that his opponent Tilly succeeded in forcing him to battle in an unfavourable strategic situation for the Danes. However, the Danes managed to initially fight the battle equally, almost up to the victory over Tilly. Perfectly led attacks of the Imperial-Wallenstein’s Colonel des Fours reversed the situation in favour of Tilly who eventually reached a significant victory near Lutter. Christian IV of Denmark escaped from the battle with the rest of the defeated army. He lost 3,000 men, 102 officers, 22 cannons, the war treasure, 70 flags and standards and other material. Thanks to this defeat, Christian IV of Denmark lost his significant power position among Protestants which was later taken over by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.


115-A sketch of the bloody battle in which His Excellency the Count Tilly, Imperial General, fought with the King of Denmark on 22 August 1626.

A sketch of the bloody battle in which His Excellency the Count Tilly, Imperial General, fought with the King of Denmark on 22 August 1626.

Göttingen, On 22.08.1626

There are the towns of Göttingen, Northeim, Sese and Wolfenbüttel in the picture. The main location of the image is the battle between the two armies across the stream. There is the Fort Lutter nearby and the town of Duderstadt at the bottom right. In the upper right corner, there are explanatory notes A-G in the square. The quoted text is written in an antique font above the image of the copperplate.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der blutigen Schlacht so Ihr. Excel. herr Graff Tilly, kays. General dem König in Dennemark geliefert Anno 1626 den 22. Augusti.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 97/341

One of the most important war events of the so called Danish phase of the Thirty Years’ War was the defeat of Christian IV of Denmark at Lutter by the troops of General Tilly on 22 August 1626. The ability of Mansfeld’s army to fight was destroyed by Wallenstein’ victory in the battle of Dassau and Christian IV of Denmark remained on his own against Tilly. He tried to march to better positioning and conquered the Wolfenbüttel on his way, however, he moved his troops so clumsily that his opponent Tilly succeeded in forcing him to battle in an unfavourable strategic situation for the Danes. However, the Danes managed to initially fight the battle equally, almost up to the victory over Tilly. Perfectly led attacks of the Imperial-Wallenstein’s Colonel des Fours reversed the situation in favour of Tilly who eventually reached a significant victory near Lutter. Christian IV of Denmark escaped from the battle with the rest of the defeated army. He lost 3,000 men, 102 officers, 22 cannons, the war treasure, 70 flags and standards and other material. Thanks to this defeat, Christian IV of Denmark lost his significant power position among Protestants which was later taken over by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.


117-A port of good luck, peasant wars which took place a hundred years ago, with actual pictures and drawings of leading officers and commanders, as well as arms and weapons used by the rebelling peasants in the small country above (the river) Inn taking place in the year 1626 during their presumed war campaign.

A port of good luck, peasant wars which took place a hundred years ago, with actual pictures and drawings of leading officers and commanders, as well as arms and weapons used by the rebelling peasants in the small country above (the river) Inn taking place in the year 1626 during their presumed war campaign.

řeka Enns, On 01.12.1626 (do 31.12.1626)

Under the above text, many peasant weapons are depicted which were used during the peasant riots in the year 1626 in Upper Austria. It is noteworthy that the depicted weapons also include several Czech Hussite weapons, e.g. „ein böhmischer eiserner Morgenstern“, „ein žiškaischer Streitkolben“ or „ein böhmischer Kornhammer.“ There are even instructions for use for some of the weapons, e.g. the weapons marked A are held by several warriors on long poles; then they run into the groups of enemy horsemen and pull the riders from the horses using large hooks. Under the weapons there are pictures of five peasant chiefs, and one other chief on a horse. The peasant commanders are identified by their names. A two-verse explanation of the picture follows, with anti-peasant tendencies.

Signature: Vytištěno roku 1627
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Glucks-hafen, vor hundert Jahren vorgangenen Bauernkriegs. Sampt eigentlicher Contrafactur und Abrisz der vornehmsten Offizieren und Befehlshabere sowol der gewehr und Waffen derer sich itzo die rebellischen Bauren im Ländlein ob der Ensz in diesem Hier lauffendem 1626 Jahr, bei ihrer vermeynten Kriegsexpedition gebrauchen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 99/72

Even when Ferdinand II. came to the throne, peasant riots took place in his hereditary lands, which were caused by the Emperor's effort to suppress all non-Catholics in the empire. This is because the Protestant faith was much more widespread in the Austrian hereditary lands. But social conditions were also a cause of the riots. The peasants had been suppressed by the nobility, and they tried to free themselves from this situation by using violence. Due to inadequate communication in the difficult mountainous Austrian region, military suppressive actions were significantly hindered and dragged on for several years.


124-Looting of sugar in the harbour of de Tode los Santos, 1627.

Looting of sugar in the harbour of de Tode los Santos, 1627.

de Todos los Santos, On 01.01.1627 (do 31.12.1627)

The etching depicts the harbour of Todos los Santos on the Atlantic coast of Brazil, near San Salvador (Bahia), approximately 1,400 km north of Rio de Janeiro. In the harbour there are several battleships with sails, of which two are in flames. The coast is fortified and occupied by battling troops. On the sea there are several smaller boats without sails, occupied by shooters who are firing at defensive positions on the coast. Above the picture there is an unfolded vignette with a clear map of the situation. At the bottom on the left there is a round, decorative cartouche with the above-quoted text. The engraver, in an effort to capture the tropical South American landscape, brightened up its character with many palm trees.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: t´Neemen van de Suyker Prysen in de Bay de Tode les Santos. Anno 1627.“

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 107/199

In 1580, a personal union was established between Spain and Portugal which lasted until 1640. The demarcation line which had until then divided the two countries now disappeared, and Brazil became the property of both countries. At the time, the Netherlands was at war with Spain and Portugal almost constantly, and as a naval power its also attacked its enemies' overseas territories. The commander of the Dutch naval forces in the South Atlantic at the time was admiral Pieter Heyn. The depicted tale shows a battle between the Dutch and the Spanish, involving the seizure of sugar in the harbour of Todos los Santos. Sugar cane was already grown in South America at that time, and sugar was understandably a sought-after export product. This picture aptly illustrates how conflicts from the old world were also transferred to newly-colonized countries.


125-Grolla (was) besieged and conquered by His Highness Prince Frederick of Orange,    Count of Nassau, (during his) high command of the General United States of Belgium.

Grolla (was) besieged and conquered by His Highness Prince Frederick of Orange, Count of Nassau, (during his) high command of the General United States of Belgium.

Groenlo, On 01.01.1627 (do 31.12.1627)

This is a map of the town of Grolla in the Netherlands, which is surrounded by various fortification buildings and military camps. The above-quoted Latin text is shown in the top right-hand corner. Below the picture, there is a measuring scale.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grolla obsessa et expugnata ab illustrissimo Frederico Henrico principe Arausionensium comite Nassaviae. Auspiciis D.D. Ordinum Belgii confereari.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 108/398

Frederick Henry Nassau was the most important personality in the Netherlands at the time of the Thirty Years' War. He was the brother of Maurice of Orange, who died, childless, in 1625. Therefore, political power and command of the army was transferred to Frederick Henry, who was not only a prudent and skilful politician but also an excellent commander; he was also educated and had a gentle, tolerant nature. Immediately after his appointment as high commander, he established and armed a force of 120,000 men, and the results soon showed. In a short time, he conquered almost all the Spanish towns and fortresses. The depicted Grolla fortress was conquered by the Dutch in 1627.


562-An illustration of the clash near Bleckede, which took place between Imperial and Danish troops on the 13th of June 1627.

An illustration of the clash near Bleckede, which took place between Imperial and Danish troops on the 13th of June 1627.

Blackede, On 13.06.1627

The engraving depicts the countryside at the lower reaches of the Elbe and the Weser and Ems river basin. There are several towns depicted here, e.g. Hamburg, Bremen, Nordheim, Braunschweig etc. Troops are scattered throughout the entire area. On the right by the bridge is the town of Bleckede, where the main clash which is the subject of the picture took place. In the foreground are tents, several trumpeters and a woman with a pack basket.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung des Treffens bey Bleckede, zwischen den Kayserlichen und Dennemarckischen geschehen den 13. Juny 1627.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 100/49D

After a major defeat near Lutter on the 22nd of August 1626, Kristian IV. placed his troops in the area of the lower Elbe, Weser and Ems river basin, while the Imperial and League armies were located further south-east. As soon as Kristian of Denmark received reinforcements from the English king, he retreated with a part of his army from Bremen to the Elbe, and settled not far from Boitzenburg. At the end of May 1627 he sailed with his army to Bleckede, in order to occupy the fort there. But the general of the Imperial League troops, Duke George of Brunswick, came to know about his intentions and arrived with three cavalry regiments. A bloody clash followed, during which the Danes – though more numerous – were soundly beaten. King Kristian IV. hastily fled from the battlefield, and while boarding a ship fell into the Elbe and almost drowned.


118-A depiction of Havelberg town and church, which were abandoned by the Danes and occupied by Imperial forces. 1627.

A depiction of Havelberg town and church, which were abandoned by the Danes and occupied by Imperial forces. 1627.

Havelsberg, On 01.08.1627 (do 31.08.1627)

The picture depicts the area through which the Havel and Elbe rivers flow. On an island on the Havel river there is the town of Havelberg, and nearby there is Thumbhof, which means “a fortified hill with a church” (Thumb.Dom.). Downstream on the Havel river there are two forts facing each other, and between them an artillery barrage is shown. The Danes are just retreating from the fortress on the right. On the left, on the right bank of the Elbe, is the Imperial camp. In the left bottom corner of the print, a part of the town of Tangermünd is illustrated. At the top on the left-hand side is the legend A-E.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Stadt und Thumbs Havelberg so von den Dennmarkischen verlassen und von den Kays. eingenommen worden. 1627.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 101/177

After a defeat near Stadtlohn, and the loss of most of their most experienced generals such as Obentraut, Fuchs, Duke Jana Arnošt of Saxony-Weimer, young Kristian of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel and Rantzau senior, the Danish King Kristian IV. controlled the Brandenburg territory north of Berlin. He appointed the elderly Count Thurn and George Frederick of Baden-Durlach as the new commanders. The latter occupied the right bank of the river Havel, from Rathenow towards Wittenberg. Towards the end of July, general Tilly advanced across the Elbe and left Hamburg as a supply centre at the rear of his army. As soon as Duke George of Bunswick, a commander serving the Emperor and the league, who controlled the left bank of the Havel including the town of Rathenow and part of the town of Havelberg which lies on the left bank of the river, found out about this movement, he decided to cross the Havel river and attack the Danish positions. He got ready to attack the following day, but in the meantime the Danes retreated to the east, as is depicted on our copperplate, so no major hostilities took place. The described event took place in the second half of August 1627.


119-A drawing of the town of Rochelle in France.

A drawing of the town of Rochelle in France.

La Rochelle, On 10.08.1627 (do 28.10.1627)

On the height format, the town and fort of La Rochelle is depicted (the capital of the French department of Charente-Inferieure). At the top of the print, there is a harbour and three anchoring ships. Lower down, there is a town surrounded by ramparts and towers. The above inscription is in the image part of the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Rochelle in Frankreich.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 102/86

In the 16th and 17th centuries, there were fierce and bloody battles in France with the Huguenots, i.e. the French Calvinist sect. The French state fought the Huguenots with all their resources (e.g. St. Bartholomew's Day). One of the last battles against the Huguenots was the siege and conquest of the La Rochelle fort and harbour by the royal army under the command of cardinal Richelieu, which lasted from the 10th of August to the 28th of October 1627.


566-A drawing of the town of Rochelle in France.

A drawing of the town of Rochelle in France.

La Rochelle, On 10.08.1627 (do 28.10.1627)

On the height format, the town and fort of La Rochelle is depicted (the capital of the French department of Charente-Inferieure). At the top of the print, there is a harbour and three anchoring ships. Lower down, there is a town surrounded by ramparts and towers. The above inscription is in the image part of the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Rochelle in Frankreich.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 102/86

In the 16th and 17th centuries, there were fierce and bloody battles in France with the Huguenots, i.e. the French Calvinist sect. The French state fought the Huguenots with all their resources (e.g. St. Bartholomew's Day). One of the last battles against the Huguenots was the siege and conquest of the La Rochelle fort and harbour by the royal army under the command of cardinal Richelieu, which lasted from the 10th of August to the 28th of October 1627.


120-A true representation of the fortified town of Rochelle, with its fortifications, royal camps and field fortifications. 1627.

A true representation of the fortified town of Rochelle, with its fortifications, royal camps and field fortifications. 1627.

La Rochelle, On 10.08.1627 (do 28.10.1627)

The town of La Rochelle is depicted from a so-called bird's eye view, with a harbour in which many ships are anchored. Around the town there are various military scenes, camps and field fortifications. In the bottom on the right there is a small map of the town environs. The quoted text is in a decorative cartouche in the top part of the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrhafftige Abbildung der vesten Stadt Rochelle mit ihren fortificationen und dem königl. Läger und Schantzen. Anno 1627.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 103/191a

In the 16th and 17th centuries, there were fierce and bloody battles in France with the Huguenots, i.e. the French Calvinist sect. The French state fought the Huguenots with all their resources (e.g. St. Bartholomew's Day). One of the last battles against the Huguenots was the siege and conquest of the La Rochelle fort and harbour by the royal army under the command of cardinal Richelieu, which lasted from the 10th of August to the 28th of October 1627.


121-The Gustavian field fortification

The Gustavian field fortification

Gustow, On 01.12.1627 (do 31.12.1627)

On the peninsula there is a fortress whose floor plan consists of a star with a building in the middle. On the sea around the peninsula, five ships are sailing. On the dry land there is the small town of Gustow, protected by a field fortification. Troops are attacking the stronghold.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Gustowische Schantz.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 104/476

During Waldstein's operations in northern Germany in the year 1627, the Imperial general Arnim occupied Pomerania and the entire island of Rügen. At the same time, the entire Gustavian fort, which lies on the island of Rügen opposite the town of Stralsund on the Dönholm sea strait, was besieged and conquered. The invasion of Pomerania and the island of Rügen took place in November 1627.


122-The actual drawing of the Brunswick fort and the princely residence town of Wolfenbüttel, which Mr. Gottfreid Heinrich, Reich Marshal, Lord of Pappenheim etc. clamped, sunk and, on the 24th of December 1627, conquered.

The actual drawing of the Brunswick fort and the princely residence town of Wolfenbüttel, which Mr. Gottfreid Heinrich, Reich Marshal, Lord of Pappenheim etc. clamped, sunk and, on the 24th of December 1627, conquered.

Wolfennbüttel, On 24.12.1627

In the middle of the picture, there is the town of Wolfenbüttel, lying on the water. On both sides there are battling troops. Around the town there are several swamps and attackers' field fortifications, and at the bottom on the left there are two windmills. At the bottom on the right there is a square with the legend 1-22, and nearby there is a profile of a water dam.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlicher Abrisz der Braunschweig. Vestung und fürstlichen Residenz Statt Wolfenbüttel, wie solche von Herrn Gottfried Heinrich Reichsmarschallen Herrn zu Pappenheim etc. ploquiert, ins Wasser gesetzt und den 24. Decembris 1627 eingenommen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 105/102

After the defeat of Kristian of Denmark near Lutter and Barenberg on the 27th of August 1626, the Imperial League side gained a significant advantage over the Protestant camp. For the entire year of 1627 it was occupied by Imperial territories, which had until now been under Danish control. The Danes occupied only a few fortified cities, among them Wolfenbüttel, which was besieged by the Imperial general Pappenheim until the 24th of December 1627, for a period of 4 months. The town garrison numbered 12,000 men under the command of Count Solms, who however abandoned the town and handed over command to general Lohem, who according to orders handed over the town to Pappenheim on the condition of free passage for the garrison, who then dispersed.


123-A drawing of the fortified princely town of Wolffenbüttel which was besieged by the Count of Pappenheim in the name of His Imperial Majesty in 1627.

A drawing of the fortified princely town of Wolffenbüttel which was besieged by the Count of Pappenheim in the name of His Imperial Majesty in 1627.

Wolfennbüttel, On 24.12.1627

The etching depicts the town of Wolffenbüttel, surrounded by marshes. On both sides of the town there are battle skirmishes and gunshots from rifles. Small forests have been drawn in three places; several gallows have been built near one of them. Above the picture there is the above-quoted text; at the bottom there is a rectangle with the legend 1-12.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der vesten fürstlichen Statt Wolfenbüttel, wie solche in Nahmen Kay: May: durch den Gr. von Pappenheim belägert worden 1627.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 106/342

During his first generalate, after the battle near Lutter (22nd of August 1626), where Tilly defeated Kristian of Denmark, Waldstein and his mighty army pursued the Danish king. The Danes were systematically defeated; only the town of Wolffenbüttel heroically resisted the occupying troops of general Pappenheim. The commander of the town garrison was Count Solms, who for four months successfully defended the town and only on the 24th of December 1627 was forced to hand over the town to his opponent, Count Pappenheim; this was actually done by his representative Lohe. Somls himself escaped from the town before the handover.


127-Stralsund

Stralsund

Stralsund, On 12.05.1628 (do 22.07.1628)

The town of Stralsund has been schematically sketched; on one side there is the sea with a number of ships, and on the other side there is dry land with various fortified buildings (field fortifications and Imperial troops' bulwarks). In the right-hand corner of the picture there are two horsemen and an infantry division. On the left, in the square field, is the legend A-M; lower down there is a measuring scale in “Ruths”.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Stralsundia

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 111/246

After a great victory at Dessau in 1626, Waldstein's army advanced triumphantly through Germany, all the way to the Pomeranian coast. But here they met the first obstacle which they could not overcome – the town of Stralsund. The siege was entrusted to general Arnim, who later transferred to the services of John George Elector of Saxony, and who also had a part to play in Waldstein's tragic end. There were long and fruitless negotiations with Stralsund town hall about handing over the town by Imperial agreement. The townspeople, however, later appointed a new Alderman council and decided to resist violently. Food and ammunition was supplied by sea by the Danes and Swedes. Infectious diseases erupted among the conquerors' ranks, the siege became unsustainable and Waldstein gave Arnim the order to withdraw with his troops. The siege lasted from the 9th of May until the 22nd of July 1628.


457-His Highness noble-born prince and lord, Lord John Philip of Saska–Gühlich, Cleve and Berg, Landgrave of Düzingen, Margrave of Meissen, Count of Mergk and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein, my gracious prince and lord, gave to Her Highness and also noble-born princess and lady Elizabeth, Duchess of Saxony, née Duchess of Brunswick and Lünneburg etc. by his princely grace to his dearly beloved spouse on the occasion of her birthday, prepared and launched this fireworks display by the armourer of his ducal grace Mr. Joachim Kreichene on the day of John the Baptist, 24th June 1628.

His Highness noble-born prince and lord, Lord John Philip of Saska–Gühlich, Cleve and Berg, Landgrave of Düzingen, Margrave of Meissen, Count of Mergk and Ravensberg, Lord of Ravenstein, my gracious prince and lord, gave to Her Highness and also noble-born princess and lady Elizabeth, Duchess of Saxony, née Duchess of Brunswick and Lünneburg etc. by his princely grace to his dearly beloved spouse on the occasion of her birthday, prepared and launched this fireworks display by the armourer of his ducal grace Mr. Joachim Kreichene on the day of John the Baptist, 24th June 1628.

On 24.06.1628

The etching depicts a fireworks display organized to celebrate the birthday of Elizabeth Duchess of Saxony, wife of John Philip of Saxony. The picture shows a house with a burning angel flying out of a window. Astonished people are depicted nearby. Under the picture, there are two four-line verses with a German greeting.

Signature: Johann Dürr Augustan sculpsit
Autor: Dürr Augustin Johann, německý mědirytec

Original name: Der durchlauchtige hochgeborene Fürst und Herr, Herr Johann Philips Hertzogk zue Sachsen Gühlich, Cleve und Berg, Landgraf in Düzingen, Markgrafe zur Meissen, Graf zu der Mergk und Ravensberg, Herr zu Ravensstein, mein gnädiger Fürst und Herr, hat der auch Durchlauchtigen, hochgeborenen Fürstin und Frawen Elisabethen Hertzogin zu Sachszen, geborene Hertzogin zu Braunschweig und Lünneburg etc. als Ihrer fürstl. G: herzliebsten Frawen Gemahlin, of dero Gebürtstag zu Ehren diesz vorgebildete Feuerwergk verfertigen und abgehen lassen, durch Ihr H. G. Zeugmeistern Joachim Kreichen am Tage Johannis Baptistae, den 24. Juny 1628.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 110/52d

John Philip, Duke of Saxony-Altenburg, was born on the 25th of January 1597, married Elizabeth, princess of Brunswick, on the 25th of October 1618, and died on the 1st of April 1639. He was the son of Frederick William I. Duke of Saxony-Altenburg. His wife was Elizabeth of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of Henry Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg, born on the 23rd of June 1593; in her first marriage she was the wife of Duke Augustus of Saxony, in 1615 she became a widow and, three years later, married John Philip of Saxony-Altenburg. The depicted fireworks display was organized on the day of Elizabeth's 35th birthday. She died on the 25th of March 1650.


126-The town of Toruň, with its fortifications, accurately drawn by Jakub Hoffman, geometrician and architect.  Here, all the suburbs were destroyed by fire during the siege, which was carried out by the noble Herman Frangel in 1628.

The town of Toruň, with its fortifications, accurately drawn by Jakub Hoffman, geometrician and architect. Here, all the suburbs were destroyed by fire during the siege, which was carried out by the noble Herman Frangel in 1628.

Toruň, On 01.07.1628 (do 31.08.1628)

The drawing of the town of Toruň has been carried out very diligently and in great detail; the Latin text shown is in the decorative cartouche at the top on the left. Further down, there is the legend A-Z. The picture is full of explanatory notes. In the foreground, there is the „Vistula fluvius“ (river Visla) with a ship and a bridge.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Hoffman Jacob, architekt a geometr

Original name: Civitas Thorinum una cum sua fortifikatione accurate delineata per Jacobum Hoffmannum geom. et archit. Hic per incendium devastatio facta A. 1628 omnium suburbiam per oppugnationem, quae facta a generoso Hermanno Frangel.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 109/251

Before Gustav Adolf landed with his army in 1630 on German territory, he waged was against Poland which at the time was ruled by King Sigismund. In 1627, Gustav Adolf besieged Gdańsk, but he did not succeed in conquering it. The town garrison was commanded by Arend Dickmann. The next year, however, the Swedes won a naval battle against the Poles who were led by Koniecpolski. But a huge flood prevented the Swedes from conquering and occupying Gdańsk, which is why Gustav Adolf was forced to conduct military operations in the Polish hinterland. As part of this campaign, he also besieged the town of Toruň, situated approximately 100 km south of Gdańsk on the Vistula. Judging by the Latin text on the copperplate, this siege was led by Herman Frangel, who apparently is not the same person as general Carl Gustaf Wrangel.


128-The clamping of Kempen and Glückstadt, carried out by His Excellency Lord General Tilly in July 1628.

The clamping of Kempen and Glückstadt, carried out by His Excellency Lord General Tilly in July 1628.

Glückstadt, On 01.07.1628 (do 31.07.1628)

The copperplate is a Merian work, and apparently comes from Abelin's “Theatra Europaea“. It depicts the Elbe countryside not far from Hamburg, with the towns of Kempen and Glückstadt and field fortifications, bulwarks and military divisions nearby. Danish ships are sailing on the Elbe. The legend A-G is at the top on the right, on the uncoiled ribbon.

Signature: M. Merian fecit
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Die Bloquierung Krempen und Glückstadt, so von Herrn General ihr Exc. Tilly vorgangen im Julio 1628.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 112/88

At the time of Waldstein's victorious campaign across Germany, which culminated in the siege of Stralsund, Waldstein controlled all the territory on the right bank of the Elbe, while Tilly commanded the Imperial League defence forces (the combining of the defence forces is not an appropriate note – ed) on the left bank. At that time, Tilly tried to conquer the towns of Kempen and Glückstadt near Hamburg, but only succeeded in surrounding these towns. Kempen was conquered by Waldstein on the 12th of November 1628, and Glückstadt continued to resist.


544-The actual illustration of the pass between Steig and Chur in Pünten, seized by Imperial forces in 1629.

The actual illustration of the pass between Steig and Chur in Pünten, seized by Imperial forces in 1629.

Chur, On 01.01.1629 (do 10.01.1629)

The sheet is divided into two pictorial parts; the lower part depicts the small town of Chur on the Rhine in western Switzerland, and the upper part shows the Rhine countryside with high mountains, the Rhine and a bridge. In the countryside there is a large number of small settlements, castles, fortresses etc.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Verzeichnuss des Passes von der Steig bisz gehn Chur in Pünten, welches sich die Keyserl. impatroniert Anno 1629.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 114/42d

In December 1627, Vincent Duke of Mantua from the family of the Dukes of Gonzaga died with no descendants, which resulted in a struggle for succession. The French (chancellor Richelieu) supported Charles Duke of Nevers in this struggle, who also quickly occupied Mantua. Emperor Ferdinand II., however, opposed the French efforts at the instigation of the Spanish, and after long and fruitless negotiations he sent out troops under general Count Mérode who then occupied Mantua. In 1629, These troops advanced through the pass at Steig and Chur in western Switzerland. After this action by the Emperor, cardinal Richelieu, at the head of the French army, set out for Italy. Meanwhile, however, Duke Charles Emmanuel of Savoy joined the Imperial-Spanish side, thus making it impossible for Richelieu to reach Mantua with his troops. Mérode's army later also received reinforcements in the form of general Collalt's divisions, and on the 18th of June 1630 Mantua fell into the arms of the Imperial troops. Richelieu, however, conquered Savoy and prepared for his subsequent campaign in Italy.


129-A true and actual drawing of the great and very well-known siege of the fortified town of Herzogenbusch, with everything divided according to the correct scale.

A true and actual drawing of the great and very well-known siege of the fortified town of Herzogenbusch, with everything divided according to the correct scale.

Hertogenbosch, On 01.01.1629 (do 31.12.1629)

This is a very accurate, mapped situation of the environs of the town of Herzogenbusch in the north of the Brabant province in the Netherlands. On the right is the river Meuse. The wide surroundings of the town are filled with an extensive system of bulwarks and field fortifications. Above the picture there are two emblems. On the right, near a bend in the Mosel, there are two cartouches decorated with weapons, with the inscription: “Rheinländische Rutten“. Another cartouche contains the above-mentioned text. There is a measuring scale nearby.

Signature: Durch Jakobb Prempart ingenieur
Autor: Prempart Jakob, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř map a plánů

Original name: Wahre und eigentliche Delineatio der trefflichen und weitberühmten Belägerung der vesten Stadt Herzogenbusch, alles nach seiner rechten Mass abgetheilt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 115/12

At the start of the 17th century, the Netherlands and Spain were engaged in protracted battles punctuated by short-lived truces, lasting until 1621. After that, more battles broke out. On the States-General side these were led by Maurice, and later by his brother Frederick Henry of Nassau. Maurice died in 1625; Frederick Henry however conquered a number of Spanish-occupied towns with great victories, among them Maastricht and Herzogenbusch in 1629.


490-Wesel

Wesel

Wesel, On 01.01.1630 (do 31.12.1630)

The copperplate depicts the Rhine and two fortresses. On the peninsula, beside the shipping bridge which is just being built, stands a cargo crane whose system is remarkably effective and built in a modern way. The crane is unloading cargo from ships. A little further is the fortified town of Wesel, from which the Spanish are retreating on one side, and the Dutch are entering on the other. The cartouche with the legend A-I is a very interesting allegory: the figure representing Spain is holding a chain to which a lion is tied (i.e. the Netherlands). The lion is holding two banners with the inscriptions Herzogenbusch and Venloo. Under the chain there is the inscription “Wesel”. A hand is coming out of the clouds, holding a scissors which it is using to cut the chain. The hand is labelled with the inscription “Hand Gottes“.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wesel

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 124/448

The town of Wesel was conquered by the troops of Frederick Henry of Orange, who was the most successful Dutch commander and diplomat and achieved many significant victories over Spain, who for many years fought for their territories in the Netherlands, mainly with the help of Austrian troops from the Netherlands (now Belgium). In 1629, Frederick Henry of Orange conquered the town of Herzogenbusch, a military success of the first order which won the admiration of the entire world at that time and attracted many applicants to the military, who wanted to learn Frederick Henry of Orange's new fortress conquering technique. He soon took Venlo away from the Spanish as well, and in 1630 he captured the town of Wesel which is illustrated here.


547-A plan of the town and fortress of Cazal, besieged by Lord Marquis of Spinola on the 24th of May 1630, and which was defended by the Lord of Toyras until the 18th of October, when it was liberated by the armies of King Louis XIII of France.

A plan of the town and fortress of Cazal, besieged by Lord Marquis of Spinola on the 24th of May 1630, and which was defended by the Lord of Toyras until the 18th of October, when it was liberated by the armies of King Louis XIII of France.

Casal, On 24.05.1630 (do 18.10.1630)

On the left-hand side of the picture, the river Po and the town and citadel of Cazal are depicted. The illustrated scene is explained with French and Dutch text. On the right-hand side there is a detailed depiction of the citadel, and lower down a measuring scale is shown. The decorative ribbon contains the town emblem and the legend 1-10. In the bottom right-hand corner there is a perspective view of the town and countryside.

Signature: C. J. Visscher excudebat
Autor: Visscher C. J., mědirytec

Original name: Plan de la ville et citadelle de Cazal assiégée par le M. de Spinola de 24. mai 1630. et deffendue par M. de Toyras jusque au 18. octobre quelle a este secourae par les armes du Roy de France Lous le 13 me.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 121/51d

In the war for succession in the Duchy of Mantua (see the detailed historical commentary under no. 114/42d on page 93) the Spanish, under the command of Marquis Ambrose Spinola, besieged the town and citadel of Cazal, west of Turin in the province of Alessandria. The town was temporarily occupied by the troops of the Duke of Nevers, who was supported by France. The town garrison was under the command of Marquis de Toryas. On the 18th of October 1630, the town was freed from the Spanish siege by the French. Marquis A. Spinola died soon afterwards.


132-The siege of the town of Cazal, which was freed by His Royal Majesty of France in 1630.

The siege of the town of Cazal, which was freed by His Royal Majesty of France in 1630.

Casal, On 24.05.1630 (do 18.10.1630)

This is a view of the Po lowlands, in the middle of which lies the town of Cazal above the river Po. In the foreground there are artillery batteries and military camps; on the left under a tree there are three officers studying a map. In the background there are military divisions and behind them there are Alpine mountain panoramas. In the sky there is the inscription “Obsidio Casalis“. Above the picture there is the quoted German text and the legend 1-10.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung der Stadt Cazal und wie sie K. M. in Frankreich entsetzt worden 1630.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 122/343

In the war for succession in the Duchy of Mantua (see the detailed historical commentary under no. 114/42d on page 93) the Spanish, under the command of Marquis Ambrose Spinola, besieged the town and citadel of Cazal, west of Turin in the province of Alessandria. The town was temporarily occupied by the troops of the Duke of Nevers, who was supported by France. The town garrison was under the command of Marquis de Toryas. On the 18th of October 1630, the town was freed from the Spanish siege by the French. Marquis A. Spinola died soon afterwards.


134-A depiction of the city of Regensburg, in which an electoral assembly was held at the time, in 1630.

A depiction of the city of Regensburg, in which an electoral assembly was held at the time, in 1630.

Řezno, On 15.06.1630 (do 31.08.1630)

The engraving, with a view of the city of Regensburg on the Danube, has been carefully drawn. In the foreground there are fields divided by borders; at the bottom on the left there is an allegorical gate with the city's coat of arms and a male figure which is looking at the city. At the bottom on the right, the legend A-O is shown in two rectangles. In the sky above the city there is a large Imperial eagle, holding in its talons a decorative board with a tribute to Emperor Ferdinand II.: “Divo Ferdinando etc.“. On the right-hand side there is the city emblem with the inscription: “Ratisbona“. The above-quoted German text is located above the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abcontrafeitung der Stadt Regensburg, darin dieser Zeit der Churfürstliche Colegialtag gehalten worden 1630.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 120/458

In 1630, Ferdinand II. convened an electoral assembly in Regensburg, which commenced on the 15th of June. At this event, the Emperor particularly wished to push his son Ferdinand through as pretender to the Roman Emperor. Being Protestants, the Electors of Saxony and Brandenburg refused to take part in the assembly. In the end, only Catholic princes came. At the instigation of the Electors, the main subject of the talks became the issue of dismissing Waldstein from his powerful position as Imperial Generalissimo. After protracted negotiations, and having used all the resources at their disposal to put pressure on the Emperor, the participants in the assembly pushed through Waldstein's dismissal. It was an extremely serious decision, and its consequences later backfired on the Emperor. The question of whether Waldstein, if he had been spared the disgrace of being unseated after all the merits gained for the Emperor, would not later have taken the path of treason, remains open. Ferdinand II.'s efforts to push through the election of Ferdinand III. as Roman-German Emperor also failed. The progress and results of the assembly show Emperor Ferdinand II. as being quite powerless and incompetent; the reasons for this also lie in the way in which the empire was governed, which after the 17th century was no longer suitable in its old, original form.


545-A map of the Duchy of Mantua, with the countryside which surrounds it.

A map of the Duchy of Mantua, with the countryside which surrounds it.

Mantova, On 18.06.1630

On the right side of the engraving, the Po river has been drawn; on the left are the ridges of the Apennines. On the top left-hand corner there is a rectangle with the quoted text. All the edges are marked with the measuring scale “Miliaria italica“.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz des Herzogthumbs Mantua mit den umliegenden Landschafften. 1630.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 117/36d

In December 1627, Vincent Duke of Mantua from the family of the Dukes of Gonzaga died with no descendants, which resulted in a struggle for succession. The French (chancellor Richelieu) supported Charles Duke of Nevers in this struggle, who also quickly occupied Mantua. At the instigation of the Spanish, however, Emperor Ferdinand II., opposed the French efforts, and after long and fruitless negotiations he sent out troops under general Count Mérode who then occupied Mantua. In 1629, These troops advanced through the pass at Steig and Chur in western Switzerland. After this action by the Emperor, cardinal Richelieu, at the head of the French army, set out for Italy. Meanwhile, however, Duke Charles Emmanuel of Savoy joined the Imperial-Spanish side, thus making it impossible for Richelieu to reach Mantua with his troops. Mérode's army later also received reinforcements in the form of general Collalt's divisions, and on the 18th of June 1630 Mantua fell into the arms of the Imperial troops. Richelieu, however, conquered Savoy and prepared for his subsequent campaign in Italy.


546-A drawing of the town of Mantua, as occupied by Imperial forces at the time. 1630

A drawing of the town of Mantua, as occupied by Imperial forces at the time. 1630

Mantova, On 18.06.1630

This is a very accurately executed depiction of the battle for the town of Mantua. Mantua itself is very carefully and accurately engraved; the town is surrounded by water. In the left foreground, there are three firing cannons. The quoted German text is located in the upper part of the etching.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Killan Lucas, mědirytec

Original name: Abrisz der Stadt Mantua, wie selbige diese Zeit von den Kaiserischen belägert worden. 1630.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 117a/484d

In December 1627, Vincent Duke of Mantua from the family of the Dukes of Gonzaga died with no descendants, which resulted in a struggle for succession. The French (chancellor Richelieu) supported Charles Duke of Nevers in this struggle, who also quickly occupied Mantua. Emperor Ferdinand II., however, opposed the French efforts at the instigation of the Spanish, and after long and fruitless negotiations he sent out troops under general Count Mérode who then occupied Mantua. In 1629, These troops advanced through the pass at Steig and Chur in western Switzerland. After this action by the Emperor, cardinal Richelieu, at the head of the French army, set out for Italy. Meanwhile, however, Duke Charles Emmanuel of Savoy joined the Imperial-Spanish side, thus making it impossible for Richelieu to reach Mantua with his troops. Mérode's army later also received reinforcements in the form of general Collalt's divisions, and on the 18th of June 1630 Mantua fell into the arms of the Imperial troops. Richelieu, however, conquered Savoy and prepared for his subsequent campaign in Italy.


130-Emboldening of the jubilee heart, a celebration and a joyous and thanksgiving party, which was graciously ordered in the most profound devotion by Her Highness etc. of Saxony for the centennial, unchanging and permanent Augsburg Confession on the 25th, 26th and 27th June 1630.

Emboldening of the jubilee heart, a celebration and a joyous and thanksgiving party, which was graciously ordered in the most profound devotion by Her Highness etc. of Saxony for the centennial, unchanging and permanent Augsburg Confession on the 25th, 26th and 27th June 1630.

On 25.06.1630 (do 27.06.1630)

In the middle of the plate, on which there is the inscription “Fundamentum Jesum Christum“, is the Bible “biblia sacra“, from which a palm tree grows with the inscription: „confes. August“ on its trunk. In the crown of the tree there is Constantia (endurance) and near the trunk there is: Fides (fidelity), Charitas (mercy) and Spes (hope). On the right-hand side, a Swedish lion is repelling various wild animals. A Brandenburg eagle is flying from the left and chasing away wild birds; near the tree there are two crossed swords tied with a laurel branch (i.e. the emblem of Saxony), repelling enemy troops. There is a hand coming out of the clouds, holding a chain which is tied to the crown of the palm tree, which symbolizes the hand of God protecting the Church of Augsburg. Under the picture there is a extensive three-verse German poem which explains the meaning of the depicted scene.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Jubileischen Frewden – Lob und Dankfest Hertzens Aufmunterung, welches Ihr. Churf. Durchlaucht etc. zu Sachsen wegen hundertjähriger unveränderter Augspurgischen Confesion, den 25. 26. und 27. Junij 1630 mit höchster Andacht zu celebrieren gnädigst angeordnet.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 118/123

This sheet was issued on the occasion of the one hundredth anniversary of the founding of the Augsburg Confession in 1630. During this time, Sweden and Brandenburg were Saxony's main allies. This military alliance, however, was not nearly as reliable or honest as mentioned in the words and depicted in the pictures in the leaflet. Saxony itself, in particular, was a very unreliable ally due to the character of John George I. the Elector.


131-A depiction of the Peenemünd field fortification, and the royal Swedish camps.

A depiction of the Peenemünd field fortification, and the royal Swedish camps.

Peenemünde, On 01.07.1630 (do 31.07.1630)

Immediately after landing on German soil near the island of Rügen on the 4th of July 1630, Gustav Adolf of Sweden began fortifying several locations on the coast so that he could safely carry out operations further into the German hinterland. These footholds included the Peenemünd fortress, located near the outlet of the river Oder into the sea, south of the island of Rügen. The king also had a similar fixed point established near Wollgast, not far from Peenemünd. Defensive actions by Imperial forces against the landing and attacking Swedes were feeble, since the Imperial forces were thinly scattered across the whole of Pomerania and Mecklenburg.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Peenemünder Schantz und Seehaffen sampt dem königlichen schwedischen Läger.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 119/464

This is a slightly smaller copperplate; on its right-hand side there is the Baltic sea with two sail-boats near the mouth of the river Oder. Imperial and Swedish fortifications are facing each other. In the foreground, a small forest and the so-called “Lusthaus” are depicted. The above-quoted text is located above the picture.


471-Wollgast. During the siege of this town a miraculous apparition representing a lion wrestling an eagle in the air was seen above the castle by the entire army.

Wollgast. During the siege of this town a miraculous apparition representing a lion wrestling an eagle in the air was seen above the castle by the entire army.

On 04.07.1630

The print contains two views of the town of Wollgast from two locations various distances away. From the first, closer viewpoint, a castle on an island in the sea can be seen; in the foreground there are two firing cannons. The other, more distant view shows the town with the Swedish camp and conqueror's ramparts in the foreground. On the left there is a burning village.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wollgast. In wehrender belagerung dieser Stadt hat sich über dem Schloss dieses Wunderzeichen, ein Loew und Adler streitende in der Luft sehen lassen Angesichts der ganzen Armeen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 116/228

After landing on the island of Usedom in the Baltic sea, Gustav Adolf of Sweden prepared to advance to Germany with his army, in order to secure his strategic bases on the coast. For this purpose, the town and fortress of Wollgast, located on the coast opposite the island of Usedom, had to be seized. Gustav Adolf carried out this military action during July 1630; it was quite difficult and resulted in significant sacrifices by both sides, but Wollgast was conquered in accordance with the king's plan. The supernatural, miraculous apparition which is mentioned in the above-quoted German text on the engraving, is something we often come across in the 17th century and was no doubt a result of the fantasies of some of the so-called “eyewitnesses”.


135-The Swedish rescue of the Christian Church in 1630.

The Swedish rescue of the Christian Church in 1630.

On 04.07.1630

The print shows an unusual building on three pillars standing on a book (i.e. on the Bible) in a mountainous landscape – at the top is the “ecclesia“ church. The three pillars represent: Omniscinecia, Misericordia and Omnipotentia. The book is labelled with the inscription: “Verbum Domini manet in aeternum“. This is because the Bible forms the basis of the Protestant faith. In front of the building there are five pillar ruins and bases, of which three are labelled: Bohemia, Palatinate and Augsburg, and are lying beneath a monster. The ruins represent the pillars of the Protestant faith, defeated by the Emperor and the league. The monster represents the Catholic faith and its heads carry the emblems of the Pope, cardinals and other church dignitaries. A sailboat with the Swedish lion and a Dutch helm is approaching this scene (i.e. and allegory of the alliance between Sweden and the Netherlands). On the rocky coast from which the ship set sail there is a person standing upright and teaching a group of pupils. By this the author of the print wants to state that the country from which the ship is sailing, i.e. Sweden, still has correct and pure reformed (Lutheran) teaching. The sun, which is just at that moment emerging from the clouds, shines its rays only on the ship and the teacher of Lutheran faith above Sweden, on the rocky coast, which means that God is helping the Swedes who are landing on German soil. Beneath the picture there is an extensive German poem, which very theatrically (in the form of a dream) explains the depicted scene and describes the Swedes' arrival in Germany as the rescue of the Christian Church which had been driven to the brink of extinction by the Roman Papacy.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Schwedische Rettung der Christlichen Kirchen Anno 1630.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 125/141

This sheet deals with the arrival of Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army in Germany on the 4th of July 1630. In this important event, the author of the engraving sees a turnaround in the political and religious situation in the empire. The engraving is also notable due to its large number of various allegorical scenes, most of which are tastefully drawn and bear witness to the author's considerable skill.


133-The story of the coronation: Special illustrations and explanations of the method of ceremonial coronation of the Roman Empress on the 7th of November (28th of October) 1630, on the occasion of the end of the electoral assembly in Regensburg, of Her Highness Princess Lady Eleonora, Roman Empress in Germania, Hungarian and Czech queen, Archduchess of Austria, née Duchess of Mantua, Duchess of Burgundy etc.

The story of the coronation: Special illustrations and explanations of the method of ceremonial coronation of the Roman Empress on the 7th of November (28th of October) 1630, on the occasion of the end of the electoral assembly in Regensburg, of Her Highness Princess Lady Eleonora, Roman Empress in Germania, Hungarian and Czech queen, Archduchess of Austria, née Duchess of Mantua, Duchess of Burgundy etc.

Řezno, On 28.10.1630

The picture represents the interior of the Regensburg house in which Eleonora of Mantua was crowned Roman Empress. Above the chancel there is a large cross under which, in front of the altar, kneels the Empress with three bishops, of which one is placing the crown on her head. On the left, underneath a canopy, kneels the Emperor. The whole space is filled by a large number of various dignitaries.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Crönungshandlung: Eygentliche Abbildung und Erklärung, welcher Gestalt die allerdurchlauchtigste Fürstin und Fraw, Fraw Eleonora röm. Kayserin in Germanien zu Hungarn und Böheim Königin, Erzherzogin zu Oesterreich, geborene Herzogin zu Mantua, Herzogin zu Burgund etc. den 7. November (28. October) desz 1630 Jahres bey Endung des Churfürstlichen Collegialtages in Regenspurg zur römischen Kayserin soleniter gekrönet worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 123/295

Eleonora of Gonzaga, Duchess of Mantua, second wife of Emperor Ferdinand II., was crowned Roman-German Empress in Regensburg on the occasion of the fateful electoral assembly, the so-called “Reichstag” on the 28th of October 1630. At this assembly, some of the electors led by Maximilllian of Bavaria enforced the dismissal of Waldstein from Imperial services.


136-The recent Lutheran and Calvinist resolution, in which each party expresses their opinion on how (according to their own and true declaration), their “intent“ against His Majesty the Emperor is diminishing, and how they lament that many of them have fared badly. Printed in 1631.

The recent Lutheran and Calvinist resolution, in which each party expresses their opinion on how (according to their own and true declaration), their “intent“ against His Majesty the Emperor is diminishing, and how they lament that many of them have fared badly. Printed in 1631.

On 01.01.1631 (do 10.01.1631)

The picture shows a meeting of all the rulers standing in the anti-Imperial camp, and representatives of major cities, i.e. England, France, Württemberg, Sweden, Nuremberg, Strasbourg, Ulm and many others. The chairman of the meeting is the “restless spirit“ (unruhiger Geist) seated at the head of the table. Away from the meeting hall, there is the Emperor on the right and the Catholic Church on the left. Under the picture there is a long German poem, in which each participant in the meeting expresses their views and complaints.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Lutherisch und Calvinisch jüngst gehaltener Rathschluss darinnen ein jadweder sein Meinung fürbringt, wie dargegen (dero eigenen wahren Bekenntnusz nach) ihr Intent wider Kay. May. zurugg gehet und klagen wie es etlichen übel ergangen ist. Gedruckt im Jahr 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 126/156

The leaflet was issued by Catholics at a time when Imperial forces controlled all of Germany and when the Protestant side was very despondent. The speeches by participants in the meeting, even if they had not already succumbed to despair, are of a similar tone.


225-Several dishes are on view, followed by Saxon sweets.

Several dishes are on view, followed by Saxon sweets.

Breitenfeld, On 01.01.1631 (do 31.12.1631)

Tilly, with three of his generals, is sitting at a table with several bowls. He is being approached by a Swedish lion holding a map, representing the Battle of Leipzig, and by Gustav Adolf of Sweden with two platters containing Mainz and Würzburg; he is followed by John George of Saxony with Prague and the Landgrave of Hessen carrying Fulda. General Gustav Horn, carrying Bamberg in a bowl, is last. In the background, the Battle of Leipzig is illustrated. Beneath the picture there is an extensive German poem explaining the illustrated scene.

Signature: J. v. d. Heyden
Autor: Heyden Jacob van der, holandský rytec a nakladatel se sídlem ve Strasburku

Original name: Etliche Schauessen so dem Sächsischen Confect gefolgt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 144/58

This is a pamphlet comparing the military defeats of the Imperial forces by the Swedish army with a banquet at which Tilly and his companions are forced to eat meals which they cannot digest. The Swedish lion is bringing the bitter defeat at Breitenfeld (at Leipzig). Gustav Adolf is bringing the conquered towns of Würzburg and Mainz, John George I. Elector of Saxony is offering Tilly Prague, which his general Arnim conquered, the Landgrave of Hessen who fought on the Swedish side is bringing the conquered town of Fulda in a bowl, and the Swedish general Gustav Horn is carrying conquered Bamberg on a plate. Tilly and his companions are forced to eat these bitter meals.


548-A map of the territories of Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Brandenburg, where at present a war is being waged between Imperial forces and the Swedes – 1631.

A map of the territories of Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Brandenburg, where at present a war is being waged between Imperial forces and the Swedes – 1631.

Meklenbursko, On 01.01.1631 (do 31.12.1631)

This is a map of the territories of Mecklenburg, Pomerania and Brandenburg. The Oder flows on the right-hand side; at the bottom on the left there is a small stretch of the river Elbe. In the north are the mapped territories bordered by the sea (“Maris Balthici Pars“), on which a ship is sailing. The entire area of the print is filled with geographical signs.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Mecklenburgisch-Pommerisch und Brandenburgischen Landschaften, da jetztiger Zeit der Krieg zwischen den Keyserisch und Schwedischen geführt wird 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 162/46d

On the 4th of July 1630, King Gustav Adolf of Sweden landed on German soil near the island of Usedom. As soon as the entire Swedish army was on dry land, military actions commenced. However, negotiations with various north German princes also started. Waldstein later appeared here and besieged the town of Stralsund, which he did not conquer due to determined resistance by the town garrison, but with his mighty army he was still a great danger to the Swedes. Soon, however, the electoral assembly in Regensburg enforced the Emperor's dismissal of Waldstein from the function of generallisimo and from Imperial services. The sole supreme commander of the Imperial League troops who remained here was Tilly, with whom Gustav Adolf already knew how to deal (with the help of John George I. Elector of Saxony) at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. Before Waldstein's dismissal from Imperial services, at the time of his triumphant campaign across all of northern Germany, the Emperor conferred Mecklenburg on him as a sovereign duchy. Its previous owner was guilty of disloyalty to the Emperor.


138-Frankfurt-on-Oder

Frankfurt-on-Oder

Frankfurt nad Odrou, On 03.04.1631

Here we see a view of the city conquered on the 3rd (13th) of April 1631 by the Swedes. In the background we can see the flow of the Oder with a large bridge and island, across which Imperial forces are fleeing. On the other bank there are many men on the run. The city is under strong Swedish artillery fire. In the left foreground there is an artillery division with the trumpeter and standard-bearer's horse rearing up. On a nearby hillock, there are two more trumpeters. The usual explanatory text is missing here.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Frankfurt a/Oder“ – „Francfurtum ad Viadrum.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 128/407

As early as the end of 1630, Gustav Adolf had managed to occupy the whole of Pomerania and advance all the way to the Oder. In order to gain a strong base for further progress into Silesia, the Swedish king decided to conquer Frankfurt-on-Oder in the spring of 1631. He needed this city just like Tilly needed Magdeburg; a fortified, strategic location on the Oder. The conquest of Frankfurt was also one of the reasons preventing the Swedes from taking timely action to liberate the suppressed Magdeburg. Gustav Adolf stayed with his army in a fixed camp near Schwendt and made use of stronger divisions under the command of generals Horn and Banér, and to a certain extent also of ships headed for Frankfurt where Imperial generals Tiefenbach and Schaumburg commanded 8,000 men. On the 3rd (13th) April, the Swedes carried out an attack on the city which crushed any opposition by the defenders. In the confusion, Imperial forces fled across the bridge in the direction of Great Hlohovec. Many men drowned during the chaotic escape across the Oder.


137-An original illustration of the manner in which His Royal Highness of Sweden attacked and conquered the city of Frankfurt-on-Oder on the 3rd of April 1631.

An original illustration of the manner in which His Royal Highness of Sweden attacked and conquered the city of Frankfurt-on-Oder on the 3rd of April 1631.

On 13.04.1631

The upper part of the picture shows the wide flow of the Oder, with a bridge and an island lying a short distance away on the right-hand side. On the city streets, a large number of persons running around in confusion has been drawn in great detail. The city is surrounded by the Swedish army, firing from numerous cannons. In the right foreground there are two figures of musketeers. Under the picture there is the legend A-M; the quoted text is located above the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung welcher gestaldt Ihr. Köngl. Majest. in Schweden den 3. Aprillis Anno 1631 die Stadt Franckfort an der Oder berandt und eingenommen hat.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 127/235

After Gustav Adolf landed on German soil with his army, the Swedes had certain difficulties at the start before they managed to enter the German hinterland. Most of all, the Swedes wanted to liberate Magdeburg from general Tilly's siege, who had gripped the city at the beginning of 1631. The main obstacle to this Swedish liberation action was the city of Frankfurt-on-Oder. The successful generalissimus Waldstein had already been dismissed from Imperial services, and the supreme commander of the Imperial League armies was Tilly. The commander of the Frankfurt garrison was the Imperial general Count Schaumburg, who was subject to the command of general Tiefenbach. The city was well secured with solid fortifications and weaponry. Nevertheless, the Swedes managed to enter Frankfurt in quite a short time and defeat the garrison, of which approximately 2,000 men were slaughtered during the confusion and stampede caused by the sudden Swedish invasion. The prisoners, mainly Croats, were deported to Swedish mines to extract copper. Unfortunately, this and similar exploiting of prisoners of war can be witnessed from the reign of the Pharaohs in ancient times until the present day.


540-The awakening of the Germans

The awakening of the Germans

On 01.05.1631 (do 30.09.1631)

On the picture is the interior of a huge temple, in the middle of which is a high bed with skies above it. On the bed lies a person who is just now waking up. It is John George I. Elector of Saxony, being awakened by a kneeling woman, clad in tattered clothes, who is screaming desperately. This represents Germania, i.e. Germany, which ended up in a frightening position due to the actions of the Imperial troops; naturally this means Protestant Germany. In front of the bed is a (Swedish) lion whose paws are resting on the coats of arms of Venice, Switzerland and Hanseatic towns. These three states were faithful allies of the Swedes. Beneath the picture is an extensive German poem, explaining the illustrated scene.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der Deutschen Wecker.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 136/147

This is a propagation leaflet, exhorting all followers of the Protestant faith to pull together and rise up in arms against the danger of Imperial Catholicism. For a long time Saxony hesitated, recognized the central Imperial power and refused to affiliate itself with the alliance of Protestant powers; only the cruel annihilation of Mandeburg by Imperial forces and looting by Imperial divisions on their territory induced them to openly oppose the Emperor. This situation is an allegory - the humiliated, tattered Germania is waking up the hesitant, sleeping Elector of Saxony. According to the poem, the crowd of people surrounding this scene is searching for only one God, who is in heaven. Capuchins, Jesuits, blacks, Tatars, Poles and many others are shown here. Perhaps the meaning is that there may be a unification of all Christian churches, but in a Protestant sense. Or possibly the author of the print wishes to state that a friendly co-existence of both of the main German churches is desirable; this actually did come about later.


139-Magdeburg. The conquest of Magdeburg by Imperial forces.

Magdeburg. The conquest of Magdeburg by Imperial forces.

Magdeburk, On 10.05.1631

This is a small picture of the city of Magdeburg, besieged by Imperial troops. In the foreground there is a military scene with horsemen and banners. The troops are advancing across a bridge over the Elbe. In the background, the city is shrouded in smoke and flames. The quoted Dutch inscription is located on an uncoiled banner in the sky; beside it is the city emblem and an Imperial eagle with a laurel branch around it. The etching is a remarkable, extraordinarily beautiful and delicately made work of art, but it is virtually unknown. Even its great author is unknown.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Maegdenburgh. D´Innemingh Maegdenburgh door de keysersche.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 129/226

When Ferdinand II., at the insistence of some of the electors – mainly Maximillian of Bavaria – dismissed his experienced generalissimo Waldstein from Imperial services, general Tilly became the only commander of the Imperial League. Gustav Adolf was still far away and engaged in Brandenburg, so for strategic reasons he could not get near Tilly with his army in order to liberate the city of Magdeburg which Tilly had gripped in his siege. The Imperial forces had already besieged Magdeburg since December 1630; the incompetent city council did not skilfully use their military forces, and the city was already suffering a noticeable lack of all kinds of supplies. Gustav Adolf was informed about this state of affairs, but he was engaged in the conquest of Frankfurt-on-Oder, which is why he merely sent his confidant Falkenberg in secret into Magdeburg. After that there were long negotiations about handing over the city to Imperial forces on the basis of an agreement, but this never took place. On the 10th May 1631, the Imperial general Count Pappenheim suddenly entered the city with a large division, followed immediately by the entire army which was waiting for a rich haul. The attack was a complete surprise, and the city defenders fled in confusion. The Imperial troops plundered and devastated the city terribly, and murdered the civilian population. General Tilly, who initially allowed the looting, later could not control his crazed troops and was forced to order bloody executions. The destruction was completed by a huge fire which engulfed the entire city and razed it to the ground. This outrageous rampage by the Imperial troops in Magdeburg significantly increased the Protestants' hatred and anger towards the Catholics, which also showed itself in a great number of various leaflets and pamphlets which were issued in connection with the fall of Magdeburg. The conquest of Magdeburg was the last significant Imperial victory; there was a turnaround in the Thirty Years' War and the Protestants once again prevailed, mainly due to the Swedes, but also as a result of the victories of Frederick Henry of Orange (Netherlands) over the Spanish.


141-Magdeburg

Magdeburg

Magdeburk, On 20.05.1631

The print depicts the conquest of Magdeburg by Tilly in 1631. The high artistic level of the engraving and the distinctive character of the composition bears witness to Merian's authorship, although the print has not been signed. In the middle of the picture is the river Elbe, spanned by a bridge across which troops are advancing. The burning city is in the background, and in the foreground there is a cavalry division. On the uncoiled banner in the sky, there is the legend 1-25, and on the sides there are the city and Imperial coats of arms.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Magdeburgum

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 130/375

When Ferdinand II., at the insistence of some of the electors – mainly Maximillian of Bavaria – dismissed his experienced generalissimo Waldstein from Imperial services, general Tilly became the only commander of the Imperial League. Gustav Adolf was still far away and engaged in Brandenburg, so for strategic reasons he could not get near Tilly with his army in order to liberate the city of Magdeburg which Tilly had gripped in a siege. The Imperial forces had already besieged Magdeburg since December 1630; the incompetent city council did not skilfully use their military forces, and the city was already suffering a noticeable lack of all kinds of supplies. Gustav Adolf was informed about this state of affairs, but he was engaged in the conquest of Frankfurt-on-Oder, which is why he merely sent his confidant Falkenberg in secret into Magdeburg. After that there were long negotiations about handing over the city to Imperial forces on the basis of an agreement, but this never took place. On the 10th May 1631, the Imperial general Count Pappenheim suddenly entered the city with a large division, followed immediately by the entire army which was waiting for a rich haul. The attack was a complete surprise, and the city defenders fled in confusion. The Imperial troops plundered and devastated the city terribly, and murdered the civilian population. General Tilly, who initially allowed the looting, later could not control his crazed troops and was forced to order bloody executions. The destruction was completed by a huge fire which engulfed the entire city and razed it to the ground. This outrageous rampage by the Imperial troops in Magdeburg significantly increased the Protestants' hatred and anger towards the Catholics, which also showed itself in a great number of various leaflets and pamphlets which were issued in connection with the fall of Magdeburg. The conquest of Magdeburg was the last significant Imperial victory; there was a turnaround in the Thirty Years' War and the Protestants once again prevailed, mainly due to the Swedes, but also as a result of the victories of Frederick Henry of Orange (Netherlands) over the Spanish.


158-Short, but sharp alphabet. In the year in which the fox

Short, but sharp alphabet. In the year in which the fox's advice will surely come to pass.

On 20.05.1631

In the middle of the picture there is an open mousetrap in which a mouse is sitting; on the right-hand side there is a cat lying in wait, on the left-hand side there is a fox chained to a rock with a house behind it. Beneath the picture there is a German poem with a conversation between the mouse A, cat B and fox C. The mouse (i.e. Magdeburg) asks: Should I go get the pork fat which has been laid out and leave the trap, or should I stay here, which will mean an early death? The cat (i.e. Tilly) replies: “If you dare to run out from the trap, you will be destroyed anyway!” The fox (i.e. Gustav Adolf) says: “Go now and run, mouse, and jump into the cat's eye! I'd like to come and help but the chain tying me down is too strong!”

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Ein kurtz jedoch scharfes A.B.C Im Jahr Es MVs Des FUChsen Rath GEVVIs heVr gehen Von stat.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 131/116

The leaflet deals with the situation at the time of the siege of Magdeburg by Tilly in 1631, when there were talks about the voluntary handing over of the city to the Imperial forces (the mouse's words). Tilly responded with threats (the cat's reply). Gustav Adolf was busy in Pomerania and in the battle for Frankfurt-on-Oder, which is why he could not liberate the oppressed Magdeburg (i.e. the chain binding the fox to the rock), but he advises Magdeburg to proceed carefully (the mouse should jump into the cat's eye). This advice by the fox (Gustav Adolf), which the rhyme refers to - that it must come to pass within a year – comes to pass that very year at the battle near Breitenfeld.


143-A short but witty conversation between the fox and the cat. Printed, pressed and fur sufficiently ruffled at the big mousetrap that year: this year, Magdeburg will be avenged.

A short but witty conversation between the fox and the cat. Printed, pressed and fur sufficiently ruffled at the big mousetrap that year: this year, Magdeburg will be avenged.

Magdeburk, On 20.05.1631

The German poem under the picture contains a dialogue between the fox (Gustav Adolf) and the cat (Tilly). The overturned mousetrap symbolizes the devastated city of Magdeburg, during whose conquest Tilly overate, because he did not swallow an ordinary mouse but rather a ferocious shrew. The cat complains of nausea caused by the shrew in its bowels; the fox responds that these mice will finally bite through the rope which is tying it to the tree, and it will then attack the cat and avenge the mouse. The tied up fox (G.A.) represents the strategic and political situation which prevented the Swedish king from liberating Magdeburg from the siege.

Signature: Sig. C. H. excud.
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Ein kurtz jedoch nachdenklich Gespräch eines Fuchse sund Katzen. Gedruckt, gekwetzscht und den Balg genugsam zerzaust bei der grossen Mauszfallen im Jahr: Heuer wird Magdeburk gerochen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 132/77

This pamphlet deals with the situation after the fall of Magdeburg, and expresses the Protestants' great anger and hatred after the cruel annihilation of Magdeburg by Tilly. The longed-for revenge came about at the Battle of Breitenfeld that same year.


140-A Magdeburg wedding song, sung to the tune of “the Danish battle“. It was first printed in Augsburg, and here it was disseminated by Papists in 1631.

A Magdeburg wedding song, sung to the tune of “the Danish battle“. It was first printed in Augsburg, and here it was disseminated by Papists in 1631.

On 20.05.1631

King Gustav Adolf of Sweden is leading a bride (i.e. the city of Magdeburg), and a procession is following them. Across from them stand generals Tilly and Pappenheim. Beneath this scene is a short German poem mentioning certain cities (e.g. Ulm, Augsburg, Nuremberg etc.) in various wedding roles. On both sides there is the text of another poem with the words of Tilly, certain soldiers, Magdeburg, Denmark, Turkey, the empire, the Catholic League, Swedes etc. Each of them is speaking ironically, according to their relationship with the Roman-German empire.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Magdeburgish Hochzeitlied, in der Melodey, wie man die Dennemärckische Schlacht singt. Erstlich gedruckt zu Augspurg und da selbsten von einem Papisten auszgesprengt worden, Anno 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 148/71

This is a pamphlet about Tilly's conquest of Magdeburg on the 20th of May 1631. Since “Magd“ means a girl or a maid, Tilly was often ridiculed for the conquest of Magdeburg and depicted as the groom at his wedding to a girl (i.e. Magdeburg). The melody to “the Danish battle“ doubtless means the song which at one stage was sung to celebrate Tilly's victory over the Danes at Lutter. Now the same melody was to be sung with a text about Magdeburg, and the soon to follow defeat of Imperial forces at Breitenfeld.


159-Tilly

Tilly's fortune (fate), in which Tilly's palm is read in order to predict how his affairs will turn out.

On 01.07.1631 (do 31.12.1631)

General Tilly is presenting his open hand to a witch who is predicting another fate for him. A child is standing behind the witch. In the background, Magdeburg is in flames. Beneath the picture is a rhyming dialogue between Tilly and the witch in which Tilly's so-called crimes are primitively described, in particular of course the conquest of Magdeburg. Tilly is trying to justify his actions.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tyllisch Glücke, Darinnen dem Tylli aus seiner Hand Wahr gesagt wird, was seine Sachen für einen Ausgang gewinnen werden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 149/67

The sheet ridicules Tilly's defeat by the Swedes and the Saxons at Leipzig on the 17th of September 1631, and considers it to be just retribution for the bloody annihilation of Magdeburg.


144-An illustration of the Swedish field camp at Werben, 1631.

An illustration of the Swedish field camp at Werben, 1631.

Werben, On 12.07.1631

The picture represents a large Swedish field camp at the confluence of the Elbe and Havel, not far from Werben, which was established by Gustav Adolf on the 12th of July 1631. The arrangement of tents and various other localities in the camp is interesting. In the background we can see the confluence of both of the mentioned rivers and the small fortified town of Werben. Tilly's troops are in the foreground. At the bottom on the left, there is a rectangle with the legend A-I.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Her Coninkl. Sweetshe Velt-leger by Werben, anno 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 133/238

After the conquest of Magdeburg by Tilly on the 20th of May 1631, the Imperial forces stayed in the vicinity of the devastated town for some time, while Gustav Adolf remained in Brandenburg with his troops where he occupied some strategically important places in order to ensure a connection to his bases. Because it still had not been decided whether John George I. Elector of Saxony would remain an ally on the Imperial side or move to the Swedish side after this significant event, Gustav Adolf did not decide on immediate action against Tilly but instead waited in a fixed camp which he had established at Werben at the beginning of July 1631. On the 22nd of July, a significant part of Tilly's army approached the Werben camp. Over the following days there were several clashes and skirmishes between the Swedes and the Imperial forces which caused bloody losses on both sides, but did not bring about a decisive victory. As time went on, the Imperial forces began to suffer from hunger and a noticeable lack of drinking water, as the water in the Elbe was unusable due to large numbers of corpses from Magdeburg floating in it. Tilly was therefore forced to give the command to retreat from Werben on the 29th of July; this was also due to the fact that the convenient strategic position of the Swedes ruled out a favourable final outcome of the battle for the Imperial forces.


145-An actual illustration of the royal Swedish field camp at Werben-on-Elbe. 1631. Werben and the Swedish camp.

An actual illustration of the royal Swedish field camp at Werben-on-Elbe. 1631. Werben and the Swedish camp.

Werben, On 12.07.1631

This copperplate is identical to the print mentioned on the previous page under no. 133/238, which is labelled in Dutch, while sheet no. 134/262 is labelled with a German-Latin inscription.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung des königlichen Schwedischen Veldlägers bey Werben an der Elbe. Anno 1631. Werbena cum castris Svecorum.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 134/262

After the conquest of Magdeburg by Tilly on the 20th of May 1631, the Imperial forces stayed in the vicinity of the devastated town for some time, while Gustav Adolf remained in Brandenburg with his troops where he occupied some strategically important places in order to ensure a connection to his bases. Because it still had not been decided whether John George I. Elector of Saxony would remain an ally on the Imperial side or move to the Swedish side after this significant event, Gustav Adolf did not decide on immediate action against Tilly but instead waited in a fixed camp which he had established at Werben at the beginning of July 1631. On the 22nd of July, a significant part of Tilly's army approached the Werben camp. Over the following days there were several clashes and skirmishes between the Swedes and Imperial forces which caused bloody losses on both sides, but did not bring about a decisive victory. As time went on, the Imperial forces began to suffer from hunger and a noticeable lack of drinking water, as the water in the Elbe was unusable due to large numbers of corpses from Magdeburg floating in it. Tilly was therefore forced to give the command to retreat from Werben on the 29th of July; this was also due to the fact that the convenient strategic position of the Swedes ruled out a favourable final outcome of the battle for the Imperial forces.


146-Tangermünde.

Tangermünde.

Tangermünde, On 30.07.1631

The picture shows a view of the town of Tangermünde, which lies on the Elbe, approximately 100km west of Berlin, on a gentle hill. The Tanger river, flowing into the Elbe, is drawn on the print. In the sky there is a blank heraldic shield. In the foreground there is a fortified military camp on the bank of the Elbe. On the river, two ships are sailing.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tangermünd.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 135/223

In the period preceding the Battle of Breitenfeld, which took place on the 17th of September 1631, both of the opposing armies - those of Tilly and Gustav Adolf - operated in Brandenburg along the middle of the river Elbe. Tilly arrived with his army in Tangermünde on the 30th of July 1631, established a camp there (as is evident from the picture) and remained here until the 12th of August; then he moved off in the direction of Saxony, mainly due to supply reasons as Saxony had not yet been affected by looting troops, as almost all the other German countries were. The entire period preceding the Battle of Breitenfeld was used for smaller supply expeditions by both the Imperial League troops and the Swedes. At that time there were often clashes between both sides' cavalry divisions, which either monitored the procurement of food, or attempted to thwart the same efforts by enemy expeditions. We must not forget that looting by the Imperial divisions in Saxony to a large extent influenced the decision of John George I. Elector to join the Battle of Breitenfeld on the Swedish side.


147-An actual illustration of the Spanish fleet, which under the command of Lord Count John of Nassau etc. sailed from Antwerp to Willstätt and was defeated by Dutch warships under the command of Lord Prince Henry of Orange etc. on the 13th of September 1631.

An actual illustration of the Spanish fleet, which under the command of Lord Count John of Nassau etc. sailed from Antwerp to Willstätt and was defeated by Dutch warships under the command of Lord Prince Henry of Orange etc. on the 13th of September 1631.

On 13.09.1631

The picture illustrates the Dutch territory at the mouth of the Scheldt. There are many different warships on the river. The above-quoted German text with the legend A-B is located below the upper edge of the print. Under the picture there is a three-verse German text, which describes the course of the naval battle and mentions several military inventions discovered by a certain monastic person in Brussels. These inventions (1-14) apparently helped the Dutch to victory.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung der Spanischen Flott, welche unter dem Comando des Herrn Grafen Johann von Nassau etc. von Anttorff nachher Wilmstatt gefahren und von den holländischen Kriegsschiffen under dem Commando Herrn Heinrich Prinzen von Oragnien etc. geschlagen worden Anno 1631 den 13. September.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 137/437

In the long war between the Netherlands and Spain, there was a turnaround in favour of the Dutch due to the personal military and diplomatic skills of Frederick Henry Prince of Orange, who around the year 1630 defeated the Spanish on several occasions both on dry land and at sea. The illustrated naval battle between the Spanish fleet under Count John of Nassau, who was originally on the Protestant side and was one of the relatives of Frederick Henry prince of Orange but converted to Catholicism and held various positions in the Habsburg and Spanish armies, and the Dutch fleet commanded by Frederick Henry Prince of Orange, took place on the 13th of September 1631 at the mouth of the Scheldt, and ended in the complete defeat of the Spanish.


155-A rejoicing messenger, who on the morning of the 6th of September 1631 left Tilly

A rejoicing messenger, who on the morning of the 6th of September 1631 left Tilly's camp near Leipzig and (left) for Frankfurt-on-Mohan. Printed in 1632.

Breitenfeld, On 16.09.1631

The print depicts general Tilly's messenger who is marching to Frankfurt-on-Mohan. He's holding a lance and waving a hat with the other; he has luggage tied to his back and an Imperial emblem with an eagle on his chest. The goal of his journey – Frankfurt-on-Mohan – is in the background. Beneath the illustrated scene there is a long German poem strongly describing daring and confidence in the victory of Tilly's army, which is preparing to fight against the troops of Gustav Adolf of Sweden and John George Elector of Saxony. The Elector of Saxony, in particular, is shown very frequently, as he only decided to fight on the Swedish side shortly before the Battle of Breitenfeld.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der jauchtzende Bot, so den 6. Septemberis Anno 1631 früh aus dem Tillyschen Läger vor Leipzig nachher Frankfurt am Mayn abgangen. Gedruckt im Jahr MDCXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 145/76

This is a promotional leaflet ridiculing Tilly and his troops after the Battle of Leipzig (of Breitenfeld) on the 17th of September 1631. The rejoicing messenger, already delivering a report on the certain victory of the Imperial troops in advance (before the battle), is supposed to represent the confidence and pride of the Imperial League army before the big clash at Leipzig, and at the same time make the contrast with Tilly's crushing defeat even starker. In this way, the Protestants tried to capitalize on their victory and gain as much political prestige as possible. The fact that the sheet was printed a year after the Battle of Breitenfeld shows that the author of the print already knew the result of the battle, and invented and added the entire tale involving the messenger for promotional reasons.


148-The position of the troops of His Majesty of Sweden the His Highness Elector of Saxony, and also Count Tilly, at Leipzig in 1631.

The position of the troops of His Majesty of Sweden the His Highness Elector of Saxony, and also Count Tilly, at Leipzig in 1631.

Breitenfeld, On 17.09.1631

The picture has been drawn in a relatively primitive and simple way. It represents the position of both of the opponents' troops before the battle at Breitenfeld near Leipzig. The bottom of the picture shows a village with a church tower and a long ditch with a row of trees planted beside it; a little further on the left is another village. The destination at the end of the drawn paths is always labelled with an inscription. At the bottom on the right there is an orientation compass. In addition to the clamped military formations there are also many individual figures, horsemen, firing cannons, vehicles etc.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Schlachtordnung I. May. in Schweden und Churf. Durchl. zu Sachsen und dann des Grafen von Tilly bey Leipzig 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 138/167

The Battle of Breitenfeld (also known as “the Battle of Leipzig“) which took place on the 17th of September 1631, was one of the most significant and by its extent one of the largest battles of the Thirty Years' War. A direct result of it was a new distribution of power in the conflict. For various strategic and political reasons, Gustav Adolf of Sweden needed a lot of time before he decided on a direct, decisive battle against Tilly's army, which up to now had not suffered any significant defeat. One of the main incentives for the Protestants was the desire for revenge for the looting of Magdeburg. John George I. Elector of Saxony hesitated for a long time before openly opposing the Emperor, and this decision was actually caused by Tilly's lack of diplomatic skill, as he advanced with his hungry army though Saxon territory which had up to that point not been affected by the war, and his divisions looted whenever they could. This fact, and the terrible fate of Magdeburg which was actually Tilly's work, strengthened the decision of the Elector of Saxony to join the Swedish side. In this way he became a needle on a scale which Tilly could no longer balance. During the clash between the two armies, over 30,000 men on each side stood facing each other (i.e. a total of over 60,000 men). At the beginning of the battle, the Saxons were defeated by Fürstenberg on the left wing, and their formations fell apart. The brilliant tactic used by Gustav Adolf II. King of Sweden, however, managed to balance this initial defeat. The Swedish infantry achieved unexpected successes in this battle. The experienced general Pappenheim (after whom the saying: “We know our own Pappenheimers!“ is still used today) carried out sudden attacks on the left wing of the Imperial forces, but these were fruitless against the flexibly operating Swedes. The Imperial League troops suffered a  crushing defeat. It was mainly due to the Swedish king's tactical innovations – strong infantry formations, mobile artillery and the support of cavalry formations by infantry fire surprised Tilly, who had made several fundamental errors in his own battle plan.


150-The positions (of the troops) in the battle which took place near Leipzig.

The positions (of the troops) in the battle which took place near Leipzig.

Breitenfeld, On 17.09.1631

The copperplate is divided into two parts, of which the upper part depicts the positions of both of the opposing armies, the Imperial League and the Swedish-Saxon, between the Battle of Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. At the bottom there is a picture of the battle in full swing; the Imperial-Bavarian divisions are in disarray and are retreating and fleeing. On both of the pictures, the village of Breitenfeld is at the bottom on the right. The whole copperplate is framed by a fine baroque frame with a small shield in the top centre, in which the number XLIV is written. The above-quoted Latin text is located on the decorative shield between both of the illustrated scenes.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Diatyposis praelii prope Lipsiam comissi.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 139/314

The Battle of Breitenfeld (also known as “the Battle of Leipzig“) which took place on the 17th of September 1631, was one of the most significant and by its extent one of the largest battles of the Thirty Years' War. A direct result of it was a new distribution of power in the conflict. For various strategic and political reasons, Gustav Adolf of Sweden needed a lot of time before he decided on a direct, decisive battle against Tilly's army, which up to now had not suffered any significant defeat. One of the main incentives for the Protestants was the desire for revenge for the looting of Magdeburg. John George I. Elector of Saxony hesitated for a long time before openly opposing the Emperor, and this decision was actually caused by Tilly's lack of diplomatic skill, as he advanced with his hungry army though Saxon territory which had up to that point not been affected by the war, and his divisions looted whenever they could. This fact, and the terrible fate of Magdeburg which was actually Tilly's work, strengthened the decision of the Elector of Saxony to join the Swedish side. In this way he became a needle on a scale which Tilly could no longer balance. During the clash between the two armies, over 30,000 men on each side stood facing each other (i.e. a total of over 60,000 men). At the beginning of the battle, the Saxons were defeated by Fürstenberg on the left wing, and their formations fell apart. The brilliant tactic used by Gustav Adolf II. King of Sweden, however, managed to balance this initial defeat. The Swedish infantry achieved unexpected successes in this battle. The experienced general Pappenheim (after whom the saying: “We know our own Pappenheimers!“ is still used today) carried out sudden attacks on the left wing of the Imperial forces, but these were fruitless against the flexibly operating Swedes. The defeat of the Imperial League troops was crushing. It was mainly due to the Swedish king's tactical innovations – strong infantry formations, mobile artillery and the support of cavalry formations by infantry fire surprised Tilly, who had made several fundamental errors in his own battle plan.


149-A picture of the positions of the Royal Swedish and Saxon Elector troops, and standing against them the Imperial and League troops under the command of Count Tilly, together with an accurate description of the positions of both sides

A picture of the positions of the Royal Swedish and Saxon Elector troops, and standing against them the Imperial and League troops under the command of Count Tilly, together with an accurate description of the positions of both sides' wings and divisions as they stood against each other before the clash at Leipzig, as is evident from this picture.

Breitenfeld, On 17.09.1631

This is a fragment of a large copperplate, engraved á la Merian but unsigned. In the foreground of the military scene there is the village of Podelwitz, and an unnamed river. The left third of the picture shows the path to Wittenberg and Leipzig. Beside the path labelled with the letter “K“ is an illustration of general Tilly with his adjutant; on the right is King Gustav Adolf of Sweden with two horsemen. The above-quoted Latin text is located above the illustrated scene.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Delineatio aciei regiae sveticae et electoralis Saxoniae, hisque opositae caesarae ac ligisticae sub ductu comitis Tilii una cum accurata desigantione ….rum alarum et cohortium utriusque partis, quo pacto ille ante conflictum iuxta Lipsiam ex adverso constiterint subiecta ipsius praelii icone.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 140/326

The Battle of Breitenfeld (also known as “the Battle of Leipzig“) which took place on the 17th of September 1631, was one of the most significant and by its extent one of the largest battles of the Thirty Years' War. A direct result of it was a new distribution of power in the conflict. For various strategic and political reasons, Gustav Adolf of Sweden needed a lot of time before he decided on a direct, decisive battle against Tilly's army, which up to now had not suffered any significant defeat. One of the main incentives for the Protestants was the desire for revenge for the looting of Magdeburg. John George I. Elector of Saxony hesitated for a long time before openly opposing the Emperor, and this decision was actually caused by Tilly's lack of diplomatic skill, as he advanced with his hungry army though Saxon territory which had up to that point not been affected by the war, and his divisions looted whenever they could. This fact, and the terrible fate of Magdeburg which was actually the Tilly's work, strengthened the decision of the Elector of Saxony to join the Swedish side. In this way he became a needle on a scale which Tilly could no longer balance. During the clash between the two armies, over 30,000 men on each side stood facing each other (i.e. a total of over 60,000 men). At the beginning of the battle, the Saxons were defeated by Fürstenberg on the left wing, and their formations fell apart. The brilliant tactic used by Gustav Adolf II. King of Sweden, however, managed to balance this initial defeat. The Swedish infantry achieved unexpected successes in this battle. The experienced general Pappenheim (after whom the saying: “We know our own Pappenheimers!“ is still used today) carried out sudden attacks on the left wing of the Imperial forces, but these were fruitless against the flexibly operating Swedes. The Imperial League troops suffered a  crushing defeat. It was mainly due to the Swedish king's tactical innovations – strong infantry formations, mobile artillery and support of cavalry formations by infantry fire surprised Tilly, who had made several fundamental errors in his own battle plan.


153-The Battle of Leipzig, which took place between the Imperial and Catholic League armies, and the armies of King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony, on the 17th of September 1631.

The Battle of Leipzig, which took place between the Imperial and Catholic League armies, and the armies of King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony, on the 17th of September 1631.

Breitenfeld, On 17.09.1631

The engraving represents a large prospectus of the Battle of Breitenfeld (of Leipzig). On the left-hand side the battle is already approaching its peak, but the situation on the right-hand side is not yet so advanced. In the foreground is a village with a windmill, a small church and groups of trees. In the foreground on the right there are several military emblems, and a little to the left there is an orientation compass. The quoted text is located in the rectangle at the bottom on the right; on the left there is another rectangle with the legend A-M.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: La Battaglia di Lipsia Fragli Exerciti imperiale e della lega Cattolica contro quelli del Re Gustavo Adolfo di Suecia e dell Elettore di Sassonia seguita alli 17. di Setembre 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 141/473

The Battle of Breitenfeld (also known as “the Battle of Leipzig“) which took place on the 17th of September 1631, was one of the most significant and by its extent one of the largest battles of the Thirty Years' War. A direct result of it was a new distribution of power in the conflict. For various strategic and political reasons, Gustav Adolf of Sweden needed a lot of time before he decided on a direct, decisive battle against Tilly's army, which up to now had not suffered any significant defeat. One of the main incentives for the Protestants was the desire for revenge for the looting of Magdeburg. John George I. Elector of Saxony hesitated for a long time before openly opposing the Emperor, and this decision was actually caused by Tilly's lack of diplomatic skill, as he advanced with his hungry army though Saxon territory which had up to that point not been affected by the war, and his divisions looted whenever they could. This fact, and the terrible fate of Magdeburg which was actually Tilly's work, strengthened the decision of the Elector of Saxony to join the Swedish side. In this way he became a needle on a scale which Tilly could no longer balance. During the clash between the two armies, over 30,000 men on each side stood facing each other (i.e. a total of over 60,000 men). At the beginning of the battle, the Saxons were defeated by Fürstenberg on the left wing, and their formations fell apart. The brilliant tactic used by Gustav Adolf II. King of Sweden, however, managed to balance this initial defeat. The Swedish infantry achieved unexpected successes in this battle. The experienced general Pappenheim (after whom the saying: “We know our own Pappenheimers!“ is still used today) carried out sudden attacks on the left wing of the Imperial forces, but these were fruitless against the flexibly operating Swedes. The Imperial League troops suffered a  crushing defeat. It was mainly due to the Swedish king's tactical innovations – strong infantry formations, mobile artillery and the support of cavalry formations by infantry fire surprised Tilly, who had made several fundamental errors in his own battle plan.


151-An illustration drawn in accordance with the exact positions of the troops in the battle between the Supreme King of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony, as well as the general of the Catholic League, Count Tilly, which took place on the 7th of September 1631 near Leipzig, also containing a statement of the losses and retreat of the Catholic troops, known to all the descendants, drawn by Oluv Hanson, surveyor of camps and architect, on the orders and under the supervision of the Supreme King.

An illustration drawn in accordance with the exact positions of the troops in the battle between the Supreme King of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony, as well as the general of the Catholic League, Count Tilly, which took place on the 7th of September 1631 near Leipzig, also containing a statement of the losses and retreat of the Catholic troops, known to all the descendants, drawn by Oluv Hanson, surveyor of camps and architect, on the orders and under the supervision of the Supreme King.

Breitenfeld, On 17.09.1631

This is a large and detailed picture of the Battle of Breitenfeld. The above-quoted text is located on the right. The entire area of the picture is filled with battle scenes with cannons, banners, cannonballs, kegs etc. An unnamed stream flows along the edge. The most intense battle rages on the left, beneath a hillock with a gallows across which many soldiers are fleeing. On the left at the top there is an incoiled vignette with battle slogans: “Gott mit uns“ (i.e. Swedish) and “Jesus Maria“ (i.e. Imperial). Under the picture are the legends A-X and 1-99.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Hanson Oluf, švédský kreslíř plánů a bitev

Original name: Praelii inter sereniss. Svecor. regem et Saxoniae elektorem nec non catholicae ligae generalem cm. a Tilly VII. september anni MDCXXXI prope Lipsam comissi et subsecutae exercitus catholici stragis fugaeque ad omnem posteritatem memorabilis cum instructae aciei typo delineatio, quam iussu et auspiciis regis supremus castrorum metator et architectus Oluv Hanson delineavit.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 142/217

The Battle of Breitenfeld (also known as “the Battle of Leipzig“) which took place on the 17th of September 1631, was one of the most significant and by its extent one of the largest battles of the Thirty Years' War. A direct result of it was a new distribution of power in the conflict. For various strategic and political reasons, Gustav Adolf of Sweden needed a lot of time before he decided on a direct, decisive battle against Tilly's army, which up to now had not suffered any significant defeat. One of the main incentives for the Protestants was the desire for revenge for the looting of Magdeburg. John George I. Elector of Saxony hesitated for a long time before openly opposing the Emperor, and this decision was actually caused by Tilly's lack of diplomatic skill, as he advanced with his hungry army though Saxon territory which had up to that point not been affected by the war, and his divisions looted whenever they could. This fact, and the terrible fate of Magdeburg which was actually Tilly's work, strengthened the decision of the Elector of Saxony to join the Swedish side. In this way he became a needle on a scale which Tilly could no longer balance. During the clash between the two armies, over 30,000 men on each side stood facing each other (i.e. a total of over 60,000 men). At the beginning of the battle, the Saxons were defeated by Fürstenberg on the left wing, and their formations fell apart. The brilliant tactic used by Gustav Adolf II. King of Sweden, however, managed to balance this initial defeat. The Swedish infantry achieved unexpected successes in this battle. The experienced general Pappenheim (after whom the saying: “We know our own Pappenheimers!“ is still used today) carried out sudden attacks on the left wing of the Imperial forces, but these were fruitless against the flexibly operating Swedes. The Imperial League troops suffered a  crushing defeat. It was mainly due to the Swedish king's tactical innovations – strong infantry formations, mobile artillery and the support of cavalry formations by infantry fire surprised Tilly, who had made several fundamental errors in his own battle plan.


152-The Battle of Leipzig which took place between Imperial and Catholic League armies, and the armies of King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony, on the 17th of September 1631.

The Battle of Leipzig which took place between Imperial and Catholic League armies, and the armies of King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony, on the 17th of September 1631.

Breitenfeld, On 17.09.1631

The engraving represents a large prospectus of the Battle of Breitenfeld (of Leipzig). On the left-hand side the battle is already approaching its peak, but the situation on the right-hand side is not yet so advanced. In the foreground is a village with a windmill, a small church and groups of trees. In the foreground on the right there are several military emblems, and a little to the left there is an orientation compass. The quoted text is located in the rectangle at the bottom on the right; on the left there is another rectangle with the legend A-M.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: La Battaglia di Lipsia Fragli Exerciti imperiale e della lega Cattolica contro quelli del Re Gustavo Adolfo di Suecia e dell Elettore di Sassonia seguita alli 17. di Setembre 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 143/232

The Battle of Breitenfeld (also known as “the Battle of Leipzig“) which took place on the 17th of September 1631, was one of the most significant and by its extent one of the largest battles of the Thirty Years' War. A direct result of it was a new distribution of power in the conflict. For various strategic and political reasons, Gustav Adolf of Sweden needed a lot of time before he decided on a direct, decisive battle against Tilly's army, which up to now had not suffered any significant defeat. One of the main incentives for the Protestants was the desire for revenge for the looting of Magdeburg. John George I. Elector of Saxony hesitated for a long time before openly opposing the Emperor, and this decision was actually caused by Tilly's lack of diplomatic skill, as he advanced with his hungry army though Saxon territory which had up to that point not been affected by the war, and his divisions looted whenever they could. This fact, and the terrible fate of Magdeburg which was actually Tilly's work, strengthened the decision of the Elector of Saxony to join the Swedish side. In this way he became a needle on a scale which Tilly could no longer balance. During the clash between the two armies, over 30,000 men on each side stood facing each other (i.e. a total of over 60,000 men). At the beginning of the battle, the Saxons were defeated by Fürstenberg on the left wing, and their formations fell apart. The brilliant tactic used by Gustav Adolf II. King of Sweden, however, managed to balance this initial defeat. The Swedish infantry achieved unexpected successes in this battle. The experienced general Pappenheim (after whom the saying: “We know our own Pappenheimers!“ is still used today) carried out sudden attacks on the left wing of the Imperial forces, but these were fruitless against the flexibly operating Swedes. The Imperial League troops suffered a  crushing defeat. It was mainly due to the Swedish king's tactical innovations – strong infantry formations, mobile artillery and the support of cavalry formations by infantry fire surprised Tilly, who had made several fundamental errors in his own battle plan.


154-A well-equipped school of spanking, in which Tilly

A well-equipped school of spanking, in which Tilly's soldiers were, as appropriate according to their merit, drawn over a bench and (God willing) they will be beaten later on even harded. Printed in 1631.

On 17.09.1631

The picture shows 3 of Tilly's soldiers kneeling in front of a bench; 2 Swedish mercenaries are standing behind them and beating them mercilessly with large bats. Playing cards and various delicacies lie on the bench. Under the bench there is a mousetrap and a brush. In the background is an emblem of the Battle of Breitenfeld. Beneath this scene there is a 9-verse poem in which the beating Swedish soldiers describe the crimes perpetrated by Tilly's army, thus justifying their own actions.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wohlbestallte Pritzsch Schule, in welcher die Tyllischen Soldaten nach Gebühr, bisz anhero zimlich sind über die Bank gezogen worden und sollen auch hinführe noch besser (wills der liebe Herr) gepritzsched werden. Gedruckt im Jahr 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 146/73

This Protestant pamphlet satirizees Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631 and shows the hatred and anger of the Swedes towards the Imperial League troops, whose main crime was the cruel annihilation of Magdeburg. The delicacies on the bench sarcastically symbolize the bitter defeat of the Imperial forces by the Swedes at Breitenfeld and the moustrap represents the conquest of Magdeburg where Tilly “sat on the pork fat“ for the Protestants and fell into the trap, despite his bloody conquest of the town. Similarly illustrated similes can often also be found in other graphic art in our collection.


161-Tilly

Tilly's household

On 17.09.1631

This is an extensive pictorial riddle (rebus), which is located under the inscription: “Als man zählt tausend sechshundert einunddreisig Jahr, am Tag Regina das ist wahr, ward Magdeburg hunderfältig gerochen, und mancher Pfaffenknecht erstochen, usw.“ “When we counted the one thousand six hundred and thirty first year, on the day of the Queen, it is true, Magdeburg was avenged hundredfold and many a parish priest's servant was stabbed, etc.“ The almost completely deciphered text of the rebus is quoted on the reverse of this copperplate.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Des Tilly Haushaltung

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 147/140

The print contains a satirical rebus dealing with Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. The leaflet mocks the defeated general and describes his defeat as punishment for the conquered and plundered Mandeburg. The term “Haushaltung“ is not particularly convincing. However, Zíbrt uses this to explain the engraved detail of a man holding a tilting house. Maybe the right term should be: “Umfall“ or “Unfall“, i.e. fall, an accident or an injury. The tilting house could be identified by this term, which would also convey the meaning of the subject more accurately. However, “Haushaltung“, i.e. household, can be interpreted in this context as “general living conditions“ which would also convey the meaning of the rebus.


157-Tillius poenitens, i.e. Tilly

Tillius poenitens, i.e. Tilly's penance and subsequent absolution according to all three papal regulations, i.e. regret, confession and penance (were) made and accepted after the defeat suffered at Leipzig. Printed in 1632.

On 17.09.1631

The copperplate is composed of six pictorial sections: A. Tilly is depicted in armour with a raised sword in his right hand as the yet undefeated, confident hero. Behind him are the Brandenburg eagle and the Swedish lion, and he obviously has no fear of them. B. Tilly is on a horse, with his bride (i.e. Magdeburg) and a soldier with his hand raised in the saddle behind him. In the background is the burning city of Magdeburg, and troops. C. A fight between soldiers at the lunch table. This represents Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, which in Protestant pamphlets is very often compared to a banquet put on for Tilly by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Elector of Saxony. D. Tilly is sitting unhappily on the ground in a landscape; there are flies buzzing around his head (i.e. depressing thoughts which are troubling him) and in the background there is a battlefield littered with corpses. This symbolizes the Tilly's desperate situation after the great defeat at Leipzig. E. Tilly is sitting in a church beside a priest, making his confession. A person representing desperation is handing Tilly a knife and rope so that he can commit suicide. F. In front of the church gates stands a monk who is offering Tilly a monk's frock. This represents Tilly intending to join a convent in desperation. A long German poem explaining the illustrated scenes follows.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tillius poenitens, Das ist Tyllische Busz und darauf erfolgte Absolution nach allen dreyen päbstischen Stücken, als der Re. Beicht und Genugthuung gethan und empfangen nach erlittener leipzigischen Niederlage. Gedruckt im Jahre MDCXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 150/132

The print mocks Tilly's defeat at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. The poem discusses practically all of general Tilly's military career, from the battle on White Mountain to the defeat at Breitenfeld – in an ironic light, of course. Great emphasis is placed (as it always was during that year) on the cruel conquest and destruction of Magdeburg, which was the main reason for the Protestants' hatred of Imperial and League troops. There is also detailed elaboration on why the general is troubled by a guilty conscience which prompted him to make a confession. The author of the print infers only two acceptable conclusions for general Tilly in this situation: entry into a convent, or suicide.


156-Tilly

Tilly's promise to enter a convent.

On 17.09.1631

On the picture is general Tilly sitting on a lion in the skin of a donkey, with long ears. Tilly is holding a tattered branch in his hand, and has a large hat on his head. In front of him, the Pope sits on a throne with a triple cross in his hand and a tiara on his head. Nearby, between the two, stands a high-ranking church dignitary, apparently a cardinal, who is holding a warhorse by the reins and offering it to Tilly. In the background, on the left, stands a verger. Beneath this scene is a rhyming text with a dialogue between the Pope and Tilly, numbering 42 verses.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tyllisch Klostergelübde.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 151/126

This is a Protestant pamphlet which deals with general Tilly's dismal position after the Battle of Breitenfeld, using sarcasm. The dialogue expresses Tilly's desperation and helplessness to take up arms again and fight against Gustav Adolf, which the Pope is exhorting him to do with various arguments. Tilly refuses the Pope's encouragement and declares that he wants to take shelter in monastic seclusion. The lion dressed in a donkey's skin is probably supposed to represent the actual nature of Tilly's legendary victorious command which in the end brought about the defeat at Breitenfeld with its stupidity. Perhaps “Tiilly's stupidity“ means his inopportune campaign in Saxon territory, together with his troops' extensive plundering which at the last minute convinced John George I. Elector of Saxony to openly oppose the Imperial forces.


162-Tilly

Tilly's composition near a college in Leipzig, composed by long Fritz. O, long Fritz, may God forgive you, for almost killing me! In the year in which Magdeburg was avenged by God.

On 17.09.1631

Tilly, dressed in armour, is lying sick on a bed; the expression on his face shows severe pain. Beside the bed is a table with a glove, a helmet and marshal's staff on it. In the background there is a window covered by a curtain. On the tablecloth there is an inscription (translated): “An honest day's work for an honest day's pay!“ On the bolster there is an inscription: “Lord Tilly, how come you're so calm?“ An extensive German poem follows, in which Tilly laments his fate, which is punishment for his crimes in Magdeburg. In another the author warns all other offenders of God's vengeance.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Tillysche Deposition Nahe bey der hohen Schul in Leipzig, Depositore Langen Fritzio. O langer Fritz verzeih Dirs Gott, dass Du mich fast geschlagen Todt!“ Anno Wie MagDenbVrg Von Gott War geroChen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 152/68

This is a pamphlet published by Protestants, which mocks the defeat of the Imperial League troops under the command of general Tilly on the 17th of September 1631 at Breitenfeld, not far from Leipzig. The author of the print is also mocking the injuries that Tilly suffered in that battle. During the biggest commotion in the battle, Tilly suddenly met a certain Swedish captain who was nicknamed: “der lange Fritz“, i.e. “Long Frederick”, and who called on Tilly to surrender immediately. Tilly refused, whereupon Long Frederick hit him in the neck with the butt of a cavalry carbine, causing him a painful bruise. At that moment, however, Duke Rudolf of Saxony-Lauenburg rushed to Tilly's aid and shot Long Frederick through the head.


539-A postal messenger sent by His Royal Highness of Sweden to ask Lord John Tilly where he so hastily hid away with his great army which he had in Meissen near Leipzig. Printed in 1631.

A postal messenger sent by His Royal Highness of Sweden to ask Lord John Tilly where he so hastily hid away with his great army which he had in Meissen near Leipzig. Printed in 1631.

On 17.09.1631

The picture shows a postal messenger cantering on a horse and blowing a French horn. He's riding through a rocky and forested landscape, in the background of which there is a small church and a body of water with a ship. Behind the rider on the right, there is a man holding a long staff. Under this illustrated scene there is a German poem in which the messenger constantly asks peasants, priests, monks, nuns and all other passers-by where Tilly disappeared with his great army. Among the generals mentioned in the verses, there are also references to Aldrigen and Götz.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Post Bor, so von Ihrer Königl. Mayest. in Schweden ist auszgesandt worden, dem Mons. Johann von Tylli nach zu fragen, wohin er mit seiner grossen Armée, so er in Meyssen vor Leipzig hat bey sich gehabe, so eylends sich verkrochen habe. Gedruckt im Jahr 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 153/57

The leaflet, published by Protestants, ridicules Tilly and his army after the defeat at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. Given that fact that the Swedes' and Saxons' victory over the Imperial League troops meant a turnaround in the distribution of power between the warring parties in favour of the Protestants, this event was also extensively used for promotional purposes. This is why we see an extraordinary amount of graphic art, which tries to use all resources – both pictorial and verbal – to emphasize the significance of the victory at Leipzig and at the same time humiliate the defeated opponent. The political-military situation in the Imperial camp, which was a result of this Battle of Breitenfeld, forced the Emperor to call the experienced Waldstein into his services again (the so-called second generalate).


160-A freshly-laid table full of delicacies and titbits, laid by His Royal Highness of Sweden and His Highness Elector of Saxony for general Tilly and his foodies, on the 7th of September 1631 near Leipzig.

A freshly-laid table full of delicacies and titbits, laid by His Royal Highness of Sweden and His Highness Elector of Saxony for general Tilly and his foodies, on the 7th of September 1631 near Leipzig.

On 17.09.1631

The picture, which is very delicately and carefully made, shows a lain table thronged by a large number of wounded and maimed soldiers. Beside the table on the right stands Gustav Adolf of Sweden, beating an Imperial soldier over the head with a staff. A little further away stands John George Elector of Saxony, who with a raised forefinger warns the pushing soldiers not to eat the tempting dishes. In the background we can see Tilly's army on the run, and numerous dead and wounded mercenaries. Under the picture there is a poem describing, in detail, the course of the banquet prepared for Tilly and his famous army. Naturally, the tone of the poem is sarcastic, especially when it deals with Tilly's actions at the “banquet of Breitenfeld”. Beneath the poem is a detailed menu listing all sorts of delicacies that have been prepared for Tilly.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Neugedeckte Confectt-Taffel, So Ihre Königl. Mayest. in Schweden und Churf. Durchl. zu Sachsen General Tillen und seinen Confect-Näschern, den 7. Sept. 1631 vor Leipzig angerichtet.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 154/3

The leaflet, published by Protestants, uses both pictures and words to mock the defeat of Tilly and his army at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. It is interesting to note that the Battle of Breitenfeld is always (mockingly) compared in graphic illustrations from this period to a great banquet with selected delicacies prepared by Gustav Adolf and John George of Saxony for Tilly and his troops, at which the Imperial forces gorged themselves so much that they were incapable of any more warfare.


39-An illustration of a great and mighty, yet never before heard, league drum which is drummed far and wide in order to recruit people who are then handed the devil

An illustration of a great and mighty, yet never before heard, league drum which is drummed far and wide in order to recruit people who are then handed the devil's money.

On 17.09.1631

This is a picture of an enormous drum, which is fixed askew in a scaffolding construction which is similarly tilted. In the background there are several people using ropes to move large drumsticks and beat the drum with them. In front of the drum is the devil, dressed in an officer's uniform and wearing a large hat; he is accepting money offered to him by priests with Jesuit birettas on their heads. One of the Jesuits is persuading the devil not to be embarrassed to take the money. In the background, crowds of people are flocking to be recruited into the army. Beneath this picture there is a poem which harshly condemns the manner in which armies were recruited and armed in the Thirty Years' War.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abcontrafactur der grossen, mächtigen und noch nie erhörten Trummel der Ligae, so sie weit und breit rühren Volck zu werben und Teufflisch Geld auff die Hand geben.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 155/135

This anti-Catholic pamphlet was apparently issued after the Battle of Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, after which the defeated Imperial League side had a great demand for troops. It can be concluded that this engraving actually directly alludes, with its satirical theme, to the manner in which Waldstein, at the time of his so-called second generalate, recruited troops to create very sizeable armies. The verse beneath the picture initially describes the old way of recruiting troops for overseas expeditions, when people were summoned using church bells. At this period in time, however, this method no longer worked since the bell in Breitenfeld had fallen to the ground and broken, and besides bells were being melted down and used to manufacture cannons (just like in the wars in 1914-1918 and 1939-1945!). The League was therefore forced to use a large drum instead of bells for recruitment purposes, and great promises to attract people to the places where recruitment took place. The money needed to establish and maintain the armies had to be either acquired as haul during conquests, or extorted as taxes from the population or subjects in occupied territories. In the print, this immoral and exploitative activity is carried out by the devil.


164-An unusual drawing of the swift conquest of the town of Würzburg with its fortified castle, by His Royal Highness of Sweden, on the 8th of October 1631.

An unusual drawing of the swift conquest of the town of Würzburg with its fortified castle, by His Royal Highness of Sweden, on the 8th of October 1631.

On 08.10.1631

The picture is relatively primitively drawn and represents the conquest of Würzburg-on-Mohan by the Swedes. At the top is the horizontally drawn flow of the Mohan; above it lies the castle which is being conquered by Swedish troops. Würzburg is drawn in detail in the shape of a triangle; the Swedes have already entered the town. On the right there are several Swedish divisions, and in the foreground there are two musketeers. At the bottom on the left, there is the legend: A-I. Several verses beneath the picture deal with the course of the battle for Würzburg. The above-quoted inscription is located above the picture.

Signature: Jiří Köler, Norimberk
Autor: Köler Georg, rytec v Norimberku

Original name: Eygentlicher Abrisz der geschwinden Eroberung der Stadt Würtzburg von Ihrer Königl. Majest. in Schweden sampt dem vesten Schloss daselbsten geschehen den 8. Octob. 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 156/233

After the significant victory over Tilly at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, some indecisiveness arose in the Protestant camp about how to proceed. The path to Vienna was now open. John George I. Elector of Saxony recommended a campaign in Bohemia, in order to prevent the Emperor from building a new army. In the end, Gustav Adolf decided to advance to the West, in the direction of Halle and Erfurt to Würzburg. The local bishop, who ruled the town, fled before the Swedes. After several cannon volleys fired by the Swedes, the town surrendered by agreement. Wealthy citizens and traders hid in the castle with their goods; the castle garrison refused to surrender to the Swedes voluntarily. There was a short siege; the first attack by the conquerors was repelled but the two attacks which followed broke the defenders' resistance. 1,500 men in the garrison were slaughtered, many civilians also lost their lives, and the Swedes killed 20 priests in the castle cathedral. The seized haul was extensive and varied, and included a large amount of cash.


165-An illustration of the city of Frankfurt-on-Mohan and how His Royal Highness of Sweden and his army entered the city and passed through it on the 17th of November 1631.

An illustration of the city of Frankfurt-on-Mohan and how His Royal Highness of Sweden and his army entered the city and passed through it on the 17th of November 1631.

Frankfurt nad Mohanem, On 17.11.1631

The picture shows the city of Frankfurt-on-Mohan. In the background there is a relatively high mountain range and in the foreground we can see Swedish troops, led by King Gustav Adolf, advancing on the city. On the right there are a number of trees and two trumpeters on horses, and in the top left-hand corner is the city emblem with a  laurel branch around it. Below is the legend 1-22.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Contrafactur der Statt Franckfurt am Mayn und wie königl. May. zu Schweden daselbst mit ihrer Armee ein und durchgezogen, den 17. November 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 157/253

After his piercing victory at Breitenfeld, Gustav Adolf of Sweden advanced with his army to the west and occupied several important cities, among them Frakfurt-on-Mohan. Initially, the city council did not want to submit to the conditions offered by the Swedes and which had already been interpreted for them by the royal messenger Philipp Reinhard of Solms the day before the conquest (i.e. the 16th of November). Only on the following day did the city council reach the conclusion that there is no point opposing the dominant Swedish forces; it accepted the Swedes' capitulation conditions and handed the city over to them. Gustav Adolf occupied the city, but immediately set off on another march.


166-An actual illustration of the town of Kreuznach, which was conquered by His Highness of Sweden. 1631.

An actual illustration of the town of Kreuznach, which was conquered by His Highness of Sweden. 1631.

Bad Kreuznach, On 01.12.1631

The print shows the town of Kreuznach, lying on the river Nahe (the right tributary of the Rhine), approximately 70 km south-west of Frankfurt-on-Mohan. The Swedish cavalry is fording this river. On the right, on a hillock, lies Kreuznach castle. The town extends over both banks of the Nahe, and is engulfed in flames. In the foreground, on the right, there are horsemen with banners. In the skies is the town emblem with the inscription: “Crucenacum a Svecis occulatur.“ (this should be “occupatur“). Below is the legend A-P. The distinctive drawing of horses' behinds, as we see them here, is quite typical of W. Hollar even though Drugulin states that the author is M. Merian; in 1631 Hollar was employed in the Merians' engraving workshop in Frankfurt and he usually did not sign the works he produced here.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Wahre Bildnusz der Statt Creutznach, wie dieselbe von I. M. zu Schweden eingenohmen worden. 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 158/216

After the great victory at Breitenfeld, Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army moved south-east to Franconia and crossed the Rhine. During this strategic manoeuvre he conquered Frankfurt-on-Mohan and several other cities. Tilly, depressed after his first major defeat, moved on to the territory of Halberstadt where he gathered the remains of his once mighty army; he then withdrew to Bavaria. During his progress south-west across the Rhine, Gustav Adolf also occupied the town and castle of Kreuznach on the 1st of December 1631.


167-An unusual illustration of the festivities in Regensburg, held on the occasion of the council

An unusual illustration of the festivities in Regensburg, held on the occasion of the council's consecration and ordination of the newly-built church of the Holy Trinity for the Christian Evangelical community, on the 5th of December 1631.

Řezno, On 05.12.1631

The engraving represents the interior of the large, vaulted cathedral with a presbytery, altar and pulpit. The cathedral is completely filled with people who are even crowding the oratories and the chancel. Above the picture is the quoted text, and below is the legend A-N.

Signature: Matheus Merian fecit.
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung der zu Regensburg gehaltenen Solennien als ein E. E. Rath daselbsten die Neuerbauten Kirchen für den Christliche Evangelische Gemein, der heil. Dreifaltigkeit, consecrieren, und einweihen lassen geschehen den 5. 10bris 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 159/318

The print represents the ceremony of the consecration of the evangelical cathedral in Regensburg on the 5th of December 1631, i.e. a time when Regensburg was still firmly in the hands of the Catholic powers and when Gustav Adolf was penetrating south-west to Rhine. It can be assumed the the ceremony of the consecration of a Protestant cathedral in Regensburg could only have gone ahead without disruptive intervention by Catholics as a result of a change in the situation in favour of the Swedes after the Battle of Breitenfeld. However, Regensburg was only conquered by the Swedes under the command of Bernard of Weimar on the 5th of November 1633, and on the 16th of July 1634 it was taken back by Archduke Ferdinand (son of Emperor Ferdinand II.).


168-An illustration of the town and the occasion on which His Highness King of Sweden and his army crossed the Rhine, forced the Spanish cavalry to flee, and conquered the town of Oppenheim on the 7th of December 1631.

An illustration of the town and the occasion on which His Highness King of Sweden and his army crossed the Rhine, forced the Spanish cavalry to flee, and conquered the town of Oppenheim on the 7th of December 1631.

Oppenheim, On 07.12.1631

The Rhine flows through the illustrated landscape, and the army of Gustav Adolf King of Sweden is advancing across it. In the foreground there are some small-scale military scenes with cavalry. On the other bank of the Rhine is the town of Oppenheim, already in the grip of sizeable Swedish forces. Above the picture is the above-quoted German text, and the legend A-V is below. The engraving is the work of Wenceslaus Hollar; it does not actually contain Hollar's signature but Urzidil states in his work on Hollar that it has been safely confirmed that the clash at Oppenheim was drawn by Hollar, who watched the course of the battle with his own eyes.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung des Ohrts und gelegenheit, da Ihre Majestät der König zu Schweden mit dero Armeen über den Rhein gesetzt, die Spanische Reuterei in die Flucht gebracht und die Statt Oppenheim eingenohmen 7. 10bris 1631.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 160/257

After the victorious Battle of Breitenfeld, Gustav Adolf turned westward with his army towards the middle of the Rhine, where he conquered several important cities. On the 6th of December he reached the Rhine, behind which lies the town and castle of Oppenheim. A smaller Swedish division forded the river and attacked the Spanish cavalry on the other bank. The Swedes continued to fight an open battle until the morning of the 7th of December, when it became possible for them to concentrate more troops on the other bank of the Rhine. The Oppenheim fortress “Sternschantze“ surrendered without a fight, and after a brief resistance the town surrendered as well. After that the castle was conquered, where 500 Spanish soldiers were killed with the active support of the population. A monument in the shape of an obelisk was built at the place where Gustav Adolf crossed the Rhine.


169-A depiction of the pillar which was built in memory of the crossing of the Rhine at this point by His Majesty King of Sweden.
A pillar in memory of the crossing of the Rhine. Portrayed by Mat. Staud, His Royal Highness

A depiction of the pillar which was built in memory of the crossing of the Rhine at this point by His Majesty King of Sweden. A pillar in memory of the crossing of the Rhine. Portrayed by Mat. Staud, His Royal Highness's architect.

On 20.12.1631 (do 31.12.1631)

The print shows a large, four-sided pillar (obelisk), resting on a base of four globes. A Swedish lion is drawn on the pillar. Beside the monument there are two officers – most likely an honour guard. The Rhine flows in the background. The above-quoted text is located on the picture beside the pillar.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Staud Mettias, architekt a rytec

Original name: Abbildung der Säule, so Ihr. M. dem König in Schweden an dem Ort da er über Rhein gesetzt, zur Gedächnuss aufgerichtet worden. Piramis in memoriam Rheni traiectus. Mat. Staud architekt reg. suae M. designavit.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 161/403

The depicted pillar was built in honour of Gustav Adolf on the bank of the Rhine, not far from Mainz, in December 1631. This is the place where the Swedish army crossed the Rhine and and advanced westward to liberate the Lower Palatinate, from which the Spanish had expelled the unhappy Czech “winter king” Frederick of the Palatinate, who then crossed all of Bavaria in the victorious Swedish king's procession and is illustrated on several engravings in our collection.


170-A New Year

A New Year's announcement to enquire in the shop of John Pelagi for all traders and lovers of newspapers, who distribute and pull them along every day, dedicated to this new year of 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 10.01.1632)

The picture represents a printing press, a newspaper editorial office and administrative office, and a publication with a large number of people busy with various related tasks. The main functionaries are labelled with the letters A-G, and their literary activities and promotional efforts are described in detail in the following rhyming text.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Newe Jahr Avisen, In Jehan Pelagi Kramladen zu erfragen, Allen Kauffleuten und Zeitungs-liebhabern die sich täglich darmit tragen und schleppen zu diesem Newen 1632 Jahre dedicieret.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 163/78

This is a promotional leaflet issued at the time in which there was a power shift during the Thirty Years' War in favour of the Protestants. The turning point between the two periods was the Battle of Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631. The poem initially characterizes the publishing and journalistic activities at the time of the rising power of the Imperial League, when general Tilly and his associates went from one victory to another. The description of thiss period is, of course, highly subjective; the Catholics's successes are deliberately exaggerated so that the contrast arising from the defeat at Breitenfeld is even more noticeable. Here we see well-known (from other engravings) arguments and comparisons: Magdeburg – Tilly's bride, a  banquet and spoiled Imperial stomachs – the defeat at Breitenfeld, etc.. The poem ends with the assurance that the northern lion (i.e. Gustav Adolf) which appeared on the battlefield will pull out the eagle's (i.e. the Emperor's) feathers and dull its sharp talons, since the word of God and Luther's teaching never pass away.


172-The outline and position of the newly-built Swedish fortress of Gustavusburg, at the bottom of the outlet of the Mohan into the Rhine.

The outline and position of the newly-built Swedish fortress of Gustavusburg, at the bottom of the outlet of the Mohan into the Rhine.

Gustavsburg, On 01.01.1632 (do 28.02.1632)

On the picture we can see the territory around the confluence of the Mohan and the Rhine, near Mainz. On the bank of the Mohan there is a fortress in the shape of a star; a little further along the river there are several islands. The pontoon bridge leads to Mainz. In the foreground there is a small village with a church tower and two male figures. On the left there is a stylized tree and another small church. In the sky there is an inscription: “Gustaviburgum“.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz und Gelegenheit der Neuerbauten Schwedischen Festung Gustavusburg undten am Auslauff des Mayns in den Rhein.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 165/258

After the conquest of Mainz by the Swedes, military actions broke out in the Lower Palatinate, so Gustav Adolf decided to establish a fortification system around Mainz and its environs. This fortification plan also included the building of the fortress in a triangular shape, formed by the confluence of the Mohan and the Rhine. The fortress was originally meant to be named “Pfaffentraub“, but this plan was scrapped and instead it was named “Gustavusburg“. A part of Mainz still goes by this name today. The described events took place at the beginning of 1632.


196-An illustration of the most noble cities, fortresses and passes in Germany which His Royal Highness Gustav Adolf of Sweden conquered by agreement or by force; 1632.

An illustration of the most noble cities, fortresses and passes in Germany which His Royal Highness Gustav Adolf of Sweden conquered by agreement or by force; 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

The tableau is divided is divided into small rectangles in which pictures of various cities, fortresses etc. have been drawn, identified by their names. In the middle, there is a portrait of Gustav Adolf in profile, in an oval, with the inscription “Gustav. Adolph. D. G. Svecor. et Vandalor. Rex.“ On the right-hand side, there is a Swedish royal coat of arms.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der fürnemsten Stätt, Festungen, Päsz in Teutschland welche I. M. König Gustav Adolf zu Schweden etc. theils mit Accord, theils mit Gewalt eingenommen 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 195/211

The engraving contains 134 small views of various cities, fortresses, strategic points etc. which were conquered by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army during his campaign in Germany between 1630 and 1632. Give the relatively short time period (2 years) and the large numbered of places conquered, it was unquestionably a magnificent battle campaign from a military point of view.


203-An actual illustration of the territory of Franconia and the adjacent regions, where most of the events in the war were occurring at that time. 1632.

An actual illustration of the territory of Franconia and the adjacent regions, where most of the events in the war were occurring at that time. 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

This is a very detailed map of west German territory, showing the flow of the Mohan and the Rhine. All the towns and villages have been drawn in detail.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation des Fränkischen Kreises und dessen angränzenden Landschaften darinnen jetziger Zeit das Kriegswesen vornemblich seinen Lauff hat. Anno 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 196/110

The focal point of hostilities in 1632 was in Silesia and Bavaria (Franconia is a part of Bavaria). The armies of Waldstein and Gustav Adolf operated here. Other German territories, however, were also dragged into the vortex of war, as it was customary – mainly due to supply reasons - to distribute troops over a large territory and take all of the civilian population's supplies and food early on, before the enemy's army has a chance to do so. Besides direct hostilities, the very effective tactic of plundering the enemy's territory was practised, which understandably always considerably weakened the enemy's fighting fitness.


198-The Swedish Alliance with two electorates: the Saxon and the Brandenburg Electorate. In the year 1632.

The Swedish Alliance with two electorates: the Saxon and the Brandenburg Electorate. In the year 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

There is a Latin inscription ‘Trifolium unionis aureum in sanctae huius concordiae vinculum‘ in the painting. There are three Protestant princes portrayed: the Swedish King, the Saxon Electorate and the Brandenburg Electorate clad in military clothing and wearing large hats. They are shaking their right hands, which are symbolically bound by a ribbon. The princes are standing on a clover shamrock and marked by their respective coats of arms. The sun is beaming on them from behind the clouds, above them are various biblical psalms. A mounted cavalry regiment is galloping in the background. Next to the picture are Latin and German psalms and a bit lower down are verses that praise the decision of the three Protestant princes to enter into an Alliance against the Emperor and the powerful Catholic League.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Schwedischer Bundt mit zweyen Churfürsten, Sachsen und Brandenburg. Im Jahr MDXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 197/138

The Alliance of three Protestant princes (the Swedish King, the Saxon Electorate and the Brandenburg Electorate) was established before the defeat of the Imperial army in the Battle of Breitenfeld on 17 September 1631, even though Brandenburg was neutral at that time. A formal agreement confirmed the Alliance one year later. However, the Alliance started loosing its powers soon after the death of the Swedish King Gustav Adolph as John George of Saxon disliked seeing any interfering of foreign powers into the matters of the Holy Roman Empire and was more or less on the fence between the Catholics and the Protestants. The Alliance between the Saxons and the Swedish ended later on.


197-The Swedish military campaign, i.e. A good start to be soon rewarded by the upcoming God

The Swedish military campaign, i.e. A good start to be soon rewarded by the upcoming God's help, and an example of a true penance. Printed in the year 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

The picture depicts the Swedish King Gustav Adolph standing on a carriage with the Protestant princes ousted out by the Catholics. The wagon is pulled by animals symbolising some of the Kings characters, for instance, a lion (i.e. big-heartedness], a fox (i.e. carefulness) etc. A limp female body with her mouth and hand bandaged is lying to the right. The woman is holding a rattle in her bandaged hand and is in a quite a wretched state. She represents the Christianity brought by the Catholics headed by the Pope, which is now doomed. ‘Herr Dona’ (i.e. Achac, the Burgrave of Dohna), a Protestant nobleman and a zealous supporter of the Swedish King, is coming towards the carriage holding a sheet of paper in his hand with the inscription ‘pacem’, i.e. peace. It contains the honest wishes and the purity of thoughts of the nations that trust Gustav Adolph. The woman is giving handing and weapons to the king, i.e. the God’s help, which guides the king's deeds. Another female figure with a cross in her hand is lying to the left and pointing the right direction for the carriage. She represents the ‘religion’. There are many various allegoric scenes in the picture, which praise the King Gustav Adolph and disgrace his opponents. The long German poem below the painting has the same meaning. All allegories are marked with letters A – Z, their meaning is explained in the caption.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Schwedischer Zug das ist: Guter Anfang zu der instehenden Göttlichen Hülfe und Exempel der rechten Busz. Gedruckt im Jahr MDCXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 198/133

The message issued by the Protestants glorifies the arrival of the King Gustav Adolph of Sweden to Germany. It regards the king as the saviour of the Protestant faith from the power of the Emperor and the Pope, which exerted in almost the entire Germany at that time. The victorious Swedish military campaign liberated large parts of Germany from the Pope’s followers, wining a number of bloody battles over the Imperial army. However, this ended upon the death of Gustav Adolph at the Battle of Lützen.


538-A true history of Wallenstein’s laugh.

A true history of Wallenstein’s laugh.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

Wallenstein is seated in an armchair and clad in ceremonial clothing with the Order of the Golden Fleece attached to his breast. Two colonels are standing on each side of Wallenstein. All three of them are smiling. Only this picture is left from the original engraving so the explanation usually placed below it is missing. The top part of the print with the above stated text is also missing. It was put here only to make the understanding of the meaning of the depicted scene easier.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Historie des Wallensteinischen Gelächters.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 199/347

The print is likely to illustrate the joy and satisfaction of Wallenstein himself as well as his army and the majority of inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire over his reinstallation to the rank of General, the most important post in the Imperial army. This was a natural consequence of several defeats and the critical war situation of the Imperial forces, which developed after Wallenstein was striped of his rank on an impulse of Maximilian I the Elector of Bavaria.


205-The lamenting over the banished peace and all the world’s suffering. In the year 1632.

The lamenting over the banished peace and all the world’s suffering. In the year 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

The painting depicts the Peace (‚pax‘) represented by a female figure sitting in the middle of ruins with her head leaned in her left hand. There is a man with a sword at his side in front of the ruin. He is wearing short clothing and a hat. There is a long German poem under the picture. In the form of a dialogue between the Peace and the described man (the so-called ‚old German man‘) it denounces the war and its consequences.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Desz verjagden Friedens erbärmliche Klagred über alle Städt der Welt. Im Jahr MDCXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 200/130

This is a pacifist leaflet from 1632, which convincingly expresses the opinion of the majority of inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, exhausted by the long lasting war. In the rhymed dialogue the ‚Peace‘ is complaining to the ‚Old German Man‘ that it has not found a shelter anywhere. Everywhere it has only seen hatred, vindictiveness and other vices and it has been rejected by the peasantry, the merchants as well as by the nobility. There is a certain millenarianism and desperation in its words. The only solution to all the evil caused by the war is the end of the world. In the end the ‚Old German Man‘ decides to ask the God for the gift of Peace.


206-The careful one.

The careful one.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

The print depicts an old German man wearing a beautiful robe, who is throwing around leaves of paper covered in writing: ‚der sih dich für‘, which means,the person who can foresee the future events and is warning the public. The Jesuits are picking up the leaflets, while others are burning them. There is a ship on the river taking the propaganda prints around. The Electorate John George of Saxon with an inscribed sheet of paper in his hand is standing at the bottom right in front of his horse. A long German poem is below the picture. All depicted persons (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) have something to say in it. It is stated in Zíbrt and Drugulin’s descriptions of this print that on the far right of the painting are portrayed John George of Saxon and the King Gustav Adolph,holding sheets of papers in their hands with the words ‚der sih dich für‘ on them. This painting shows two figures on the far right, however only one of them, possibly the Electorate of Saxon, is holding a sheet of paper. The second figure shows no royal attributes and it is more likely to be a stableman of John George of Saxon. Apart from that, this copper engraving corresponds with the one described by Drugulin and Zíbrt exactly.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: DER SIH DICH FÜR.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 201/1

The leaflet shows the success of the Protestant propaganda in the Catholic camp following the victory of the Protestant army (Swedish and Saxon) over the Imperial army in the battle of Breitenfeld in 1631. The politics of the Electorate John George of Saxon’s remained on the fence between the two movements and it was unclear which side he would support in the end. When he finally joined the Swedish just before the battle, dooming thus the Imperial army to the defeat, he earned a great response by the Protestants. Repeatedly they spoke about it, publishing heaps of propaganda prints. Many of those are part of our collection. It is notable that these leaflets often mockingly compare the defeat of the Imperial army at Breitenfeld to a banquet, where the Imperial supporters together with the members of the Catholic League ate too many delicacies and sweets.


207-The rule of Jesuits. Printed in the year 1632.

The rule of Jesuits. Printed in the year 1632.

On 01.01.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

Two chevaliers are facing each other while looking at the Imperial sword, sceptre, orb and a Jesuit biretta placed on a cushion. There is a two-stanza German poem below this scene, which praises the Protestants’ victory at the battle of Breitenfeld and explains the meaning of the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Der Jesuiten Monarchi. Gedruckt im Jahr MDCXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 202/144

The chevaliers are surprised to see the Jesuit biretta lying side by side with the Imperial Regalia. The answer lies in the poem below the picture. Apparently, the Emperor lost his power by handing the state issues fully to the Church (i.e. Jesuits). However, the text is also expressing a hope that the defeat at Breitenfeld will end the unlimited influence of the Jesuits.


171-An unusual drawing of the situation and demolition of two ramparts above the Rhine, which had been built by colonel Ossa in 1630 between Haguenau and Lichtenau, but now they were burned and razed (to the ground) for freedom and the motherland, in January 1632.

An unusual drawing of the situation and demolition of two ramparts above the Rhine, which had been built by colonel Ossa in 1630 between Haguenau and Lichtenau, but now they were burned and razed (to the ground) for freedom and the motherland, in January 1632.

Drusenheim, On 25.01.1632

On the picture there are two burning field fortifications located on both banks of the Rhine, one at Drusenheim (nearby, there is an island on the Rhine); another one, lower down, is surrounded by peasants. Beneath the picture there is a three-verse German poem glorifying the liberation of the enemy. The quoted German text is shown above the pictorial part of the print.

Signature: J. v. Heyden fecit.
Autor: Heyden Jacob van der, holandský rytec a nakladatel se sídlem ve Strasburku

Original name: Eigentlicher Abrisz der Situation und Demolierung der zwo Schantzen am Rhein, welche zwischen Hagenau und Lichtenaw von dem Obristen Ossa Anno 1630 gebawet, jetzo aber dem Vatterland und Freyheit zum besten 1632 im Jenner wider abgebrannt und geschleift worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 164/336

After his victory at Breitenfeld, Gustav Adolf retreated with his army to the west and conquered almost all the Imperial towns and fortresses there; especially those belonging to the Spanish. He occupied the entire territory around the Rhine and then moved on to Bavaria so that he could complete his victory here. The remaining Spanish footholds in the Rhineland were then conquered by Swedish generals, who stayed here after the main army left for Bavaria. In this way, even two small fortresses on either side of the Rhine which had been built by the Spanish colonel Ossa in 1630 fell into the hands of the Swedes; theses were demolished and burned on the 25th of January 1632, to the great delight of the local population.


173-The town of Donauwörth, besieged by the Swedes in March 1632.

The town of Donauwörth, besieged by the Swedes in March 1632.

Donauwörth, On 16.03.1632

The engraving shows the Danube, into which the Wernitz river flows near the township of Donauwörth, lying in part on the island of Wernitz. On the right-hand side, the Swedish army is attacking. The quoted Latin-German text is above the pictorial part of the print; the legend A-S is at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Urbs Donaverda unacum obsidione per Svecos facta mense martio Anno 1632. Die Statt Thonawerth sambt der schwedischen Belagerung 16. März 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 166/328

During his victorious campaign in south-west Germany and after the conclusion of a friendship agreement with the city of Nuremberg, Gustav Adolf and his army began to march towards the Danube and quickly proceeded to Donauwörth. This town was conquered on the 27th of April 1632. In this way a gate into Bavaria was opened for the Swedes, where they would clash with Tilly and Duke Maximillian of Bavaria.


469-Donauwörth

Donauwörth

Donauwörth, On 27.03.1632

On the engraving we can see the Danube, on which lies the town of Donauwörth which has been drawn very beautifully and in great detail. Behind the town flows the river of Wernitz, which flows into the Danube near Donauwörth. The above-mentioned town name is located on an uncoiled banner in the sky above the illustrated landscape. The decorative banner bears the legend A-O.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Thonauwerth

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 167/450

This copperplate depicting Donauwörth does not contain any elements connected with military actions, but the print originates from the period of the Thirty Years' War during which Donauwörth twice played an important role. On the 27th of March 1632, it was conquered by Gustav Adolf of Sweden, who advanced victoriously with his army from the Rhine to Nuremberg and intended to enter Bavaria, so that he could complete his victory over Tilly and Duke Maximillian there. The second occasion during the Thirty Years' War that Donauwörth became the centre of attention of the warring powers was in 1648, when the Imperial-Bavarian army under Piccolomini and Enckenfort crossed the Danube at Donauwörth to prevent the Swedes advancing into the Upper Palatinate.


175-An illustration of the clash at Lech, and the manner in which the King of Sweden crossed this river and forced the Duke of Bavaria and Count Tilly to flee. The Battle of Lech took place between the King of Sweden and Count Tilly.

An illustration of the clash at Lech, and the manner in which the King of Sweden crossed this river and forced the Duke of Bavaria and Count Tilly to flee. The Battle of Lech took place between the King of Sweden and Count Tilly.

řeka Lech, On 06.04.1632

The picture represents the landscape along the river Lech near Rain, approximately 50 km west of Ingolstadt. In the foreground is the Swedish army which is both fording the Lech and crossing it over a bridge which is hazy with smoke. The engraving is of a high artistic value, and its distinctive execution indicates the work of Hollar but unfortunately it has not been signed. On the opposite bank of the Lech, on the right, there is a thick forest. The legend A-I is under the picture, the German text is at the top, and the Latin text is located in the sky in the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Delineation des Treffens an dem Lech, welcher Gestalt der König in Schweden über selbiges Wasser kommen und den Hertzogen in Bayern neben dem Graffen Tilly in die Flucht geschlagen. Praelium ad Licum comissum inter regem Svecorum & comitem Thillyum.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 168/236

The Battle of Lech on the 6th of April 1632 was the second decisive clash between the army of Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Imperial League troops under the command of general Tilly; it was also Tilly's second defeat (he was first beaten by Gustav Adolf at Breitenfeld near Leipzig on the 17th of September 1631). In the time period between these two battles Tilly gathered together his troops which had been scattered at at Breitenfeld, but at the same time he recruited new divisions in the Upper Palatinate. This, however, threatened the Swedes' connection with their northern homeland and forced Gustav to turn against him – into Bavaria. Tilly's army was accompanied by Duke Maximillian of Bavaria (whom we know well from the Battle of White Mountain). A clash occurred at Lech near Rain and both Tilly and Aldringen were seriously wounded at the start of the battle, leaving the Elector of Bavaria at the command point by himself which apparently did not work to their advantage, as he gave the order to retreat from the bank of the Lech that very evening without being forced into it by any Swedish military action. In this way, the gate to the heart of Bavaria was easily opened for the Swedes. This order by Maximillian of Bavaria was, however, the result of a decision by the council of war, so he cannot be held fully responsible for the defeat at Lech. General Tilly, having been mortally wounded, died soon afterwards in Ingolstadt. The Duke of Bavaria thus lost a dedicated, honest and experienced commander; the only property left behind him after his death was his small field luggage, unlike most contemporary commanders – condottieri, who were mainly involved in the military profession so that they could plunder.


174-Donauwörth – the river Danube – the town of Rain – the river Lech.

Donauwörth – the river Danube – the town of Rain – the river Lech.

Donauwörth, On 06.04.1632

The print depicts the Battle of Lech, in which general Tilly and Elector Maximillian of Bavaria were defeated (killed) by Gustav Adolf of Sweden on the 6th of April 1632. The picture has been drawn in a primitive manner. The Swedish troops are advancing across the Lech by a bridge and a number of fords. On the other bank, beneath the small town of Rain, a cavalry division, firing from rifles and pistols, is attacking the infantry. On the lower edge of the engraving there is a tent with the inscription “1632”. At the top on the left, we can see the Danube and the town of Donauwörth; nearby is a hillock which is being attacked. On the left, in front of a military banner, is Frederick of Palatinate (“Fr. Kö. in Böhem“).

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Thonawerth, Donau-Flusz-Die Stadt Rain-der Lech Flusz.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 169/316

The Battle of Lech on the 6th of April 1632 was the second decisive clash between the army of Gustav Adolf of Sweden and the Imperial League troops under the command of general Tilly; it was also Tilly's second defeat (he was first beaten by Gustav Adolf at Breitenfeld near Leipzig on the 17th of September 1631). In the time period between these two battles Tilly gathered together his troops which had been scattered at at Breitenfeld, but at the same time he recruited new divisions in the Upper Palatinate. This, however, threatened the Swedes' connection with their northern homeland and forced Gustav to turn against him – into Bavaria. Tilly's army was accompanied by Duke Maximillian of Bavaria (whom we know well from the Battle of White Mountain). A clash occurred at Lech near Rain and both Tilly and Aldringen were seriously wounded at the start of the battle, leaving the Elector of Bavaria at the command point by himself which apparently did not work to their advantage, as he gave the order to retreat from the bank of the Lech that very evening without being forced into it by any Swedish military action. In this way, the gate to the heart of Bavaria was easily opened for the Swedes. This order by Maximillian of Bavaria was, however, the result of a decision by the council of war, so he cannot be held fully responsible for the defeat at Lech. General Tilly, having been mortally wounded, died soon afterwards in Ingolstadt. The Duke of Bavaria thus lost a dedicated, honest and experienced commander; the only property left behind him after his death was his small field luggage, unlike most contemporary commanders – condottieri, who were mainly involved in the military profession so that they could plunder.


178-Augusta Augustiata, liberated from God by God. In German: the city of Augsburg was in fear; God by God helped it.

Augusta Augustiata, liberated from God by God. In German: the city of Augsburg was in fear; God by God helped it.

On 11.04.1632

On the right-hand side of the picture stands Gustav Adolf wearing a hat with a feather, dressed in armour. In his right hand he is holding a marshal's staff; his stance is overly theatrical. A wailing woman is lying in the middle of the picture (i.e. Augsburg) and on the left is a church with an open gate – the devil is standing at the altar, and above him is the inscription “Wo dieser steht, Gottes Wort vergeht!“ (i.e. “Where he stands, the word of God will cease!”). In front of the cathedral, monks are bringing various books and publications to be destroyed (i.e. the execution of the restitution edict). In the background, we can see the city of Augsburg. In the sky, an angel is floating and pointing at a Hebrew inscription which is illuminated by rays. Beneath the picture is a poem which quotes extracts from the Psalms in the Old Testament and applies their meaning to the subjugated and subsequently liberated city of Augsburg. There is, of course, a religious perspective intended here, as the recovery of the city where the Augsburg Confession was founded was an important event for the Protestant side in contemporary religious life. This copperplate was not signed, but Zíbrt states that the author is W. Endter.

Signature: W. Endter
Autor: Endter W., mědirytec

Original name: Augusta Augustiata, a Deo per Deum leberata. Teutsch: Geängstigt ward Augspurg die Stadt: Gott durch Gott geholfen hat.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 170/65

After his victory at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, Gustav Adolf and his army withdrew to the west of the Rhine, and before he set out on his victorious march into the country of Elector Maximillian of Bavaria, he settled for a short time in front of the city of Augsburg, which was being held by a relatively weak Bavarian garrison. After three days of negotiations, with psychological support in the form of moderate Swedish gunfire, the garrison surrendered and Gustav Adolf triumphantly led his troops into the city. The population, as in most Protestant cities, welcomed them with enthusiasm. Thus, on the 11th of April 1632, the Protestants recovered the city in which the Augsburg Confession had been founded, and which had borne the Imperial restitution edict with great difficulty. All the cathedrals were immediately taken back by the Protestant church, and all the city officials' positions (from burgomaster to night watchman) were occupied by Protestants.


177-Augsburg

Augsburg

Augsburg, On 11.04.1632

The engraving shows a city in which only the main buildings are depicted. In the foreground is the river Lech. Swedish artillery is firing into the city, and several towns in the area are shrouded by smoke and flames. This is a view from above (a so-called bird's eye view). At the top on the right, the flow of the Sinkel river is indicated.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Augspurg

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 171/274

After his victory at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, Gustav Adolf and his army withdrew to the west of the Rhine, and before he set out on his victorious march into the country of Elector Maximillian of Bavaria, he settled for a short time in front of the city of Augsburg, which was being held by a relatively weak Bavarian garrison. After three days of negotiations, with psychological support in the form of moderate Swedish gunfire, the garrison surrendered and Gustav Adolf triumphantly led his troops into the city. The population, as in most Protestant cities, welcomed them with enthusiasm. Thus, on the 11th of April 1632, the Protestants recovered the city in which the Augsburg Confession had been founded, and which had borne the Imperial restitution edict with great difficulty. All the cathedrals were immediately taken back by the Protestant church, and all the city officials' positions (from burgomaster to night watchman) were occupied by Protestants.


176-An actual report on how and when His Royal Highness of Sweden and his army arrived at Aubsburg and also, in brief, what happened here. Printed and published by Daniel Manasser, citizen and copper engraver, in Augsburg in 1632.

An actual report on how and when His Royal Highness of Sweden and his army arrived at Aubsburg and also, in brief, what happened here. Printed and published by Daniel Manasser, citizen and copper engraver, in Augsburg in 1632.

Augsburg, On 17.04.1632

The picture shows the city of Augsburg; the city garrison is leaving by a bridge after the conclusion of an accord – an agreement about the city's capitulation – with Gustav Adolf. In the background there are several villages and small towns, identified by their names. The German text beneath the engraving comments on the conquest of Augsburg by the Swedes in 1632.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Manasser Daniel, rytec a nakladatel v Augsburgu

Original name: Wahrer Bericht, wie und wann ihr köngl. May. in Schweeden unt dero Kriegsarmada für Augspurg getruckt, auch was sich in Kürtze daselbst zugetragen. Getruckt und verlegt durch Daniel Manasser, Burger und Kupferstecher in Augspurg 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 172/219

After his victory at Breitenfeld on the 17th of September 1631, Gustav Adolf and his army withdrew to the west of the Rhine, and before he set out on his victorious march into the country of Elector Maximillian of Bavaria, he settled for a short time in front of the city of Augsburg, which was being held by a relatively weak Bavarian garrison. After three days of negotiations, with psychological support in the form of moderate Swedish gunfire, the garrison surrendered and Gustav Adolf triumphantly led his troops into the city. The population, as in most Protestant cities, welcomed them with enthusiasm. Thus, on the 11th of April 1632, the Protestants recovered the city in which the Augsburg Confession had been founded, and which had borne the Imperial restitution edict with great difficulty. All the cathedrals were immediately taken back by the Protestant church, and all the city officials' positions (from burgomaster to night watchman) were occupied by Protestants.


181-A brief and actual drawing of the main fortress of Ingolstadt in the Duchy of Bavaria with the surrounding landscape, as it was built at the time, and, partly from own experience, was recently historically described and engraved in copper.

A brief and actual drawing of the main fortress of Ingolstadt in the Duchy of Bavaria with the surrounding landscape, as it was built at the time, and, partly from own experience, was recently historically described and engraved in copper.

Ingolstadt, On 24.04.1632

The etching depicts the city of Ingolstadt (the most important buildings in the city are numbered); beneath the city, along the Danube, Swedish divisions are attacking. On the right, at the head of the division, a Swedish general is riding a horse and holding a marshal's staff (undoubtedly Gustav Adolf). A trumpeter and a cavalry division are watching him. An interesting detail: a cannon is firing from the Ingolstadt field fortification, and hitting a Swedish soldier. The quoted German inscription is above the pictorial part of the copperplate; at the bottom there is a lengthy German text describing in detail the history of the city and ending with a description of the siege of the city by the Swedes on the 24th of April 1632. The legend 1-10 follows.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Kurtzer und eygentlicher Abrisz der Hauptvestung Ingolstatt im Hertzogthumb Bayern, sampt deroselben Gelegenheit, historischer weisz, wie sie zu dieser Zeit gebauet ist, zumtheil ausz eygner erfahrung kürtzlich Beschrieben und ins Kupfer gebracht.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 173/207

After his significant victories at Breitenfeld and later at Lech, Gustav Adolf turned to Augsburg and conquered it by agreement. Only then did the Swedes withdraw to Ingolstadt and settle at the south of this city, while at Lech the defeated Imperial-Bavarian army with its mortally wounded commander Tilly, and under the current command of Maximillian of Bavaria, camped north of the city. The Swedish attempts to conquer the city foundered on the heroic resistance by its citizens and by the Bavarian garrison. The Imperial troops withdrew, still on Tilly's advice, and occupied Regensburg while the Swedes seized the capital, Bavaria-Munich. Around this time, general Tilly died in Ingolstadt. The siege of the city ended on the 24th of April 1632.


543-Ingolstadt

Ingolstadt

Ingolstadt, On 24.04.1632

A view of the city, lying on the far bank of the Danube. Important buildings are identified by their names. A bridge crosses the Danube. In the foreground, on the nearer river bank, the Swedes are attacking the city. Nearby there is a peasant homestead, beside which there are peasants watching the battle. In the sky is the inscription “Ingolstadium“, and higher up there is the city emblem, with a laurel branch around it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Ingolstadium

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 174/429

After his significant victories at Breitenfeld and later at Lech, Gustav Adolf turned to Augsburg and conquered it by agreement. Only then did the Swedes withdraw to Ingolstadt and settle at the south of this city, while at Lech the defeated Imperial-Bavarian army with its mortally wounded commander Tilly, and under the current command of Maximillian of Bavaria, camped north of the city. The Swedish attempts to conquer the city foundered on the heroic resistance by its citizens and by the Bavarian garrison. The Imperial troops withdrew, still on Tilly's advice, and occupied Regensburg while the Swedes seized the capital, Bavaria-Munich. Around this time, general Tilly died in Ingolstadt. The siege of the city ended on the 24th of April 1632.


182-Munich

Munich

Mnichov, On 10.05.1632

The copperplate depicts Munich, which was conquered by King Gustav Adolf of Sweden on the 10th of May 1632 on the basis of an agreement. In the foreground is a scene showing the Munich city council presenting the Swedish king with the keys to the city, and city priviliges. The king is riding through the city on a horse and holding a marshal's staff in his right hand. In his extensive military entourage, the following are identified by their names: the King of Bohemia (i.e. Frederick of the Palatinate), Count Palatine August, Duke Willhelm of Weimar and Duke John of Holstein. On the left, there is a bridge across the river Isar. In the middle of the city is the well-known “Frauenkirche,“ i.e. a church of the Virgin Mary. On the right there is another bridge across the Isar. In the far background, there is a village in flames. In the top left-hand corner, there is the emblem of the city of Munich – “Münchner Kindl“.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Heyden Jacob van der, holandský rytec a nakladatel se sídlem ve Strasburku

Original name: München

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 175/227

After his victory at Breitenfeld, Gustav Adolf turned west with his army towards the the Rhine, which he crossed near Mainz. During this campaign, which won him the name “King of the Protestants“, he conquered many cities, and drove the Spanish from their bases on several occasions. He conquered almost all of the Lower Palatinate and only then did he return to Bavaria, where in the meantime Tilly's army had recovered and was again becoming a danger to him. The victory at Lech opened the path to Bavaria for him. We besieged Ingolstadt – where his great adversary Tilly had died – without success, but he conquered Augsburg by agreement with the city authorities. In the period before the long encampment by both opposing armies at Nuremberg-Fürth, when Waldstein was again the commander of the Imperial troops (his 2nd generalate), Gustav Adolf besieged Munich and conquered it by agreement with the city council on the 10th of May 1632.


183-Ground plans and layouts of several locations in the Palatine Electorate, from whence, after numerous clashes, the Spanish were finally banished.

Ground plans and layouts of several locations in the Palatine Electorate, from whence, after numerous clashes, the Spanish were finally banished.

Porýní, On 23.05.1632 (do 26.05.1632)

The print depicts a landscape through which several streams flow and across which several villages, identified by their names, are scattered. Below the upper edge of the engraving there is the inscription “Palatinatus“; on the bottom at the right there is a small forest and nearby there is a clash between Spanish and Swedish troops. The above-mentioned text is located above the pictorial part of the print. At the bottom, there is the legend A-G and 1-7.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grundrisz und Entwurff etlicher Ohrt der Chur-Pfalz und wie die Spanier nach etlichen Treffen endlich gar daraus geschlagen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 176/322

When Gustav Adolf was returning from his victorious expedition into the Rhineland with the main part of his army, he left general Gustav Horn there with a sufficient number of troops and ordered him to liquidate the remains of Spanish military bases. Horn took Trier, Speyer and other towns from the Spanish. The Spanish, under the command of the Count of Riedenberg and Don Philip de Sylva, dodged them and chased the Swedes eastward to Württemberg. In several places there were minor clashes and skirmishes between both armies, for example near Ulm. On each occasion, the Spanish were defeated and suffered significant losses, both in terms of men and in the form of the losses of most of their supplies and supply divisions. This was in the period between the 23rd and the 26th of May 1632. Horn did not take part in the expedition; in his place Count Palatine Kristian of Birkenfeld and Count of Rhineland Otto Ludwig commanded the Swedes.


186-The siege of Maastricht. The siege began on the 9th of June and the city was handed over on the 12th of August 1632.

The siege of Maastricht. The siege began on the 9th of June and the city was handed over on the 12th of August 1632.

Maastricht, On 09.06.1632 (do 12.08.1632)

In the middle of the copperplate is the city of Maastricht, lying above the Moselle. It is surrounded by a thick ring of various fortified buildings. Throughout the entire picture there are numerous military scenes, camps, marching divisions, small skirmishes etc. Individual details are accompanied by explanatory notes. In the bottom right-hand corner, in the foreground, there is a commanding general with his entourage and two trumpeters. The above-quoted inscription is at the top on the right, and nearby two coats of arms have been drawn: a Flemish lion and a six-pointed star; under this there is a measuring scale.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Obsidio Mosae-Traiecti. Belagerung Mastrich. Angefangen den 9. Juny, übergeben den 12. August 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 179/427

In August 1632, i.e. at the time when the main opposing armies - the Imperial-Bavarian army under Waldstein and the Swedish army under Gustav Adolf - stood against each other near Nuremberg, general Count Pappenheim was ordered to go to northern Germany with a small Imperial division and hold certain Protestant princes in check. At that time, Frederick Henry of Orange was besieging the city of Maastricht in the Netherlands, which was being held by a Spanish garrison subjugated to the Dutch governess, Archduchess Isabella. When the archduchess realized that Maastricht would not be able to resist for long, she urgently asked Pappenheim for help. He left a part of his army under the command of general Gronsfeld in Westphalia, while he himself hurried with the larger part of his army to help the oppressed city of Maastricht. On the 9th of August 1632 he carried out an attack against the Dutch which failed, mainly due to the fact that the Spanish defenders did not flee the city at the same time. Pappenheim himself was seriously wounded in his stomach, and lost approximately 1,500 to 2,000 men and officers in the battle. He then pulled back, joined Gronsfeld's division once again, and Maastricht capitulated on the 12th of August 1632.


184-Abbildung der Statt Coblentz und wie selbige von den Schwedischen belagert und eingenohmen worden. 1632.

Abbildung der Statt Coblentz und wie selbige von den Schwedischen belagert und eingenohmen worden. 1632.

Koblenz, On 20.06.1632

The picture shows the city of Koblenz, lying at the confluence of the Moselle and the Rhine. In the foreground there is a bridge across the Moselle; army divisions and firing cannons are arranged around the city. On the left, above the Rhine, is the castle of Herrmanstein. This is a very detailed drawing, particularly reminiscent of Hollar's engravings due to its concept of perspective.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Statt Coblentz und wie selbige von den Schwedischen belagert und eingenohmen worden. 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 177/234

The conquest of Rhineland, which followed the Battle of Breitenfeld, was essentially completed by the Swedes and, after his victory over Lech, Gustav Adolf stood with his troops deep in Bavaria. In the Rhineland, there were still a few minor towns left which were being held by the Spanish. The Swedes came, and after a brief siege conquered the towns by agreement. Soon, however, the Swedish garrison which had occupied the conquered city was replaced by a French garrison, as the French were allies of the Swedes at that time. The city of Koblenz was conquered by the Swedes on the 20th of June 1632.


192-The Swedish camp at Nuremberg. The royal Swedish Camp at Nuremberg in 1632.

The Swedish camp at Nuremberg. The royal Swedish Camp at Nuremberg in 1632.

Norimberk, On 01.08.1632 (do 31.08.1632)

In the middle of the engraving is the city of Nuremberg, in which only the important buildings and fortifications have been illustrated in detail and are identified by their names. Around the city there is an extensive, fortified Swedish army camp. In both bottom corners, there are unusually beautifully engraved skirmishes between horsemen. At the top on the right there is a decorative baroque vignette, which contains the above-quoted text. On the opposite side, at the same height, there is the emblem of the city of Nuremberg with a laurel branch around it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: CastraSuecica ad Norimbergam. Königl. schwedische Läger zu Nürnberg Anno 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 187/245

After his victories at Breitenfeld and Lech, King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army entered Bavaria so that they could complete their victory over Elector Maximillian of Bavaria. His troops went on a huge rampage and plundered the country, so the helpless Duke of Bavaria urgently asked the Emperor for help. In March 1632, Waldstein was again summoned by the Emperor; he immediately established a new army and led it to Silesia, where he planned to defeat the troops of John George I. Elector of Saxony. However, there were no major combat clashes but there were lengthy negotiations, especially with the Saxon general Arnim whom Waldstein wanted – outside formal negotiations – to join his army. Since these were secret negotiations with the enemy, this was the start of Waldstein's treacherous activities. Maximillian of Bavaria constantly urged the Emperor to send Waldstein and his army to Bavaria to liberate this country from unbearable Swedish oppression. Waldstein, however, was reluctant to intervene in favour of the Elector of Bavaria, whom he considered his greatest enemy; he was the one who had pushed through Waldstein's dismissal from Imperial services at the electoral assembly in Regensburg in 1630. The Duke of Friedland, however, eventually had to obey the Emperor's order; he advanced across Bohemia into Bavaria and settled in a fixed camp at Fürt near Nuremberg, in the immediate vicinity of the Swedish camp. The large concentration of troops (approximately 50 – 60,000 men) in a small area understandably soon caused unbearable supply problems to both sides. This is why, on the 24th of August 1632, Gustav Adolf decided to attack Waldstein's positions. Long and bloody battles followed, which did not end in a decisive victory. The Imperial forces repelled all the attacks, and they were not expelled from their camps. Gustav Adolf withdrew his troops to Nuremberg. Various negotiations followed, as well as strategic exercises by both armies which eventually led to the Battle of Lützen where King Gustav Adolf of Sweden was killed.


550-An illustration of the noble city of Nuremberg; we can also see how the armies have camped opposite each other in their quarters.

An illustration of the noble city of Nuremberg; we can also see how the armies have camped opposite each other in their quarters.

Norimberk, On 01.08.1632 (do 31.08.1632)

The engraving, which has been very sharply engraved, illustrates Nuremberg and both of the opposing armies's fortified camps. The Regnitz river flows horizontally. The above-quoted inscription is located above the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der fürnehmen Statt Nürnberg, Dabei auch zu sehen wie beiderseits Armee in ihren Quartieren gegen einander liegen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 187a/485d

After his victories at Breitenfeld and Lech, King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army entered Bavaria so that they could complete their victory over Elector Maximillian of Bavaria. His troops went on a huge rampage and plundered the country, so the helpless Duke of Bavaria urgently asked the Emperor for help. In March 1632, Waldstein was again summoned by the Emperor; he immediately established a new army and led it to Silesia, where he planned to defeat the troops of John George I. Elector of Saxony. However, there were no major combat clashes but there were lengthy negotiations, especially with the Saxon general Arnim whom Waldstein wanted – outside formal negotiations – to join his army. Since these were secret negotiations with the enemy, this was the start of Waldstein's treacherous activities. Maximillian of Bavaria constantly urged the Emperor to send Waldstein and his army to Bavaria to liberate this country from unbearable Swedish oppression. Waldstein, however, was reluctant to intervene in favour of the Elector of Bavaria, whom he considered his greatest enemy, he was the one who had pushed through Waldstein's dismissal from Imperial services at the electoral assembly in Regensburg in 1630. The Duke of Friedland, however, eventually had to obey the Emperor's order; he advanced across Bohemia into Bavaria and settled in a fixed camp at Fürt near Nuremberg, in the immediate vicinity of the Swedish camp. The large concentration of troops (approximately 50 – 60,000 men) in a small area understandably soon caused unbearable supply problems to both sides. This is why, on the 24th of August 1632, Gustav Adolf decided to attack Waldstein's positions. Long and bloody battles followed, which did not end in a decisive victory. The Imperial forces repelled all the attacks, and they were not expelled from their camps. Gustav Adolf withdrew his troops to Nuremberg. Various negotiations followed, as well as strategic exercises by both armies which eventually led to the Battle of Lützen where King Gustav Adolf of Sweden was killed.


185-The attack by Count Pappenheim on the city camp in front of Maastricht, 1632.

The attack by Count Pappenheim on the city camp in front of Maastricht, 1632.

Maastricht, On 09.08.1632

A small engraving, engraved á la Merian or Hollar (Hollar worked for a number of years in Merian's workshop in Frankfurt; this is why there is an obvious similarity between the artistic concepts of both engravers). In the left foreground, a riding scene is depicted. In the middle, there is the wide flow of the river Meuse, and over it a bridge. The city of Maastricht lies in the background, and there is a battle in progress close to it. The print comes from the work “Theatrum Europaneum“.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grafen von Pappenheims Anfall auff das Städtische Läger vor Mastrich, 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 178/304

In August 1632, i.e. at the time when the main opposing armies - the Imperial-Bavarian army under Waldstein and the Swedish army under Gustav Adolf - stood against each other near Nuremberg, general Count Pappenheim was ordered to go to northern Germany with a small Imperial division and hold certain Protestant princes in check. At that time, Frederick Henry of Orange was besieging the city of Maastricht in the Netherlands, which was being held by a Spanish garrison subjugated to the Dutch governess, Archduchess Isabella. When the archduchess realized that Maastricht would not be able to resist for long, she urgently asked Pappenheim for help. He left a part of his army under the command of general Gronsfeld in Westphalia, while he himself hurried with the larger part of his army to help the oppressed city of Maastricht. On the 9th of August 1632 he carried out an attack against the Dutch which failed, mainly due to the fact that the Spanish defenders did not flee the city at the same time. Pappenheim himself was seriously wounded in his stomach, and lost approximately 1,500 to 2,000 men and officers in the battle. He then pulled back, joined Gronsfeld's division once again, and Maastricht capitulated on the 12th of August 1632.


549-An actual and real illustration of the manner in which His Royal Highness Gustav Adolf King of Swedes and Goths etc. camped around the city of Nuremberg, how he fortified the city and the camp lying around it, how he waited here for the Imperial army under the Duke of Friedland, how on the 30th July / 9th August he attacked his storehouse in Freudenstadt, set it on fire and forced the garrison to flee, and how he once again attacked the camp at Altenberg and camped at the ford in front of which the people of Friedland had previously lain.

An actual and real illustration of the manner in which His Royal Highness Gustav Adolf King of Swedes and Goths etc. camped around the city of Nuremberg, how he fortified the city and the camp lying around it, how he waited here for the Imperial army under the Duke of Friedland, how on the 30th July / 9th August he attacked his storehouse in Freudenstadt, set it on fire and forced the garrison to flee, and how he once again attacked the camp at Altenberg and camped at the ford in front of which the people of Friedland had previously lain.

Norimberk, On 09.08.1632

This is a depiction of the situation in the Swedish and Imperial camps at Nuremberg. At that time, on the 9th of August 1632, the Swedes attacked Waldstein's supply expedition in Freudenstadt. At the top on the left is Nuremberg, the river Regnitz flows through diagonally, and in the place where the river touches the edge of the print there is the township of Fürt, where Imperial forces camped. At the bottom on the right, the affair in Freudenstadt, which is mentioned in the heading, is illustrated. The afore-mentioned inscription is below the picture. Throughout the entire engraving, many small scenes – mainly military ones - have been drawn. In the bottom left-hand corner there is a square with the inscriptions “Sw. Swedisch“ and “Fr. Friedländisch“.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlicher conterfehtlicher Abrisz wasz maszen Ihr. kon. May. Gustavus Adolphus, könig der Sweden, Goten, etc. sich um die Statt Nürnberg gelägert, auch dieselbe Statt und umbringent Läger befestigen lassen, und der kayserlichen Armada unter dem Hertzoge von Fridland alda erwartett den 30. Juli / 9. August deszelben Magasin in der Freyenstatt, angegriffen, verbränd, und den Entsatz geschlagen, nachmahlen dasz Läger am Altenberg angegriffen, und sich zur Furt logiert, wo die Fridländische vorhin gelegen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 180/41 D

In the second half of 1632, when the Imperial and Swedish armies camped opposite one another at Nuremberg, there was a serious food shortage and both armies were forced to undertake expeditions in order to obtain supplies. On the 9th of August 1632 the Imperial forces, accompanied by a military division, undertook an expedition to Freudenstadt to obtain food. However, they were unexpectedly attacked there by the Swedes, who took away their haul and burned the town of Freudenstadt down. General Tupadl was in command of the Swedish division.


187-A brief description of Freudenstadt, situated in the Duchy of Franconia, which was conquered and occupied by His Royal Highness. Printed in Augsburg by John Jerg Manasser, copper engraver, living “on the cross”.

A brief description of Freudenstadt, situated in the Duchy of Franconia, which was conquered and occupied by His Royal Highness. Printed in Augsburg by John Jerg Manasser, copper engraver, living “on the cross”.

Norinberk, On 09.08.1632

The print shows the town of Freudenstadt, lying on a hillock in flames. The surrounding landscape is mountainous. The town is apparently being attacked by Swedish horsemen. In the foreground there is a general, most likely Gustav Adolf, with a cavalry division; on the other side (on the left) there are several horsemen with banners and bugles. The quoted text is above the picture, and at the bottom there is another, extensive German text describing the course of the illustrated event.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Manasser Johann Jerg, rytec v Augsburgu

Original name: Kurtze Beschreibung der Freystatt im Hertzogthumb Francken gelagen, wie dieselbe von ihrer Königl. Mayestät erobert und eingenommen. Getruckt zu Augspurg bey Johann Jerg Manasser Kupfferstecher, wohnhafft auffm Creutz.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 181/215

At the time when the Imperial and Swedish armies camped opposite one another at Fürt near Nuremberg, the troops suffered from food shortages so both sides undertook expeditions to obtain supplies. Understandably, both sides tried to disrupt such actions on the part of their opponent, and maybe even take their haul. On the 9th of August 1632, a Swedish division under colonel Tupadl arrived at the town of Freudenstadt where the Imperial forces had a large storehouse of food; the Swedes looted the storehouse, set the town on fire and killed the Imperial garrison. The Imperial forces immediately dispatched a larger division to rescue supplies for Freudenstadt, but Gustav Adolf was also soon informed; he stood at the head of several cavalry regiments, and rushed with them to Freudenstadt. There was a clash, which the Swedes won. From the Imperial forces, colonel Sparr and commissarial colonel Blaurer were killed. On the Swedish side, colonel Riesz and two chamber ensigns were killed.


188-Nuremberg-Freudenstadt

Nuremberg-Freudenstadt

Norinberk, On 09.08.1632

The engraving has been made in the form of a map of the territory between Nuremberg and Freudenstadt, through which the rivers Pegnitz and Regnitz flow. Both cities are illustrated. The clash between the Swedes and the Imperial forces is in the middle of the engraving. The etching is unusually finely made. Under the picture, there is the legend A-F.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Nürnberg-Freienstadt

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 182/283

In the second half of 1632, when the Imperial and Swedish armies camped opposite one another at Nuremberg, there was a serious food shortage and both armies were forced to undertake expeditions in order to obtain supplies. On the 9th of August 1632 the Imperial forces, accompanied by a military division, undertook an expedition to Freudenstadt to obtain food. However, they were unexpectedly attacked there by the Swedes, who took away their haul and burned down the town of Freudenstadt. General Tupadl was in command of the Swedish division. At the time when the Imperial and Swedish armies camped opposite one another at Fürt near Nuremberg, the troops suffered from food shortages so both sides undertook expeditions to obtain supplies. Understandably, both sides tried to disrupt such actions on the part of their opponent, and maybe even take their haul. On the 9th of August 1632, a Swedish division under colonel Tupadl arrived at the town of Freudenstadt where the Imperial forces had a large storehouse of food; the Swedes looted the storehouse, set the town on fire and killed the Imperial garrison. The Imperial forces immediately dispatched a larger division to rescue supplies for Freudenstadt, but Gustav Adolf was also soon informed; he stood at the head of several cavalry regiments, and rushed with them to Freudenstadt. There was a clash, which the Swedes won. From the Imperial forces, colonel Sparr and commissarial colonel Blaurer were killed. On the Swedish side, colonel Riesz and two chamber ensigns were killed.


190-An illustration of the clash which took place between Swedish and Imperial troops at Wiesloch.

An illustration of the clash which took place between Swedish and Imperial troops at Wiesloch.

Wiesloch, On 16.08.1632

The picture shows the Battle of Wiesloch, which lies approximately 20km south of Heidelberg. In the foreground on the left there is a military scene, drawn á la Hollar. In a nearby valley, troops are fighting; a short distance away is the town of Wiesloch. In the background, there is a forested mountain range. The quoted German text is beneath the picture, and at the bottom there is the legend A-G.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Delineation des Treffens, so zwischen den Schwedischen und Kayserlichen bey Wiseloch vorgangen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 183/310

The Imperial commander of the city of Heidelberg, colonel Metternich, occupied the township of Wiesloch, lying approximately 20 km south of Heidelberg, in August 1632. When he failed to conquer Wiesloch due to a lack of troops, Metternich sent a courier (a certain corporal) to general Osso, Montecucculi (incorrectly spelled in the original – editor's note) and Margrave Willhelm with a request for help against Wiesloch. However, the Imperial corporal was arrested by Swedes on the way and interrogated. When he revealed his message, the Swedish general Gustav Horn set off for Wiesloch with his troops and suddenly attacked the Imperial cavalry which was just coming to Metternich's aid. The Swedes won; out of approximately Imperial cuirassiers 200 were killed at Wiesloch, as well as commanding colonel Montballion and several other officers. This clash took place on the 16th of August 1632.


189-The clash between Swedish and Imperial forces at Wiesloch.

The clash between Swedish and Imperial forces at Wiesloch.

Wiesloch, On 16.08.1632

The engraving shows a forested landscape where the Battle of Wiesloch took place. On the left of the picture, there is a village with a pointed church tower. In the foreground, on the left, there are several horsemen and musketeers. The execution of this engraving bears witness to its origin in Merian's workshop in Frankfurt. Under the picture, there is the legend A-G.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Het Treffen tussen de Swesche en Kaysersche by Wiseloch.“

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 184/447

The Imperial commander of the city of Heidelberg, colonel Metternich, occupied the township of Wiesloch, lying approximately 20 km south of Heidelberg, in August 1632. When he failed to conquer Wiesloch due to a lack of troops, Metternich sent a courier (a certain corporal) to general Osso, Montecucculi (incorrectly spelled in the original – editor's note) and Margrave Willhelm with a request for help against Wiesloch. However, the Imperial corporal was arrested by Swedes on the way and interrogated. When he revealed his message, the Swedish general Gustav Horn set off for Wiesloch with his troops and suddenly attacked the Imperial cavalry which was just coming to Metternich's aid. The Swedes won; out of approximately Imperial cuirassiers 200 were killed at Wiesloch, as well as commanding colonel Montballion and several other officers. This clash took place on the 16th of August 1632.


191-The Swedish camp situated at Fürt. The Duke of Friedland

The Swedish camp situated at Fürt. The Duke of Friedland's battles on Old Mountain. The Imperial camp on Old Mountain at Fürt.

Fürth, On 24.08.1632

On the right side of the picture there is the hillock “Altenberg“ and the Imperial camp; on the opposite side (diagonally across the sheet) is the Swedish position. The flows of the Regnitz and Pegnitz rivers are very distinctly drawn. At the bottom on the left, there is a decorative cartouche which contains the above-mentioned inscription, and the legend A-G is at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Castra Svecica Furti posita. Fridlandium ducem in monte veteri dicto opugnatia. Kay. Läger aff dem Alten. Berg bey Fürdt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 185/38d

After his victories at Breitenfeld and Lech, King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army entered Bavaria so that they could complete their victory over Elector Maximillian of Bavaria. His troops went on a huge rampage and plundered the country, so the helpless Duke of Bavaria urgently asked the Emperor for help. In March 1632, Waldstein was again summoned by the Emperor; he immediately established a new army and led it to Silesia, where he planned to defeat the troops of John George I. Elector of Saxony. However, there were no major combat clashes but there were lengthy negotiations, especially with the Saxon general Arnim whom Waldstein wanted – outside formal negotiations – to join his army. Since these were secret negotiations with the enemy, this was the start of Waldstein's treacherous activities. Maximillian of Bavaria constantly urged the Emperor to send Waldstein and his army to Bavaria to liberate this country from unbearable Swedish oppression. Waldstein, however, was reluctant to intervene in favour of the Elector of Bavaria, whom he considered his greatest enemy; he was the one who had pushed through Waldstein's dismissal from Imperial services at the electoral assembly in Regensburg in 1630. The Duke of Friedland, however, eventually had to obey the Emperor's order; he advanced across Bohemia into Bavaria and settled in a fixed camp at Fürt near Nuremberg, in the immediate vicinity of the Swedish camp. The large concentration of troops (approximately 50 – 60,000 men) in a small area understandably soon caused unbearable supply problems to both sides. This is why, on the 24th of August 1632, Gustav Adolf decided to attack Waldstein's positions. Long and bloody battles followed, which did not end in a decisive victory. The Imperial forces repelled all the attacks, and they were not expelled from their camps. Gustav Adolf withdrew his troops to Nuremberg. Various negotiations followed, as well as strategic exercises by both armies which eventually led to the Battle of Lützen where King Gustav Adolf of Sweden was killed.


193-Al illustration of the brutal clash which took place on Old Mountain near Nuremberg between the royal Swedish and the Friedland and Bavarian armies on the 24th of August 1632.

Al illustration of the brutal clash which took place on Old Mountain near Nuremberg between the royal Swedish and the Friedland and Bavarian armies on the 24th of August 1632.

Norinberk, On 24.08.1632

On the left side of the picture is the hillock “Altenberg“ on which battles between numerous army divisions broke out near the Imperial fortifications. On an elevated area in the forest, there is a castle or convent. At the bottom on the left there are two horsemen, shooting at each other. A little further away, the Regnitz river flows; at its confluence with another river there is a small village with a church.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abris des harten Treffens, welches am Alten Berg unfern von Nürnberg zwischen den königlichen schwedischen und dann der Friedländischen und Bajerischen Armeen den 24. Augusti vorgangen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 186/82

After his victories at Breitenfeld and Lech, King Gustav Adolf of Sweden and his army entered Bavaria so that they could complete their victory over Elector Maximillian of Bavaria. His troops went on a huge rampage and plundered the country, so the helpless Duke of Bavaria urgently asked the Emperor for help. In March 1632, Waldstein was again summoned by the Emperor; he immediately established a new army and led it to Silesia, where he planned to defeat the troops of John George I. Elector of Saxony. However, there were no major combat clashes but there were lengthy negotiations, especially with the Saxon general Arnim whom Waldstein wanted – outside formal negotiations – to join his army. Since these were secret negotiations with the enemy, this was the start of Waldstein's treacherous activities. Maximillian of Bavaria constantly urged the Emperor to send Waldstein and his army to Bavaria to liberate this country from unbearable Swedish oppression. Waldstein, however, was reluctant to intervene in favour of the Elector of Bavaria, whom he considered his greatest enemy; he was the one who had pushed through Waldstein's dismissal from Imperial services at the electoral assembly in Regensburg in 1630. The Duke of Friedland, however, eventually had to obey the Emperor's order; he advanced across Bohemia into Bavaria and settled in a fixed camp at Fürt near Nuremberg, in the immediate vicinity of the Swedish camp. The large concentration of troops (approximately 50 – 60,000 men) in a small area understandably soon caused unbearable supply problems to both sides. This is why, on the 24th of August 1632, Gustav Adolf decided to attack Waldstein's positions. Long and bloody battles followed, which did not end in a decisive victory. The Imperial forces repelled all the attacks, and they were not expelled from their camps. Gustav Adolf withdrew his troops to Nuremberg. Various negotiations followed, as well as strategic exercises by both armies which eventually led to the Battle of Lützen where King Gustav Adolf of Sweden was killed.


194-The siege of the fortress of Benfeld in the name of His Royal Highness King of Sweden etc., and His Excellency Field Marshal Lord Gustav Horn, on the 20th of September 1632.

The siege of the fortress of Benfeld in the name of His Royal Highness King of Sweden etc., and His Excellency Field Marshal Lord Gustav Horn, on the 20th of September 1632.

Benfeld, On 20.09.1632 (do 19.10.1632)

The engraving has been made in the form of a map. In the middle, there is the town of Benfeld, lying approximately 30 km south of Strasbourg above the river Ill. Beneath the town, the river divides into several branches. Around the town, the attackers' field fortifications are illustrated. At the top on the right, there is a rectangular image of the town of Benfeld, the above-mentioned text and the legend A-F. On the right, beneath the picture, there is a detail of the fortifications.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung der Vestung Benfeld in Nahmen I. K. M. zu Schweden etc. durch I. Excel. Herrn Feldmarschalk Gustav Horn den 20. September 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 188/311

After the defeat of Imperial troops at Wiesloch on the 16th of August 1632, the Imperial forces withdrew to Alsace, pursued by the Swedish general Gustav Horn. Along the way he seized several fortified Imperial towns, and on the 20th of September he also besieged Benfeld. The town had fortified, durable and defensive structures, and for a long time resisted the Swedes. At the beginning of October, Imperial forces attempted to come to Benfeld's aid but this plan failed. By the 19th of October 1632, the defenders had used up all their strength and handed over the town to the Swedes on the basis of an agreement, the conditions of which were relatively bearable.


195-An illustration of the Elector-Saxon city of Leipzig, as it looks today.

An illustration of the Elector-Saxon city of Leipzig, as it looks today.

Lipsko, On 22.10.1632

This is a view of the city of Leipzig from above (a so-called bird's eye view). The city has been drawn very accurately and in great detail. Around the city there are various battles scenes, and enemy fire. At the top, on the right and left, there are 2 coats of arms. At the bottom, there is the legend A-Z.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Churfürstlichen Sächsischen Statt Leipzig, wie dieselbe jetztiger Zeit im Wesen ist.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 189/230

In the time period between the events at Nuremberg-Fürt (August 1632) and the Battle of Lützen (the 6th of November 1632), the focal point of the battles moved from Bavaria to Saxony. On the 22nd of October 1632, the Imperial forces conquered Leipzig by agreement. On the basis of this agreement, the city had to pay Waldstein 50,000 Tolars, and received a small Imperial garrison.


202-An illustration of the city of Cologne and the suburb of Deutz lying opposite, with the attack carried out by general Baudissin in 1632

An illustration of the city of Cologne and the suburb of Deutz lying opposite, with the attack carried out by general Baudissin in 1632

Kolín nad Rýnem, On 01.11.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

The suburb of Deutz in Cologne on the Rhine, with an explosion in a church and an attack by Swedish troops, forms the foreground of the engraving. Above this we can see the river Rhine with several mills, and the city of Cologne on the Rhine in the background. In the sky, on the left, there is an Imperial coat of arms containing an eagle, and on the right there is the emblem of the city of Cologne. The German text is above the picture; the legend A-W is at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Statt Cöln und gegenüber gelegenen Freyheit Duytz sampt des General Baudissin darauf geschechenen Anfals 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 193/451

After Gustav Adolf King of Sweden's victory over Catholic forces in western Germany, the city of Cologne on the Rhine remained neutral by agreement. Irrespective of this fact, however, and for reasons which are unclear, the citizens of Cologne began to build several fortifications near the suburb of Deutz. As soon as general Baudissin found out about these activities at the end of 1632, he carried out an attack on the suburb of Deutz and ordered the newly-built fortifications to be razed to the ground. During this action, many Cologne soldiers were killed or arrested. During the battle in the city, one of the Swedish soldiers hid in a church and set fire to a large amount of gunpowder which was stored there. There was an explosion which destroyed the church and killed approximately 300 citizens of Deutz. This explosion is clearly visible on the copperplate.


551-An illustration of the fortifications in Deutz, and the Swedish invasion which took place in 1632.

An illustration of the fortifications in Deutz, and the Swedish invasion which took place in 1632.

Deutz, On 01.11.1632 (do 31.12.1632)

Below the upper edge of the print flows the river Rhine. Immediately under it is the suburb of Deutz with an explosion (the church tower is tumbling down). In the foreground, in front of the city, there are several army divisions and a commanding general holding a marshal's staff, accompanied by several standard-bearers. The quoted German text is above the picture; the legend A-W is at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der Fortification zu Deutsch sambt des daselbs durch die Schwedischen geschehenen Eingalls 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 194/45d

After Gustav Adolf King of Sweden's victory over Catholic forces in western Germany, the city of Cologne on the Rhine remained neutral by agreement. Irrespective of this fact, however, and for reasons which are unclear, the citizens of Cologne began to build several fortifications near the suburb of Deutz. As soon as general Baudissin found out about these activities at the end of 1632, he carried out an attack on the suburb of Deutz and ordered the newly-built fortifications to be razed to the ground. During this action, many Cologne soldiers were killed or arrested. During the battle in the city, one of the Swedish soldiers hid in a church and set fire to a large amount of gunpowder which was stored there. There was an explosion which destroyed the church and killed approximately 300 citizens of Deutz. This explosion is clearly visible on the copperplate.


201-The death of the Swedish king at Lützen in 1632.

The death of the Swedish king at Lützen in 1632.

Lützen, On 06.11.1632

The picture, with its relatively large figures, represents a close-up of a battle between several horsemen. The wounded are lying on the ground. On the left, a horseman is firing a gun into Gustav Adolf's back. The turmoil of a battle, partly shrouded in smoke, is in the background.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Todt des Königs von Schweden bey Lüzen 1632.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 190/315

According to various sources, the circumstances surrounding the death of King Gustav Adolf at Lützen can be summarized as follows: the King of Sweden ordered the cavalry of the right wing of his army to disperse the opposing Imperial Croats. However, when he noticed that the centre of his position was starting to become weak, he immediately stood at the head of the Finnish regiment and rushed to help the endangered section. He cantered quite a distance ahead of the Finnish division, accompanied by Duke Francis of Saxony-Lauenburg, one page and a stable master. While he was riding he was shot in the shoulder, and shortly afterwards also in the back. The second shot was apparently fired by the Imperial colonel Falkenberg. The king fell from his horse; the Duke of Saxony-Lauenburg and the stable master saved themselves by fleeing, but the page whose name was Leubling stayed with the king and tried to help him to get back into his saddle. However, due to heavy fog (which had also delayed the start of the battle), they could not get their bearings. At that moment an Imperial cavalry division came dashing, but the horsemen did not recognize the wounded king – instead, they thought that he was a high-ranking Swedish officer. They killed the king by stabbing him and shooting him several times, and then they undressed him. His loyal page, who had suffered several wounds, died soon afterwards in Nuremberg. During the course of the battle several cavalry divisions also rode over the king's corpse. When the corpse was found, it had been mutilated to such an extent that the Swedes could not recognize their beloved king and commander. After the battle, the king's body was transported to Weissenfels.


200-An illustration of one of the bloodiest battles, in which the army of the King of Sweden clashed with Imperial troops under the command of the Duke of Friedland, resulting in heavy losses on both sides and the deaths of several commanders, at Lützen on the 6th of November 1632.

An illustration of one of the bloodiest battles, in which the army of the King of Sweden clashed with Imperial troops under the command of the Duke of Friedland, resulting in heavy losses on both sides and the deaths of several commanders, at Lützen on the 6th of November 1632.

Lützen, On 06.11.1632

This broad picture shows the town of Lützen in flames at the top on the right. On the left side, there is an oval cartouche with the quoted Latin text. The middle of the whole picture is filled with the commotion of battle. In the foreground there is a gallows, and nearby a large explosion has been illustrated – most likely an ammunition store.

Signature: M. Merian fecit
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Typus cruentissimi illius proelii in quo exercitus regis sveciae cum acie caesarea sub duce Fridlandiae cum magna utriusque strage et plerorumque ducum interituu ad Lüzam conflixit ci die VI. Novembris Anno MDCXXXII.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 191/212

After local operations at Nuremberg-Fürt in the summer months of 1632, which did not result in a decisive victory, both of the armies – which had camped here in each other's immediate vicinity – departed. King Gustav Adolf stayed in Bavaria with a part of his army so that he could establish a strategic position there against Montecuccoli's troops, who were a danger to him. Waldstein advanced northward, apparently intending to attack Bernard of Weimar who had been set there by the Swedish king. This exercise brought the Imperial army closer to Saxony, and John George Elector of Saxony immediately requested help from both Gustav Adolf and Bernard of Weimar. The Swedes came without delay and both mighty armies, Swedish and Imperial, came into direct contact at Lützen near Leipzig. On the 6th / 16th of November 1632, in the late morning (due to thick autumn morning fog) a great and bloody battle took place. The Swedes initially achieved successes over the Imperial infantry, but Waldstein balanced the situation with a large cavalry attack. Later the Swedes again gained the upper hand, and the situation was becoming dangerous for the Imperial forces. In the late afternoon, the Imperial general Pappenheim – whom Waldstein had called on in a great hurry - arrived with his experienced cavalry. Pappenheim and his regiment immediately executed a fierce counter—attack that forced the victorious Swedes back; this balanced the opponents' positions again. Pappenheim himself was killed in the battle; Waldstein's written order, which Pappenheim had with him during the battle and which was now covered in blood, is exhibited in the Museum of Military History in Vienna. Night came, and ended the bloodshed. The result of the battle can be described as indecisive. Gustav Adolf, who had thrown himself into the worst pandemonium, was killed by two gunshots. Some of the more important Swedish officers killed included: Count Brahe, general Uslar, Ernest of Anhalt, colonel Gerstorf and several officers from the ranks of Czech emigrants. The number of men killed on the Swedish side is estimated to be 4,000 to 5,000. On the Imperial side, apart from Pappenheim (who before his death allegedly sent word to Waldstein that he is happy to die in the knowledge that the Catholic faith's most obstinate enemy, Gustav Adolf, is no longer alive), a number of the highest-ranking officers died. The wounded included Piccolomini, Holk, Breuer, Trčka, Harrach and many others. The number of men killed was roughly the same as that of the Swedes. During the entire course of the battle Waldstein was troubled by pains which forced him down; which is why he had to dismount his horse and allow himself to be carried on a stretcher. After the Battle of Lützen the Imperial forces withdrew to Bohemia, but the Swedish army remained in Saxony.


199-The positions of the Imperial and Swedish troops near Lützen. The battle positions at Lützen.

The positions of the Imperial and Swedish troops near Lützen. The battle positions at Lützen.

Lützen, On 06.11.1632

On the upper side of the print Swedish battle positions are illustrated, in which it is typical that the ranks of the musketeers are distributed between the cavalry squadrons, and that some of the light artillery firing positions are in the vicinity of battle formations, whether they be infantry or cavalry. The position of the Imperial army is illustrated in the lower half of the graphic artwork. A trench occupied by Imperial gunmen, which played an important role during the battle, runs through the middle. On the right, there is a cartouche with the both armies' battle slogans: “Jesus Maria“ (i.e. the Imperial forces' slogan) and “Gott mit uns“ (i.e. the Swedes' slogan). On the right, in the middle of the sheet, is the burning town of Lützen.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Instructio aciei caesareanorum et Svecorum prope Luzzenam. Lützer Schlachtordnung.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 192/293

After local operations at Nuremberg-Fürt in the summer months of 1632, which did not result in a decisive victory, both of the armies – which had camped here in each other's immediate vicinity – departed. King Gustav Adolf stayed in Bavaria with a part of his army so that he could establish a strategic position there against Montecuccoli's troops, who were a danger to him. Waldstein advanced northward, apparently intending to attack Bernard of Weimar who had been set there by the Swedish king. This exercise brought the Imperial army closer to Saxony, and John George Elector of Saxony immediately requested help from both Gustav Adolf and Bernard of Weimar. The Swedes came without delay and both mighty armies, Swedish and Imperial, came into direct contact at Lützen near Leipzig. On the 6th / 16th of November 1632, in the late morning (due to thick autumn morning fog) a great and bloody battle took place. The Swedes initially achieved successes over the Imperial infantry, but Waldstein balanced the situation with a large cavalry attack. Later the Swedes again gained the upper hand, and the situation was becoming dangerous for the Imperial forces. In the late afternoon, the Imperial general Pappenheim – whom Waldstein had called on in a great hurry - arrived with his experienced cavalry. Pappenheim and his regiment immediately executed a fierce counter—attack that forced the victorious Swedes back; this balanced the opponents' positions again. Pappenheim himself was killed in the battle; Waldstein's written order, which Pappenheim had with him during the battle and which was now covered in blood, is exhibited in the Museum of Military History in Vienna. Night came, and ended the bloodshed. The result of the battle can be described as indecisive. Gustav Adolf, who had thrown himself into the worst pandemonium, was killed by two gunshots. Some of the more important Swedish officers killed included: Count Brahe, general Uslar, Ernest of Anhalt, colonel Gerstorf and several officers from the ranks of Czech emigrants. The number of men killed on the Swedish side is estimated to be 4,000 to 5,000. On the Imperial side, apart from Pappenheim (who before his death allegedly sent word to Waldstein that he is happy to die in the knowledge that the Catholic faith's most obstinate enemy, Gustav Adolf, is no longer alive), a number of the highest-ranking officers died. The wounded included Piccolomini, Holk, Breuer, Trčka, Harrach and many others. The number of men killed was roughly the same as that of the Swedes. During the entire course of the battle Waldstein was troubled by pains which forced him down; which is why he had to dismount his horse and allow himself to be carried on a stretcher. After the Battle of Lützen the Imperial forces withdrew to Bohemia, but the Swedish army remained in Saxony.


208-A real depiction of a new (water) way, which was to go from the Rhine below Rheinberg up to the Moselle below Venloe, and which is now constructed as far as the town of Geldern, including 11 fortresses.

A real depiction of a new (water) way, which was to go from the Rhine below Rheinberg up to the Moselle below Venloe, and which is now constructed as far as the town of Geldern, including 11 fortresses.

Rheinberg, On 01.01.1633 (do 10.01.1633)

This engraving was made to resemble a map. The river Rhine flows on the right side, the Moselle on the left. There is a canal between the two rivers with eleven small fortresses. There is an ornamental cartouche with a Latin inscription at the top left with an inscription, which explains that the Archduchess Isabella of Austria, the widow of Archduke Albert and Governor of the Netherlands, ordered the canal construction. An orienteering compass showing cardinal directions is on the left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung der newen Fahrt, welche aus dem Rhein unter Rheinberg bisz in die Maesz unter Venlo angefangen und bereit bisz an die Stadt Geldern sampt 11 Forten fertig ist.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 203/184

The canal connecting the Rhine and the Moselle depicted and described in the picture has not been preserved and it is not mentioned in any appropriate literature or on maps. However, it is known that waterways were constructed in Belgium and the Netherlands as early as the 16th and the 17th centuries. After the death of her husband, the Archduchess Isabella Clara became the Governor of the Netherlands on 18 July 1621. As a daughter of Phillip II of Spain, she was the Spanish Infanta and married the Archduke Albert of Austria on 1 April 1599. She died on 29 November 1633, immediately after the construction of the depicted canal.


221-An unusual depiction of the town of Konstanz situated on Lake Bodensee as it looked at the time of the siege in the year 1633.

An unusual depiction of the town of Konstanz situated on Lake Bodensee as it looked at the time of the siege in the year 1633.

Kostnice, On 01.01.1633 (do 31.12.1633)

The print depicts the town from the birds-eye view. There are boats on the lake. An orienteering compass is on the right. The river Rhine flows through some hills in the background. The coat-of-arms of the town with a cross is in the sky. The stated German text is placed above the picture; the caption 1–27 is below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Contrafactur der Statt Constantz am Bodensee wie solche währender Belägerung Anno 1633 im wesen gestanden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 214/312

The General Gustav Hron commanded the Swedish army in the West Germany following the death of the King Gustav Adolph in the Battle of Lützen. After a couple of successful battles (for instance in Wieseloch, Benfeld etc.), Horn also besieged Konstanz on Bodensee Lake, one of the Imperial outposts in the West Germany. However, when the Imperial General Aldringen appeared in Swabia and conquered the town of Biberach after a few successful attempts, Horn quickly withdrew from Konstanz afraid that the Imperial regiments might block his access to the main Swedish army. Thus, Konstanz also remained Imperial.


222-A depiction of the river Weser and the nearby lands of the Lower Saxony and Westphalia, where there are now most of the Swedish regiments, 1633.

A depiction of the river Weser and the nearby lands of the Lower Saxony and Westphalia, where there are now most of the Swedish regiments, 1633.

On 01.01.1633 (do 31.12.1633)

This is rather a primitively drawn map of the territory between the Weser and the Rhine, which definitely cannot be considered as corresponding with the real topography of the area. The above-stated German text is placed above the map.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Entwurff desz Weserstrohmbs und der daherum ligenden Nider Sächsischen und Westphälischen Landen da jetziger Zeit die meiste schwedische Armeen sich befinden 1633.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 215/90

The war was fought on an extensive territory between the rivers Weser and the Rhine throughout the entire year 1633. The war was lengthy at these times, due to continuous official as well as secret negotiations between Wallenstein and the enemy. The most important events of this period were the military actions carried out by the Duke Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar, the conquest of Regensburg by the Swedes, the Battle of Oldendorf and the Aldringen’s march through Swabia. Majority of these events took place on the territory shown on this engraving. However, the geographical accuracy of the map is very vague indeed.


223-A genuine depiction of the town of Mainz, including new fortification walls, the bridge of ships and the army camp, as it all stood at the old times. The year 1633.

A genuine depiction of the town of Mainz, including new fortification walls, the bridge of ships and the army camp, as it all stood at the old times. The year 1633.

Mohuč, On 01.01.1633 (do 31.12.1633)

In the foreground of this large portrait of Mainz is depicted its suburb Cassel and the river Rhine spanned by a bridge. Nearby is a square fortification wall. The picture of the town is picturesque and done out very thoroughly. There is an inscription above the town: ‚Archiepiscopalis Maguntia‘, and its coat-of-arms. The caption 1 – 36 is lower down.

Signature: M. Merian ad viv. delineavit et sculpsit.
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Wahre Bildnuss der Statt Maintz sampt den newen Schantzen, Schiffbrucken und Leger wie die selbe voriger Zeit im Wesen stund. Anno 1633.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 216/298

Mainz – the seat of the archbishop was once an independent free state. The Mainz archbishop was one of the spiritual electorates. The Swedish occupied the town on 13 December 1631. It was shortly after the Battle of Breitenfeld, when the Swedish regiments flooded the entire West Germany. The Swedish remained in the town until 1635. Then, after the Imperial army’s victory at Nördlingen, the Swedish started loosing many of their previously held positions.


209-The siege of Rheinberg, depicted in the real ratio and realistically on the orders of His Excellence Prince Frederick Henry of Nassau. (Created) in the style of the work by famous and well-known artists, Peter Manteau and Jakob Culen-Burgha in 1633.

The siege of Rheinberg, depicted in the real ratio and realistically on the orders of His Excellence Prince Frederick Henry of Nassau. (Created) in the style of the work by famous and well-known artists, Peter Manteau and Jakob Culen-Burgha in 1633.

Rheinberg, On 13.05.1633

On the left of this large copper engraving is a meander of the river Rhine with the city of Rheinberg on its banks. There is a system of waterways, canals, various fortifications, trenches and army camps in the surroundings. There is a scale map of the territory at the bottom left. Above it there is a figure of a fisherman holding a board with another scale. The above-stated Latin text is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top left, opposite is an unrolled ribbon banner with the caption 1-20. A profile of the fortification trenches including the parameters is depicted at the bottom right.

Signature: Amsterodami ex officina Johannis Blaev.
Autor: Blaev Jan, nakladatel v Amsterodamu

Original name: Obsidio Rhinbercae ad vivum expressa cum suis dimensionibus ex mandato Excellentissimi Frederici Henrici Nassovii Principis. Auraici opera celebris et ingeniosi Artificis Petri Manteau et Jacobi Culen-burgh, Anno 1633.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 204/431

The Duke Frederick Henry of Orange-Nassau took over the state and military issues of the Netherlands after the death of his brother in the 1720s. For his skilful and successful ruling, he was greatly admired as a statesman, a diplomat and a general. He led a successful war campaign against the Spanish, who were defending their old domains in the Holland part of the Netherlands (present-day Belgium), conquering the cities of Herzogenbusch and Venlo one by one, including the important fortress of Maastricht. The conquest of the city and fortress of Rheiberg, held by the Imperial-Spanish army, on 13 May 1633 was one of his military successes.


552-A depiction of the victorious battle fought by a small Swedish regiment commanded by the cavalry Colonel I.N. Delloni outside the imperial city of Memmingen in Swabia on 4 June 1633.

A depiction of the victorious battle fought by a small Swedish regiment commanded by the cavalry Colonel I.N. Delloni outside the imperial city of Memmingen in Swabia on 4 June 1633.

Memmingen, On 04.06.1633

This picture is very delicately engraved. The battle of the two regiments is just commencing at the top right near the town of Memmingen. The river Iller flows nearby. There are also several villages depicted with their names marked. At the bottom centre is the town of Babenhausen, connected with Memmingen by a path. A convoy of carriages is passing along the path, the coachmen are waiving their whips in the air. The stated German text is placed in a rectangle at the top left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung des Treffens so königlicher Schwedischer Oberster zu rosz I. N. Delloni vor der Reichstat Memmingen in Schwaben den 4. Juni 1633 Jahrs gehalten und mit wenig Volck obgesieget.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 204a/482D

Following the death of the Swedish King Gustav Adolph in the Battle of Lützen, the Swedish army was commanded by the Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna. His best generals were Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar and Gustav Horn. The Imperial army, positioned in the West Germany, was commanded by General Aldringen, responsible to the Chief Commander Wallenstein, who was with the main army in Silesia at that time. There were no important battles fought at this time, as Wallenstein‘s preferred secret treacherous negotiations with the enemy to fighting. The depicted battle, won by a small Swedish regiment commanded by Colonel Delloni over the Imperial regiment at Memmingen in Swabia on 4 July 1633, was fought during this period.


211-A depiction of the battle successfully won by His Highness the Swedish General Duke George of Lüneburg and the Field Marshal Knyphousen over the Imperial Generals Count of Gronsfeld and Count of Merodem on 28 June / 8 July 1633 near the town of Oldendorf.

A depiction of the battle successfully won by His Highness the Swedish General Duke George of Lüneburg and the Field Marshal Knyphousen over the Imperial Generals Count of Gronsfeld and Count of Merodem on 28 June / 8 July 1633 near the town of Oldendorf.

Oldendorf, On 28.06.1633 (do 08.07.1633)

The Battle of Oldendorf fills up the entire area of this large picture. Various contemporary military scenes are depicted in the bottom foreground. There is even outlined an oblong formation of Swedish regiments, typical for the Thirty Years‘ War fights. Swedish as well as Imperial battle slogans are inscribed on an unrolled ribbon banner. Below the picture is the caption 1-79.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Representatio pugnae qua illustr. Lüneburgensium dux Georgius, generalis svecus et campimarschallus Kniphusius comit. de Gronsfeld et Merode generales caesareanos 28. Juni / 8. Juli Anno 1633 prope oppidum Oldendorp ad Visurgim felicissimae debellavit.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 206/329

At the time when Wallenstein took his regiments to the Upper Palatinate (west of the town of Cheb) and Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar concentrated his army in Bavaria, Axel Oxenstierna, the Swedish Lord High Chancellor and the General of the Swedish army after the death of Gustav Adolph, ordered the Duke George of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Field Marshal Knyphousen to take their armies to the river Weser, as there was no longer any danger from the Duke of Lorraine. During this strategic move the Swedish met the Imperial army under the command of Generals Gronsfeld and Merode at Oldendorf near Hameln in Hesse. A big and bloody battle broke out and it was won decisively by the Swedish army. Approximately 5000 Imperial soldiers died on the battlefield and further 2500 were captured. 13 artillery guns, 70 military standards and all the food and ammunition supplies were seized too. The General Merode was seriously wounded and died soon after in Cologne on the Rhine. After this victory the Swedish spread all over the Westphalia.


212-The bizarre retreat of the Imperial army from the battle fought on 28 June / 8 July 1633 near Oldendorf.

The bizarre retreat of the Imperial army from the battle fought on 28 June / 8 July 1633 near Oldendorf.

Oldendorf, On 28.06.1633 (do 08.07.1633)

The bizzare retreat of the Imperial army from the battle fought on 28 June / 8 July 1633 near Oldendorf. 1. Major General Böninghausen, 2. Count General of Gronsfeld and 3. Colonel Gottfried of Geleen from Wachtendong, Commander in Wolffenbütell. Printed in the year 1633. There are three figures depicted under this title: 1. The Major General Böninghausen is galloping away, 2. The General Gronsfeld is carried away on a piece of wood by two soldiers, 3. The Field Marshal Geleen is running away as a common soldier. There is a satirical verse under each figure poking at the way they are escaping. This is a propaganda leaflet issued by the Protestants, which mocks the hasty flight of the Imperial commanders from the Battle of Oldendorf in 1633.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wunderbare Retirada der Kayserischen ausz dem bey Oldendorff den 28. Juni, 8. Juli 1633 beschehenen Treffens.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 207/81

At the time when Wallenstein took his regiments to the Upper Palatinate (west of the town of Cheb) and Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar concentrated his army in Bavaria, Axel Oxenstierna, the Swedish Lord High Chancellor and the General of the Swedish army after the death of Gustav Adolph, ordered the Duke George of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Field Marshal Knyphousen to take their armies to the river Weser, as there was no longer any danger from the Duke of Lorraine. During this strategic move the Swedish met the Imperial army under the command of Generals Gronsfeld and Merode at Oldendorf near Hameln in Hesse. A big and bloody battle broke out and it was won decisively by the Swedish army. Approximately 5000 Imperial soldiers died on the battlefield and further 2500 were captured. 13 artillery guns, 70 military standards and all the food and ammunition supplies were seized too. The General Merode was seriously wounded and died soon after in Cologne on the Rhine. After this victory the Swedish spread all over the Westphalia.


213-A real outline of how the town of Hameln was besieged by His Grace Duke George of Lüneburg and finally given up upon agreement.

A real outline of how the town of Hameln was besieged by His Grace Duke George of Lüneburg and finally given up upon agreement.

Hameln, On 01.07.1633 (do 31.07.1633)

The heavily fortified town of Hameln is in the centre of the print. Above the town flows the river Weser spanned by two bridges, nearby is the small river Hammel. The town itself is protected by bulwark and various fortification constructions and surrounded by the troops of the enemy. A forest is at the background. There are two figures, of a cavalryman and a soldier, in the foreground. There is a square banner with the caption A-D on the right.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlicher Abriss welcher Gestalt die Stadt Hameln von Ihrer Fürstl. Gnaden Herzog Georgen von Lüneburg belägert und endlich durch Uibergebung eingenommen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 208/83

The situation of the town of Hameln occupied by the Imperial army became unbearable following the devastating defeat of the Imperial troops at the Battle of Oldendorf on 8 July 1633. John George Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg besieged Hameln as early as in July 1633 and the garrison agreed to give the town up without any serious fight.


210-An accurate map of the battle fought victoriously by the famous Duke John George of Lüneburg, the Swedish general etc. with the Imperial generals and counts Gronsfeld and Merode near Oldendorf on 28 June / 8 July 1933.

An accurate map of the battle fought victoriously by the famous Duke John George of Lüneburg, the Swedish general etc. with the Imperial generals and counts Gronsfeld and Merode near Oldendorf on 28 June / 8 July 1933.

Oldendorf, On 08.07.1633

The painting is divided by two rivers flowing across. A battle is raving on the central field dotted by many dead and wounded soldiers. The escape of the Imperial troops is pictured at the top. The food supply carriages are depicted in the foreground, two soldiers are standing by. At the bottom left are depicted the Duke of Lüneburg, the General Gustavson and the Field Marshal Knyphousen.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Lehausen Regnerus, mědirytec

Original name: Genuina cartagraphe praelii, quo inclytus Lüneburgensium dux Joh. Georgius, generalis svedicus etc. cum comitibus de Gronsfeld et Merode generalibus caesareanis 28. iun. / 8. iul. 1633 prope Oldendorp felicissime decertavit. Per supremum castrorum metaforem et architektům Oluf Hanson delineata. Regnerus Lehausen sculpsit. Fredericus Hulsius excudit.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 205/91

At the time when Wallenstein took his regiments to the Upper Palatinate (west of the town of Cheb) and Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar concentrated his army in Bavaria, Axel Oxenstierna, the Swedish Lord High Chancellor and the General of the Swedish army after the death of Gustav Adolph, ordered the Duke George of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Field Marshal Knyphousen to take their armies to the river Weser, as there was no longer any danger from the Duke of Lorraine. During this strategic move the Swedish met the Imperial army under the command of Generals Gronsfeld and Merode at Oldendorf near Hameln in Hesse. A big and bloody battle broke out and it was won decisively by the Swedish army. Approximately 5000 Imperial soldiers died on the battlefield and further 2500 were captured. 13 artillery guns, 70 military standards and all the food and ammunition supplies were seized too. The General Merode was seriously wounded and died soon after in Cologne on the Rhine. After this victory the Swedish spread all over the Westphalia.


214-A true depiction of the battle between the Swedish and Lorraine armies on 31 of July 1633 at Pfaffenhofen, in which the Swedish ‚got the field‘ (i.e. won).

A true depiction of the battle between the Swedish and Lorraine armies on 31 of July 1633 at Pfaffenhofen, in which the Swedish ‚got the field‘ (i.e. won).

Pfaffenhofen, On 31.07.1633

The battle is depicted in the left part third of the painting. The town of Pfaffenhofen is on the right, the Lichtenberg castle is atop a hill in the background, and a bit further on is the village of Rinkelsdorf. The caption A-N with appropriate explanations is below the painting.

Signature: M. Merian fecit.
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Wahrhaffte verzeichnusz des Treffens so zwischen den Schwedischen und Lothringischen Armeen den 31. Julli Anno 1633 bei Pfaffenhouen geschehen und die Schwedischen das feld erhalten.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 209/327

There was certain stagnation in the fights during the period between the death of the Swedish King Gustav Adolph in the Battle of Lützen in November 1632 and the assassination of Wallenstein in the town of Cheb in February 1634. This was mainly caused by the fact that Wallenstein was busy negotiating secretly and intensively with the enemy. However, the Swedish were not very active either as they needed to rest after several bloody fights and the loss of their king and general. However, some local military operation took place away from the main battlefields, mostly along the upper stream of the Rhine. The Swedish Commander Count Otto Louis of Rhineland occupied the Austrian ‚forest towns‘ in June 1633 and also besieged the town of Breisach. On the 31 July 1633 the Swedish commander Count Palatine Christian of Birkenfeld defeated at this place Charles of Lorraine, who first gathered his troops near the Alsace town of Zabern and then moved to Pfaffenhofen. The town of Pfaffenhofen lies approximately 35 km west of Strasbourg.


215-An unusual drawing of the fortress of Lichtenau, including its location in the countryside, which was besieged on behalf of His Excellency Duke Bernhard of Weimar etc. and conquered by and given up upon agreement to the young Count of Thurn on 24 August 1633.

An unusual drawing of the fortress of Lichtenau, including its location in the countryside, which was besieged on behalf of His Excellency Duke Bernhard of Weimar etc. and conquered by and given up upon agreement to the young Count of Thurn on 24 August 1633.

Lichtenau, On 01.08.1633 (do 24.08.1633)

The painting depicts the Lichtenau fortress with its surrounding situated approximately 20 km southwest of the town of Ansbach in Bavaria. The river Resa is painted on the print. A dark forest lies in the foreground. The town’s coat-of-arms is above Lichtenau, a portrait of the Count John Jacob Thurn with his coat-of-arms lies opposite. The caption A-F is at the top left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlicher Abrisz der Vöstung Lichtenau sampt dem Marck und Gelegenheit welche dero 1. Augusti in Namen ihr. Fürstlich. Gna. Hörtzog Bernhart von Weinmar etc. durch den jungen Grafen von Thurn ist belägert worden und den 24. dis mit Accort wieder eingenommen. 1633.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 210/225a

There was a relative ceasefire at the main battlefields of the war (in the Central Germany) between the battle of Lützen and the Cheb assassination. At this time, Bernhard of Weimar, who became the Chief Swedish Commander after the death of the Swedish King, focused on local military operations in Bavaria. He also besieged the town and fortress of Lichtenau on 1 August and soon after his subordinate, the young officer Count John Jacob of Thurn-Velsassina, conquered the fortress with the Imperial garrison. It was given up upon agreement.


218-The siege of Nancy.

The siege of Nancy.

Nancy, On 25.09.1633

This very delicately done copper engraving depicts the town of Nancy and its surrounding. The enemies’ trenches are positioned in a large curve around the town. There are ornamental cartouches at the top left and right showing cross-sections of fortifications constructions; the scale is at the bottom right. Below the painting are: 1. A dedication to the King Louis XIII. from R. Disiette 2. A description of the siege of Nancy marked A – Z and praising Louis XIII. 3. A topographical description of the siege. 4. A sonnet praising the heroic conquest of Nancy.

Signature: A Paris chez Melchior Tavernier.
Autor: Tavernier Melchior, rytec, tiskař a nakladatel v Paříži

Original name: La siége de Nancy

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 211/419

After the suppression of internal uprisings caused by the rebellions French nobility unwilling to yield to the powerful chancellor of Louis XIII, the Cardinal Richelieu turned his attention abroad. First of all, he tried to weaken the influence and power of the Holy Roman Empire at the eastern borders of France. Mostly in Lorraine, the domains of the Emperor reached right into the French lands and the bishoprics of Metz, Toul and Verdun fell under the jurisdiction of the Empire. France dealt with these political intentions by war and most of the towns, including Trier, submitted to the French dominance voluntarily. Even the Cologne Archbishop was forced to seek the ‚protection‘ of the King Louis XIII. The conquest of the town of Nancy by Louis XIII on the 25 September 1633 was part of these military operations.


219-A real drawing of the fortification walls of the town of Stein in Silesia, including the battle that took place here in the year 1633.

A real drawing of the fortification walls of the town of Stein in Silesia, including the battle that took place here in the year 1633.

Steinov, On 12.10.1633

The picture is divided by the river Oder. Burning Stein lies to the left above the Oder, there is the so-called Stein fortification along both banks of the river surrounded by the Imperial army formations. There are horse carriages in the left foreground with one cavalryman. The stated German text is located above the picture, while the caption A – I is placed below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlücher Abrisz der Steinawer Schantz in Schlesien sampt dem daselbst gehaltenen Treffen Anno 1633.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 212/334

Following the battle of Lützen in November 1632, Wallenstein withdrew his army onto the Saxon and Silesian territory. Meanwhile the fights between smaller Swedish and Bavarian troops went on in the Southwest Germany. In the line with his treacherous motives that influenced his indecisive strategic and political opinion, Wallenstein signed a short-term truce with the enemy, which ended on 21 September 1633. Therefore, trying to avoid a battle with the strong Swedish-Saxon army, Wallenstein chose a trick. He spread news about sending his General Piccolomini with a large regiment to conquer Torgava and cross the Elbe. Upon hearing the news, Saxon General Arnimov immediately separated his Saxon regiments from the Swedish ones and hurried to protect the endangered Brandenburg. Meanwhile Wallenstein’s army stood idly at the foot of the Lusatia Mountains waiting for Arnimov to leave. As soon as that happened, they immediately marched to the Oder. The Swedish waited near the town of Stein. Wallenstein’s officer Count Schaffgotsch crossed the Oder with 8000 Imperial mounted cavalry soldiers turning thus the Swedish cavalry onto themselves and took a position on the right bank of the river opposite the Swedish camp. At the same time, Wallenstein appeared with his regiment at Stein on the left bank of the Oder. Thus the 5000 Swedish soldiers were completely surprised and surrounded by the Imperial regiments counting about 30000 men with 70 cannons aiming at them. Wallenstein allowed the Swedish commanders, the older Count Thurn and the younger General Duval only 30 minutes to consider his conditions of capitulation. Unavoidably, under these circumstances the Swedish capitulated. With his overconfident magnanimity, Wallenstein sat all the Swedish generals, colonels and commanders free. However, he recaptured Thurn and Duval later on, forcing the former to issue an open letter to all commanders of occupied places to surrender to Wallenstein. Against the will of Vienna, he let Thurn go eight days later. Duval escaped from the capture himself.


220-The siege and conquest of the town of Regensburg on the Danube by His Grace Duke Bernhard of Weimar, which took place at the beginning of winter months in 1633.

The siege and conquest of the town of Regensburg on the Danube by His Grace Duke Bernhard of Weimar, which took place at the beginning of winter months in 1633.

Řezno, On 15.11.1633

There is a portrait of the Duke of Weimar on a horse holding the Marshal baton in his hand in the left foreground of the etching. The town of Regensburg is on the right. The picture does not depict fully the military actions of the siege of the town, only a few smaller military scenes. There are two angels holding a Laurel wreath and branchlets in the sky and two other small angels who are holding an unrolled ribbon banner with an inscription: ‚Soli Deo Gloria‘. The Regensburg coat-of-arms (two crossed keys) is in the corner of the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung und Eroberung der Statt Regensburg an der Donaw, durch Ihr. Fürstl. G. Hertz. Bernhardten vom Weym. Zu anfangdes Winthers monats 1633 verrichtet.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 213/103

The command of the political and military matters was taken over by the Swedish Lord High Chancellor Axel Oxenstierna following the death of the King Gustav Adolph in the Battle of Lützen. Indeed, the matter of the army command was the upmost task of these times. The Chief Swedish General Duke Bernhard of Weimar was marching with his army from Saxony to Bavaria to help the General Gustav Horn threatened by the Bavarian regiments. Lengthy fights were typical for this phase of the Thirty Years’ War, mainly due to Wallenstein’s hesitancy and indecisiveness. He kept postponing any action to help the threatened Bavaria by his artful yet ambiguous negotiations, which oscillated between the loyalty to the Emperor and a high treason, and were mostly done to earn Wallenstein personal benefits and fulfil his political aspirations. While this was going on, nothing disturbed Bernhard of Weimar to prepare the ground for the conquest of Regensburg by the Protestants. The deed that he carried out rather easily on 15 November 1633, was undoubtedly assisted by Wallenstein’s indecisive acting, if not by his direct sabotage.


224-A real depiction of the assassination committed in Cheb on 15 February 1634 on the Duke of Friedland and several other Imperial colonels and officers.

A real depiction of the assassination committed in Cheb on 15 February 1634 on the Duke of Friedland and several other Imperial colonels and officers.

Cheb, On 25.02.1634

The engraving is separated into two parts down the middle. The top part shows the assassination of the officers and supporters of the Duke of Friedland. There is a dining hall filled with many fighting and shooting men, the tables are full of food, the tablecloth is pulled off. The other part of the print portrays Wallenstein in his nightdress. He is standing in the bedroom, with a desk with a burning candle in the background. A four-posted canopy bed is in the corner of the room. Three soldiers are breaking through the door, the first one (Deveroux) is just about to stab Wallenstein with a halberd, a stabbing double-edge weapon with a long shaft. Others are armed by cords.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung der zu Eger an dem Herzogen von Friedland und etlich andern Keyserlichen Obristen und Offizieren den 15. Febr. dess 1634 Jahrs verübten Mordthat.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 217/95

Upon learning about Wallenstein’s treacherous acting and his unquestionable ambition to get onto the Czech throne, the Emperor issued an order to bring him in, dead or alive. In the end, however, the assassination of Wallenstein and his supporters, Illov, Trczka, Kinský and Neumann, in Cheb on 25 February 1634, was the result of an unforeseen situation and the lack of other solutions and had been decided by the Imperial executors just before it was carried out. A banquet was organised in the Chateau of Cheb. Present were, apart from the above-stated, Wallenstein’s supporters and the Imperial Colonels Gordon and Buttler, who pretended cunningly to be friends of the Duke of Friedland. However, the Duke Francis of Saxon-Lauenburg, an admirer and a faithful friend of Wallenstein arrived suddenly and unexpectedly to the town on the same evening. The Imperial confidants perceived him an obvious threat to their plans and decided therefore to act immediately. The feast was in progress, when all of a sudden several officers and soldiers from the Buttler’s regiment burst into the dining hall, shouting:,Who supports the Emperor here?’ Immediately, Gordon and Buttler got up followed by Leslie, and called out:,Vivat Ferdinand’. The intruders threw themselves on the rest of the feasting officers who left their weapons away from the table. Kinský was stabbed to death immediately. Illov died after three strikes while trying to get hold of his cord. Trczka managed to get hold of his weapon and fought back fiercely while shouting insults at Gordon. He broke Deveroux’s cord, killed two dragoons and mortally wounded Hetman Lerd receiving only three cuts onto his face as a heavy leather coat he was wearing protected his body. However, in the end, he was overpowered in the uneven fight and killed. Although Sergeant Major Neumann escaped into the kitchen he too was chased and killed. The bloody event took place at 8 pm, mostly undisturbed, because of a strong wind that howled down all the noise of fighting. Hetman Deveroux and six men armed with halberds then went to Wallenstein’s lodgings. Wallenstein was just getting ready for bed when he heard the unusual noise in the town and the laments of Countesses Kinská and Trczka over their dead husbands. Just as he called up to his guards outside the chamber: ‘What is going on’, the Deveroux’s men overpowered them and got into Wallenstein’s bedroom. Wallenstein stood in his pyjamas near his bed. Deveroux, with his halberd ready, shouted at the duke. ‘You are a scoundrel. You must die!’ Wallenstein did not answer. Once again, Deveroux shouted: ‘You must die!’, and stubbed Wallenstein into his chest, killing him instantly.


534-A true depiction of the deceased Albrecht of Wallenstein, the former Imperial Field Generalissimo, and how he was killed in Cheb on 25 February 1634 together with 4 other rebels for the preparation of the false oath and conspiracy.

A true depiction of the deceased Albrecht of Wallenstein, the former Imperial Field Generalissimo, and how he was killed in Cheb on 25 February 1634 together with 4 other rebels for the preparation of the false oath and conspiracy.

On 25.02.1634

There is a portrait of Wallenstein with the contemporary pointed beard and moustache. He is wearing a wide upright collar and a sash over his chest. There are four ovals with other depictions: The banquet in the Cheb Chateau upon the arrival of the murderers. One of them, possibly Gordon, is shouting:,Vivat casa d’Austria!’. The assassination of the participants of the banquet - Kinský, Trczka, Illov and Neumann. The assassination of Wallenstein in his bedroom by the Hetman Deveroux. The drugging of the dead bodies with soldiers and one colonel with a stick standing by. There is a long German text below these drawings that describes the event into details; however from the point of view of the Imperial movement. The mention of the fact that Duke of Saxon-Lauenburg arrived to Cheb on the same evening with a larger group of soldiers to protect Wallenstein is noteworthy.

Signature: Daniel Manasser Bürger & Kupferstecher von Augspurg, jesiger Zeitt zur Grätz
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Abconterfech desz weilandt Alberti von Wallenstain gewesten Khayserischen feldt-Generalissimi, Sowol auch wass gestalt er sambt 4 anderen Rebellen umb vorgehabten Maynaydigen Conspiration zu Eger im Jahr 1634 den 25. Februari umbgebracht worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 218/104

Upon learning about Wallenstein’s treacherous acting and his unquestionable ambition to get onto the Czech throne, the Emperor issued an order to bring him in, dead or alive. In the end, however, the assassination of Wallenstein and his supporters, Illov, Trczka, Kinský and Neumann, in Cheb on 25 February 1634, was the result of an unforeseen situation and the lack of other solutions and had been decided by the Imperial executors just before it was carried out. A banquet was organised in the Chateau of Cheb. Present were, apart from the above-stated, Wallenstein’s supporters and the Imperial Colonels Gordon and Buttler, who pretended cunningly to be friends of the Duke of Friedland. However, the Duke Francis of Saxon-Lauenburg, an admirer and a faithful friend of Wallenstein arrived suddenly and unexpectedly to the town on the same evening. The Imperial confidants perceived him an obvious threat to their plans and decided therefore to act immediately. The feast was in progress, when all of a sudden several officers and soldiers from the Buttler’s regiment burst into the dining hall, shouting:,Who supports the Emperor here?’ Immediately, Gordon and Buttler got up followed by Leslie, and called out:,Vivat Ferdinand’. The intruders threw themselves on the rest of the feasting officers who left their weapons away from the table. Kinský was stabbed to death immediately. Illov died after three strikes while trying to get hold of his cord. Trczka managed to get hold of his weapon and fought back fiercely while shouting insults at Gordon. He broke Deveroux’s cord, killed two dragoons and mortally wounded Hetman Lerd receiving only three cuts onto his face as a heavy leather coat he was wearing protected his body. However, in the end, he was overpowered in the uneven fight and killed. Although Sergeant Major Neumann escaped into the kitchen he too was chased and killed. The bloody event took place at 8 pm, mostly undisturbed, because of a strong wind that howled down all the noise of fighting. Hetman Deveroux and six men armed with halberds then went to Wallenstein’s lodgings. Wallenstein was just getting ready for bed when he heard the unusual noise in the town and the laments of Countesses Kinská and Trczka over their dead husbands. Just as he called up to his guards outside the chamber: ‘What is going on’, the Deveroux’s men overpowered them and got into Wallenstein’s bedroom. Wallenstein stood in his pyjamas near his bed. Deveroux, with his halberd ready, shouted at the duke. ‘You are a scoundrel. You must die!’ Wallenstein did not answer. Once again, Deveroux shouted: ‘You must die!’, and stubbed Wallenstein into his chest, killing him instantly.


226-An original depiction and message about the way the Imperial Duke of Friedland was assassinated with several other colonels and officers in Cheb on 25 February 1634

An original depiction and message about the way the Imperial Duke of Friedland was assassinated with several other colonels and officers in Cheb on 25 February 1634

On 25.02.1634

There are 4 separated pictures on the copper engraving showing the following scenes: 1. The forced entry of the armed unit into the Cheb Chateau and the fight in the kitchen. 2. The assassination of Kinský, Trczka, Illov and Neumann at the feat. 3. The assassination of Wallenstein in his bedroom by the Hetman Deveroux. 4. The Wallenstein’s body is carried out to the courtyard. There is an inscription among these scenes:,Alberti ducis Fridlandini militiae caesareanae generalissimi et aliorum quorundam ducum et officiorum caedes, Egrae die 15. Februar. anni 1634.‘. There is an extensive three-column German text below the picture part of the print, which comments the Cheb assassination from the point of view of Wallenstein’s supporters.

Signature: M. Merian fecit.
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung und Bericht welcher Gestalt der Keyserliche General Hertzog von Friedland beneben etlich anderen Obristen und Officieren zu Eger hingerichtet worden den 15. Feber 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 219/224

Upon learning about Wallenstein’s treacherous acting and his unquestionable ambition to get onto the Czech throne, the Emperor issued an order to bring him in, dead or alive. In the end, however, the assassination of Wallenstein and his supporters, Illov, Trczka, Kinský and Neumann, in Cheb on 25 February 1634, was the result of an unforeseen situation and the lack of other solutions and had been decided by the Imperial executors just before it was carried out. A banquet was organised in the Chateau of Cheb. Present were, apart from the above-stated, Wallenstein’s supporters and the Imperial Colonels Gordon and Buttler, who pretended cunningly to be friends of the Duke of Friedland. However, the Duke Francis of Saxon-Lauenburg, an admirer and a faithful friend of Wallenstein arrived suddenly and unexpectedly to the town on the same evening. The Imperial confidants perceived him an obvious threat to their plans and decided therefore to act immediately. The feast was in progress, when all of a sudden several officers and soldiers from the Buttler’s regiment burst into the dining hall, shouting:,Who supports the Emperor here?’ Immediately, Gordon and Buttler got up followed by Leslie, and called out:,Vivat Ferdinand’. The intruders threw themselves on the rest of the feasting officers who left their weapons away from the table. Kinský was stabbed to death immediately. Illov died after three strikes while trying to get hold of his cord. Trczka managed to get hold of his weapon and fought back fiercely while shouting insults at Gordon. He broke Deveroux’s cord, killed two dragoons and mortally wounded Hetman Lerd receiving only three cuts onto his face as a heavy leather coat he was wearing protected his body. However, in the end, he was overpowered in the uneven fight and killed. Although Sergeant Major Neumann escaped into the kitchen he too was chased and killed. The bloody event took place at 8 pm, mostly undisturbed, because of a strong wind that howled down all the noise of fighting. Hetman Deveroux and six men armed with halberds then went to Wallenstein’s lodgings. Wallenstein was just getting ready for bed when he heard the unusual noise in the town and the laments of Countesses Kinská and Trczka over their dead husbands. Just as he called up to his guards outside the chamber: ‘What is going on’, the Deveroux’s men overpowered them and got into Wallenstein’s bedroom. Wallenstein stood in his pyjamas near his bed. Deveroux, with his halberd ready, shouted at the duke. ‘You are a scoundrel. You must die!’ Wallenstein did not answer. Once again, Deveroux shouted: ‘You must die!’, and stubbed Wallenstein into his chest, killing him instantly.


228-A true depiction of the town of Memmingen including its siege that took place in the year 1634.

A true depiction of the town of Memmingen including its siege that took place in the year 1634.

Memmingen, On 01.03.1634 (do 31.03.1634)

The siege of Memmingen is depicted in the centre of the print. The river Iller and the stream Buxach flow nearby. There is a main tent of the Swedish Marshal Gustav Horn on the bank of the river at the top right. The above-stated text is above the picture in an oblong cartouche, the coat-of-arms of Memmingen is on the left, with a laurel wreath wrapped around it. The engraving is remarkable for its delicate work.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrhaffte Contrafactur der Statt Memmingen sampt der Belagerung Anno 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 221/339

In the first years after the death of Gustav Adolph at Lützen the Swedish military campaigns were planned by Duke Bernhard of Weimar, Field Marshal Gustav Horn and Chancellor Oxenstierna. However, their strategic opinions were usually dissimilar, which caused disagreements. Bernhard of Weimar intended a campaign to the hereditary Austrian lands, Oxenstierna and his son-in-law Gustav Horn thought it more important to fortify and secure the conquered lands. Later Bernhard of Weimar asked Horn to help him conquering the town of Amberg. Horn, however, refused and stayed in the Upper Swabia, which he was busy occupying. His stance was in the line with the opinion of Chancellor Oxenstierna, who also did not consider the conquest of Amberg a good reason for intervention. During his local operations in Upper Swabia Horn also besieged the town of Memmingen, occupied by the Imperial-Bavarian garrison. Memmingen is situated approx. 80 km northeast of Lake Constance. The described siege took place in the spring of 1634.


227-An original depiction of a field battle in the Upper Alsace on 2 March 1634 where His Excellency Count Otto Louis of Rhineland defeated the Imperial regiments.

An original depiction of a field battle in the Upper Alsace on 2 March 1634 where His Excellency Count Otto Louis of Rhineland defeated the Imperial regiments.

Horní Alsasko, On 02.03.1634

The print depicts the battle between the Imperial and Swedish regiments. A thick forest inscribed: ‚Der Löwen Wald‘ is on the right, in the background is the Chateau Hirtenstein with the river Thur flowing below. The battle of the two armies is in the centre of the picture. The Imperial regiments are fleeing towards the left side of the print. A horse cavalry with buglers is at the bottom right. The caption 1-21 is below the picture, while the German text is above it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Vorbildung der Feldschlacht im oberen Elsasz den 2. Martii 1634 vorgangen darinn die Kayserliche von Ihr. Excel. Herrn Rheingraf Otto Ludwig geschlagen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 220/265

This battle took place in the Upper Alsace near Wattweiler approx. 15 km northwest of Mühlhausen near the river Thur. The Imperial regiments commanded by the Count Otto Louis of Rhineland were operating in this area at that time. The depicted battle between the two enemies took place here on 2 March 1634. The Imperial regiments were defeated.


229-An original depiction of a tough battle fought between the Imperial and Electorate-Saxon armies near Legnica in 1634.

An original depiction of a tough battle fought between the Imperial and Electorate-Saxon armies near Legnica in 1634.

Lehnice, On 03.05.1634

Huge battle turmoil, partially veiled by the smoke from cannons, fills the entire area of the print. The town of Legnica is in the left background. There are some minor military scenes in the foreground drawn with great mastery. The German text is above the picture while the caption A – Q is below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung des hartten Treffens so zwischen den Kays: und Chursächsischen Armeen bey Lignitz vorgangen 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 222/301

Following the Cheb assassination in February 1634, only weaker Imperial regiments remained in Silesia to fight the Saxons. There was also a smaller Swedish regiment. The Saxons were commanded by the famous General Arnim, who previously fought for the Imperial army. At the time of Wallenstein’s treachery, he was closely involved in the conspiracy, however he played a great role in Wallenstein’s fall later on. A battle between the Arnim’s and Imperial regiments took place on 3 May 1634 near Legnica in Silesia. The Saxons won.


230-An original drawing of a battle fought on 3 May of the year 1634 near Legnica in Silesia, in which the Imperial army was defeated and scattered around by the Swedish-Saxon army.

An original drawing of a battle fought on 3 May of the year 1634 near Legnica in Silesia, in which the Imperial army was defeated and scattered around by the Swedish-Saxon army.

Lehnice, On 03.05.1634

The town of Legnica in Silesia is portrayed at the very top of the picture. Imperial soldiers are fleeing in the direction of the town. The rest of the painting is filled up by the army formations lined-up in typical squares. In the left foreground are a large tree, 2 cavalrymen, 3 soldiers, a woman with a child and a farmer holding a dog and a hen in his hands.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlicher Entwurf des Treffens so den 3. May desz 1634 Jahrs bey Lignitz in Schlesien vorgengen, dabei die kayserische Armee von der Schwedisch. und Sächsischen geschlagen und zertrennet worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 223/340

Following the Cheb assassination in February 1634, only weaker Imperial regiments remained in Silesia to fight the Saxons. There was also a smaller Swedish regiment. The Saxons were commanded by the famous General Arnim, who once fought for the Imperial army. At the time of Wallenstein’s treachery, he was closely involved in the conspiracy, however he played a great role in Wallenstein’s fall later on. A battle between the Arnim’s and Imperial regiments took place on 3 May 1634 near Legnica in Silesia. The Saxons won.


234-The siege of the Imperial free city of Regensburg carried out by His Royal Majesty of Hungary and Bohemia, initiated on 15 May 1634 and ended by agreement on 17 July.

The siege of the Imperial free city of Regensburg carried out by His Royal Majesty of Hungary and Bohemia, initiated on 15 May 1634 and ended by agreement on 17 July.

Řezno, On 15.05.1634 (do 17.07.1634)

This is a large representative copper engraving, which depicts the siege of Regensburg by the Imperial army. There are mountains and the river Danube in the background. The town itself is engraved very clearly and meticulously. There are some military scenes, fortification walls, army camps etc. in the foreground. A factual and topographical captions, A-Z and 1-29, are in an ornamental banner on the right. Nearby are individual cavalrymen and musketeers carrying standards. On the left is a round ornamental cartouche with the coats-of-arms of the city council including a dedication to an unnamed burgomaster by a certain Matthias Hubert. The coat-of-arms of Regensburg, a two-headed eagle with crossed keys is at the top right. The German text cited word-for-word on the previous page is placed in the clouds over the depicted city.

Signature: Matheus Merian fecit.
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Der zu Hungarn und Böheim K. M. Belagerung des h.r.freyen Statt Regenspurg, welche den 15. May Anno 1634 angefangen und den 17. Julii mit Accord vollendet worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 229/297

After the Wallenstein’s assassination in February 1634 the Czech and Hungarian King Ferdinand, a son of Ferdinand II and the later Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, took over the Chief Command of the entire Imperial army. His army advisor became the General Matthias Gallas. This change in the highest army ranks brought about a faster pace of the military campaigns, compared to the last period of the Wallenstein’s hesitant command. The new centre of the renewed fighting became Bavaria, mostly occupied by the Swedish. However, the powers of the Swedish Commander Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar were limited due to opinions clashes regarding the strategic planning between him and the General Gustav Horn. While the Imperial Army was moving from Bohemia to Bavaria, Bernhard Weimar was positioned in the West Germany. The advanced Imperial units commanded by Aldringen (killed near Landshut on 12 July 1634) were already threatening Regensburg, occupied by the Swedish at the time. Bernhard of Weimar was marching eastwards but before he could carry out his intention to invade the inherited Austrian lands, he heard that Regensburg, now situated behind him, capitulated on 17 July 1634 and was occupied by the Imperial army. This meant a new reunion of the two main Swedish armies commanded by Gustav Horn and Bernhard of Weimar. Moreover, the situation was quickly forwarding towards the remarkable Battle of Nördlingen, which, for the second time during the war, twisted the powers of the opposing sides, this time in favour of the Imperial-Catholic camp. (The first remarkable twist in the powers of the Thirty Years’ War came after the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631, where the Protestants, commanded by the Swedish King Gustav Adolph, crashed the Imperial army.)


231-A ground-plan of the siege of the city of Frankfurt, which was besieged by His Excellency Electorate, apart from the General Banner on 13 May, and was conquered on 23 May. In the year 1634.

A ground-plan of the siege of the city of Frankfurt, which was besieged by His Excellency Electorate, apart from the General Banner on 13 May, and was conquered on 23 May. In the year 1634.

Frankfurt, On 23.05.1634

The print shows the situation (ground-plan) of Frankfurt on the river Oder. The wide flow of Oder spanned by a bridge near Frankfurt cuts off symbolically the top left corner of the print. The town is surrounded by the enemy’s regiments with numerous cannon batteries and army camps. The stated German text is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top right. The topographic and military caption A-R is above the picture part of the print, included is also a scale in rutheny.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grundriss der belagerung und Statt Frankfurt, wie solche von Ihr: Churf: Durchl: neben General Banner den 13. May belägert und den folgenden 23 ditoerobert worden. Anno 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 224/31 D

During the period after the Wallenstein’s assassination, the Saxon-Swedish regiments were positioned in the Upper Silesia and surrounding territories, operating against the relatively weaker Imperial army, which remained here after Wallenstein’s departure to the west. Among others, the Swedish-Saxon regiments besieged and conquered the town of Frankfurt on Oder, on 23 May 1634.


232-A ground-plan of the siege of the city of Frankfurt, which was besieged by His Excellency Electorate, apart from the General Banner on 13 May, and was conquered on 23 May. In the year 1634.

A ground-plan of the siege of the city of Frankfurt, which was besieged by His Excellency Electorate, apart from the General Banner on 13 May, and was conquered on 23 May. In the year 1634.

Frankfurt, On 23.05.1634

The print shows the situation (ground-plan) of Frankfurt on the river Oder. The wide flow of Oder spanned by a bridge near Frankfurt cuts off the top left corner of the print. The town is surrounded by the enemy’s regiments with numerous cannon batteries and army camps. The stated German text is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top right. The topographic and military caption A-R is above the picture part of the print, included is also a scale in rutheny.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grundriss der belagerung und Statt Frankfurt, wie solche von Ihr: Churf: Durchl: neben General Banner den 13. May belägert und den folgenden 23 ditoerobert worden. Anno 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 225/231

During the period after the Wallenstein’s assassination, the Saxon-Swedish regiments were positioned in the Upper Silesia and surrounding territories, operating against the relatively weaker Imperial army, which remained here after Wallenstein’s departure to the west. Among others, the Swedish-Saxon regiments besieged and conquered the town of Frankfurt on Oder, on 23 May 1634.


553-An original outline of the fort of Rheinfelden, which was besieged and conquered by the Swedish. 1634.

An original outline of the fort of Rheinfelden, which was besieged and conquered by the Swedish. 1634.

Rheinfelden, On 01.07.1634 (do 31.08.1634)

The town of Rheinfelden with its high church spire is outlined in the centre of the engraving. Outside the town is: ‚Herr Gen. Maior Exc. Reingraff Johann Philips quartier‘, and nearby to the right: ‚ Auszug der Kayserlichen‘. There are mountain ridges in the background. The river Rhine flows across the painting. Army camps and cannon batteries are in the foreground. There are even ballistic tracks of the cannonballs falling on the town outlined. In the left foreground are three cavalrymen.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation der Festung Rheinfelden, wie dieselbe von den Schwedischen belägert und eingenommen worden. 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 227/29D

Bernhard Saxon-Weimar, Marshal Gustav Horn and Chancellor Oxenstierna fell apart at the beginning of 1634 over their different opinions regarding the planning of military campaigns. Bernhard Saxon-Weimar intended to invade the inherited Austrian lands, while Horn and the Swedish Chancellor first wanted to ensure properly their positions in the conquered territories. Gustav Horn carried out local operations in Swabia, among them the seize of the town of Rheinfelden, occupied by the Imperial army. These events took place still before the battle of Nördlingen fought in summer 1634.


233-An original depiction of the town of Landshut in Bavaria besieged by the Swedish - Evangelic Federation, in the year 1634.

An original depiction of the town of Landshut in Bavaria besieged by the Swedish - Evangelic Federation, in the year 1634.

Landshut, On 12.07.1634

The engraving shows the town of Landshut in a beautifully drawn countryside. A huge fire broke out in the town, covering it with clouds of smoke. The Imperial army is running away on the other bank of the river Isar. There are 2 cavalry and some infantry soldiers in the left foreground. The coat-of-arms of Landshut with three hats is drawn above the town. The caption A-L is at the bottom..

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Contfactur der Statt Landshut in Bayern sampt der Schwedisch und Evangelischen Bunds Belagerung Anno 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 226/446

There were disagreements of the military strategic opinions of Bernhard of Weimar and Gustav Horn. Horn took his troops to besiege the town of Forchheim while Bernhard of Weimar marched against the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, who arrived with the Spanish army. However, upon hearing the news that Regensburg was endangered Bernhard of Weimar and Horn joined their armies again on 2 July near Augspurk and together set out towards Landshut. They attacked the town on 12 July 1634. At the very moment the Imperial General Aldringen was just entering the town from the other side. A fierce fight broke out in the town, in which the Imperial regiments were crushed. The General Aldringen was hit by two bullets and drowned during the chaotic escape of the Imperial soldiers across the river Isar.


554-An outline of the siege of the town of Regensburg, which was handed over according to agreement to the Imperial army in 1634.

An outline of the siege of the town of Regensburg, which was handed over according to agreement to the Imperial army in 1634.

Řezno, On 16.07.1634

The Danube river flows across the picture with the town of Regensburg along its banks. The river Regen, which spills into branches in the Bavarian part of the Bohemian Šumava Forest, flows into the Danube from the left side. Two cavalrymen are portrayed in the left foreground. The Imperial army camp inscribed: ‚Königs in Ungern Läger‘ is in the top left corner. The caption A-S is at the bottom left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abris der belägerung der Statt Regenspurg wie solche den 16. Juli den Keyserischen mit Accord über geben worden 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 228/44D

Following the murder of Wallenstein in February 1634 the chief command of the Imperial army went to Ferdinand III, a son of Ferdinand II. The General Matthias Gallas was his right hand and proving himself excellently during this period of his military activities. The Imperial army sat out to march to Bavaria. One of their first important deeds was the conquest of Regensburg, which was handed over to them upon agreement on 16 July 1634. Immediately afterwards the war issues were ready for the remarkable Battle of Nördlingen, which meant a completely new twist in the forces of the Thirty Years’ War.


235-A depiction and a description of the free Imperial city of Regensburg, which was captured by His Excellency Count Duke Bernhard of Weimar, and following a siege lasting several months by his Majesty in Hungary on behalf of his Imperial Majesty handed over again upon a good agreement on 28 July 1634.

A depiction and a description of the free Imperial city of Regensburg, which was captured by His Excellency Count Duke Bernhard of Weimar, and following a siege lasting several months by his Majesty in Hungary on behalf of his Imperial Majesty handed over again upon a good agreement on 28 July 1634.

Řezno, On 28.07.1634

The city of Regensburg on the river Danube with an island and two bridges lies in the background of the engraving. Its suburb with two high spires is on the left. The Swedish army is just retreating from it. A cavalry regiment is at the bottom right. A small banner with the inscription: ‚Bischofspalast‘ is placed above it. The coat-of-arms of the city (two crossed keys) and an inscription: ‚Ratisbona- Regenspurg‘ is in the sky over the city.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung und Beschreibung der Freyen Statt Regenspurg wie sie von Ihr: Fürstl: Gnaden Hertzog Bernhard von Weimar etc. einbekommen und den 18. 28. July 1634 Ihrer Königlichen Majestät in Ungarn im Namen Kays. Mayt. nach etlich Monat langer Belägerung mit gutem Accordo widerum übergeben worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 230/362

After the Wallenstein’s assassination in February 1634 the Czech and Hungarian King Ferdinand, a son of Ferdinand II and the later Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, took over the Chief Command of the entire Imperial army. His army advisor became the General Matthias Gallas. This change in the highest army ranks brought about a faster pace of the military campaigns, compared to the last period of the Wallenstein’s hesitant command. The new centre of the renewed fighting became Bavaria, mostly occupied by the Swedish. However, the powers of the Swedish Commander Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar were limited due to opinions clashes regarding the strategic planning between him and the General Gustav Horn. While the Imperial Army was moving from Bohemia to Bavaria, Bernhard Weimar was positioned in the West Germany. The advanced Imperial units commanded by Aldringen (killed near Landshut on 12 July 1634) were already threatening Regensburg, occupied by the Swedish at the time. Bernhard of Weimar was marching eastwards but before he could carry out his intention to invade the inherited Austrian lands, he heard that Regensburg, now situated behind him, capitulated on 17 July 1634 and was occupied by the Imperial army. This meant a new reunion of the two main Swedish armies commanded by Gustav Horn and Bernhard of Weimar. Moreover, the situation was quickly forwarding towards the remarkable Battle of Nördlingen, which, for the second time during the war, twisted the powers of the opposing sides, this time in favour of the Imperial-Catholic camp. (The first remarkable twist in the powers of the Thirty Years’ War came after the Battle of Breitenfeld in 1631, where the Protestants, commanded by the Swedish King Gustav Adolph, crashed the Imperial army.)


236-The battle of Nördlingen in the year 1634.

The battle of Nördlingen in the year 1634.

On 27.08.1634

A fight of cavalries with relatively large figures is depicted in the foreground. The main battle and the city of Nördlingen with its church spire are in the background. Thick clouds of smoke and dust are hanging over the fighting turmoil. There is a cavalryman carrying a standard with the Imperial eagle in a group of figures to the left. The landscape in the background ends at high mountains. The entire composition of the picture characterises a later period than the first half of the 17th century.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Die Schlacht bei Nördlingen Anno 1634.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 231/319

The battle of Nördlingen fought on 27 August 1634 meant a serious twist into the powers of the two fighting religious movements and opposed armies. Once again, the Imperial-Catholic camp was winning. The command of the Swedish army went to the hands of the Duke Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar, the Marshal Gustav Horn and the Chancellor Oxenstierna after the death of the King Gustav Adolph at the battle of Lützen. However, the Duke of Weimar and Horn were never able to agree on the strategic and tactical issues. Bernhard of Weimar was a go-ahead impulsive and aggressive attacker while Horn was a careful, thoughtful and a rather passive strategist. Such contradictory military attitude of the two commanders had a tragic impact on the battle of Nördlingen as the command was united and not held by one person, as it had been during the Swedish successful fighting under the command of the King Gustav Adolph. However, some large changes at the highest ranks happened also in the Imperial army. The assassinated Wallenstein was replaced by the young Bohemian and Hungarian king Ferdinand, who later became the Emperor after the death of his father. His right hand, military advisor and the person behind the military successes was the experienced General Matthias Gallas. The young king left the command to Gallas which was a far-seeing move that largely contributed to the victory of the Imperial army. Following a full day of fierce fighting that brought many crises and unexpected twists at both sides the Swedish army was crushed. The Imperialists had 33000 men while Swedish only 26000. Field Marshal Horn was captured by the cavalry of General John of Werth while Duke Saxon-Weimar only narrowly escaped the same destiny. The Imperialists captured 170 banners and standards and 80 cannons. Not only where the losses on the Swedish side enormous but all the cavalry carriages and supplies fell into the hands of the Imperial army.


237-Nördlingen in the Imperial Swabia.

Nördlingen in the Imperial Swabia.

Nördlingen, On 27.08.1634

The print shows the overall view of the city of Nördlingen situated in the Western Bavaria near the border with Württemberg, approx. 80 km northwest of Augsburg. There is an unrolled ribbon banner in the sky over the landscape with the French inscription stated on the previous page. There are several military regiments with carriages in the foreground. A high officer with a report giving adjutant is depicted on the left. A large tree stands nearby and there is a church on a hillock on the right. The caption A-V is below the picture. This is a copper engraving of French origin of a high artistic quality. Although there is no signature, it shows many characteristics of the engraving techniques of Jacques Callot. It is remarkable that apart from the topographical caption the position of Nördlingen and its surrounding is also given according to modern cartographic customs in the longitudes and latitudes.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Nördlingen en Suabe Imp.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 232/296

The city of Nördlingen was besieged by the Imperial army shortly before the battle started on 27 August 1634. Bernhard Saxon-Weimar arrived with his army to liberate the city from the siege and situated his army on a hill near Bopfingen, where he was joined by the Marshal Gustav Horn. The critical situation of the city garrison was growing more and more serious. In the end, their appeals for help made Bernhard of Weimar to forget Horn’s doubts, to carry out his idea and to attack the Imperial army. Horn’s advice was to postpone the attack and wait for the arrival of the Count Otto Louis of the Rhineland, for who a messenger Colonel Kratz was hastily sent. However, the Swedish army was ordered to attack the Imperial regiments besieging Nördlingen, and the battle broke out.


238-An outline of an army formation and the Battle of Nördlingen on 6 September 1634.

An outline of an army formation and the Battle of Nördlingen on 6 September 1634.

Nördlingen, On 06.09.1634

This wide print depicts the Battle of Nördlingen. The Imperial army is on the right side and the Swedish on the left in a forest. The city of Nördlingen is painted nearby on the right. A small scene with a colonel and buglers is depicted in the right foreground. The entire area of the print is filled up by fighting regiments. The Latin inscription cited word-for-word on the previous page is placed in an ornamental cartouche at the top right. The caption A-Z and 1-42 is below the picture.

Signature: M. Merian fecit
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Delineatio aciei et pugnae ad Nördlingam VI. Septembris Ao MDCXXXIV.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 233/324

The battle of Nördlingen fought on 27 August 1634 meant a serious twist into the powers of the two fighting religious movements and opposed armies. Once again, the Imperial-Catholic camp was winning. The command of the Swedish army went to the hands of the Duke Bernhard of Saxon-Weimar, the Marshal Gustav Horn and the Chancellor Oxenstierna after the death of the King Gustav Adolph at the battle of Lützen. However, the Duke of Weimar and Horn were never able to agree on the strategic and tactical issues. Bernhard of Weimar was a go-ahead impulsive and aggressive attacker while Horn was a careful, thoughtful and a rather passive strategist. Such contradictory military attitude of the two commanders had a tragic impact on the battle of Nördlingen as the command was united and not held by one person, as it had been during the Swedish successful fighting under the command of the King Gustav Adolph. However, some large changes at the highest ranks happened also in the Imperial army. The assassinated Wallenstein was replaced by the young Bohemian and Hungarian king Ferdinand, who later became the Emperor after the death of his father. His right hand, military advisor and the person behind the military successes was the experienced General Matthias Gallas. The young king left the command to Gallas which was a far-seeing move that largely contributed to the victory of the Imperial army. Following a full day of fierce fighting that brought many crises and unexpected twists at both sides the Swedish army was crushed. The Imperialists had 33000 men while Swedish only 26000. Field Marshal Horn was captured by the cavalry of General John of Werth while Duke Saxon-Weimar only narrowly escaped the same destiny. The Imperialists captured 170 banners and standards and 80 cannons. Not only where the losses on the Swedish side enormous but all the cavalry carriages and supplies fell into the hands of the Imperial army. Bernhard Saxon-Weimar arrived with his army to liberate the city from the siege and situated his army on a hill near Bopfingen, where he was joined by the Marshal Gustav Horn. The critical situation of the city garrison was growing more and more serious. In the end, their appeals for help made Bernhard of Weimar to forget Horn’s doubts, to carry out his idea and to attack the Imperial army. Horn’s advice was to postpone the attack and wait for the arrival of the Count Otto Louis of the Rhineland, for who a messenger Colonel Kratz was hastily sent. However, the Swedish army was ordered to attack the Imperial regiments besieging Nördlingen, and the battle broke out.


244-The siege of the town of Mainz by the Imperial army in the year 1635.

The siege of the town of Mainz by the Imperial army in the year 1635.

Mohuč, On 01.01.1635 (do 31.12.1635)

The print depicts the map of Mainz and its surroundings during the siege of 1635. There are fortifications and walls around the town, however the place for the town itself is empty apart from the incription ‚Mayntz – Moguntia‘. Below is the river Rhine with its tributary Main. There are three islands on the Rhine. The town is surrounded by massive bulwark and there are several regiments, camps and few trees spread around. Nearby is a fortress called Gustavusburg with a star-like ground-plan. The caption A-Z and 1-10 is in a banner at the top left. The above-stated text is above the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung der Statt Mayntz durch die Röm: Kay: May: Armee im jahr 1635.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 239/278

A certain military stagnation prevailed in the Protestant camp following their bloody defeat at the Battle of Nördlingen. The situation was made even worse by the opinion conflicts between Bernhard of Weimar, Gustav Horn and the Swedish Chancellor Oxenstierna. General Gallas took a great advantage of this situation gradually conquering the towns of Worms, Oppenheim, Bingen and Bachrach and surrounding the towns of Frankenthal and Mainz. However, when the Duke of Weimar with the Swedish-French army appeared suddenly, the Imperial army retreated from Mainz. Nevertheless, Gallas managed to conquer the town later on.


472-The fruitless siege of the fortress of Rheinfels by the French army.

The fruitless siege of the fortress of Rheinfels by the French army.

Rheinfels, On 01.01.1635 (do 31.12.1635)

The river Rhine flows through the centre of the depicted landscape. The Rheinfels fortress on its left bank is surrounded by deep trenches of the French regiments. The French line is under the fire of the cannon batteries of the enemy, situated on the right bank of the Rhine. The above-stated German text is placed above the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Die Vestung Rheinfels wird von den Französischen Armeen vergeblich belagert.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 240/415

This engraving does not state any date or factual details, therefore the depicted event cannot be reliably defined, even less though that this is undoubtedly an unimportant fight. The French regiments fought with the Swedish in 1635 against the Imperial-Bavarian army in the valley of Rhine – therefore this is likely to be one of the fights from this period of the Thirty Years‘ War. The small town of Rheinfels is situated approx. 25 km south of Koblenze.


239-This engraving lacks the usual explanatory inscription, however its topic is a prayer of forty hostages abducted by the Swedish King Gustav Adolph from Munich in 1632.

This engraving lacks the usual explanatory inscription, however its topic is a prayer of forty hostages abducted by the Swedish King Gustav Adolph from Munich in 1632.

On 10.03.1635

The 40 figures depicted in the picture, wearing cloaks with lace collars, are possibly portraits of the 40 hostages. There are six angels in front of them with their coats-of-arms. The city of Munich is in the background. In the clouds above the city is the Mother of God with the Baby Jesus and several angels, who are holding her cloak and her crown over her head. At her feet are the coats-of-arms of Bavaria and the city of Munich. At the sides of the Virgin Mary are 4 angels holding boards with the names of the 40 hostages. An extensive German text and some Latin prayers to the Virgin Mary thanking her for a happy return are below the picture.

Signature: Luc. Kilian F.
Autor: Unknown

Original name:

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 234/284

After the Swedish occupied Munich on 10 May 1632, the King Gustav Adolph decided to capture 40 respectable citizens of the city as hostages. It was done because Munich was fully devoted to its ruler the Electorate Maximilian of Bavaria and most of its citizens were Catholics. It was therefore easy to foresee a rebellion against the Protestants. The 40 abducted citizens were imprisoned in Augsburg, Donauwörth and Nördlingen, and only returned to Munich only two years and ten months later. Two of them died in captivity.


240-The position and besieging of the famous Schencken fortification wall in 1635 and 1636.

The position and besieging of the famous Schencken fortification wall in 1635 and 1636.

Schenkenschanz, On 18.07.1635

The copper engraving depicts a part of the lower stream of the Rhine with the fortress of ‚Schenckenschantz‘. It shows many minor scenes, various fortification constructions, military camps, pastures etc. A soldier holding a long pike and several other figures, one with a backpack, are to be seen in the right foreground. Two ditch diggers are painted on the right. There is a plan of the fortress at the top right. Opposite, in an ornamental banner is the above-stated German text and the caption 1-25.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Gelegenheit und Belagerung der berümpten Schenckenschantz im Jahr 1635 und 36.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 235/406

The year 1635 saw a number of changes in the existing relationships between France and the Holy Roman Empire. France officially declared war on the Emperor and immediately started military campaigns in positions shared with the Habsburgs. A truce dividing the so-called Holland Netherland (present-day Belgium) into two parts was also signed with the Netherlands. France wanted one part of this territory while the other was left to the Netherlands under the rule of the widow of Archduke Albert, the Infanta Isabella – a daughter of the Spanish king Philip II. However, the outcome of French fights was not impressive as neither the army nor its commanders had any experience in fighting. The depicted siege of ‚Schenckenschantz‘ took place during the fights of the stated period.


242-The city of Frankfurt

The city of Frankfurt

Frankfurt, On 11.08.1635

The print is lacking the usual explanatory text. According to Drugulin it depicts the siege of the town of Sachsenhausen and its handover upon agreement on 11 August 1635 to the General Lamboy. The picture shows the city of Frankfurt and the river Main with Sachsenhausen spreading on its other side. A shooting regiment is crossing the bridge over the Main. A garrison is leaving Sachsenhausen.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Frankfurt

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 236/101

Peace between the Electorate of Saxon John George I and the Emperor was signed in Prague in May 1635. The crushing defeat of the Swedish army at the Battle of Nördlingen completely changed the political and military situation. Under the dire consequences a considerate number of German Protestant princes agreed to the conditions dictated to the Saxons by the Emperor. Even the free Imperial cities bowed to the Emperor, including Frankfurt on Main and Sachsenhausen, occupied by a rather weak Swedish garrison, which General Lamboy was forced to leave on 11 August.


241-Sachsenhausen, the suburb of Frankfurt on Main, with the battle fought by the two enemies.

Sachsenhausen, the suburb of Frankfurt on Main, with the battle fought by the two enemies.

Sachsenhausen, On 11.08.1635

The print depicts two cities separated by the wide river Rhine. A bridge connecting Frankfurt and Sachsenhausen is under the fire from both sides. The Swedish-French regiments are just leaving the town. There are even ballistic track of cannonballs falling upon the city marked in the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Sachsenhausium Frankfurti ad Moenum suburbium cum hostilitatibus inter utrasque gestus.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 237/320

The Swedish-French Alliance was shaken by the victory of the Imperial army near Nördlingen. The enemies of the Imperial camp were thus forced to retreat to the left bank of the Rhine and could not therefore prevent the conquest of Sachsenhausen on 11 August 1635 by General Lamboy.


243-A depiction of the field camp of the Holy Roman Emperor at Mesieres, Dieuze and Merseburg with the position of the army, when the Swedish marched pass on 25 and 26 October 1635.

A depiction of the field camp of the Holy Roman Emperor at Mesieres, Dieuze and Merseburg with the position of the army, when the Swedish marched pass on 25 and 26 October 1635.

Merseburg, On 25.10.1635 (do 26.10.1635)

An army camp on an elevated plain surrounded by strong fortification walls is in the centre of the picture. The small town of Mesieres and a couple of other villages and settlements are nearby. There are a couple of woods in the landscape. The Swedish-French army is marching at the bottom right. The above-stated text is in an oval banner in the top left corner of the print. The caption A-M is in a similar banner at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der R: Kays: M: Veldlägers bey Mesieres, Diouze und Mörseberg sampt der Positur der Armme bey der Schweden Vorüberzug den 25. 26. Oktober 1635.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 238/321

The biggest enemy of the Emperor after the Battle of Nördlingen was the Duke Bernhard of Weimar, who now had to rely on the French help as most of the German princes left the Protestant Alliance. However, due to various misunderstanding with the French commanders Bernhard could not prevent uniting of the two Imperial armies commanded by the Generals Gallas and Charles of Lorraine, who now marched together to St. Dieuze (Merseburg) in Lorraine. Both Imperial generals used this strong position and the strength of their joined forces to carry out successful attacks on the enemy, which retreated to Nancy, Lunnéville and St. Nicolas being weakened by internal struggles. However, Gallas and Charles of Lorraine soon were at conflicts of opinions too and the two armies separated again. Gallas marched via Pfalzburg to Alsace while Charles of Lorraine went to Franche-Comté, a region at the east of France on the borders with the present day Germany and Switzerland. Due to this they missed a change for a great victory at Merseburg, when the Swedish-French army passed by on 25 and 26 October 1635 within their arm’s reach.


248-The fortress of Ehrenbreitstein i.e. Hermanstein, which was seized and conquered by the Imperial army. Year 1636.

The fortress of Ehrenbreitstein i.e. Hermanstein, which was seized and conquered by the Imperial army. Year 1636.

Ehrenbreitstein, On 01.01.1636 (do 31.12.1636)

The print depicts the territory around the confluence of the rivers Moselle and the Rhine with the town of Koblenz nearby. On a rather high hill on the other side of the Rhine is the Ehrenbreitstein fortress depicted accurately with the surrounding fortification constructions. There are deep-cut valleys, ravines and streams in the landscape. The German text is placed above the picture, while the caption A-R is below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Die Vestung Ehrenbreitstein oder Hermanstein, und wie selbige von den Kayseris. Ploquiert und eingenommen wurde. Anno 1636.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 244/294

The year 1636 was marked by the fights between the Imperial forces commanded by Gallas and Charles of Lorraine and the Swedish-French army commanded by Bernhard of Weimar and the Cardinal le Vallet. These military campaigns took mostly place on the French land. The cavalry of the Imperial General John of Werth even managed to get near Paris. It is therefore obvious that the remaining strong positions held by the French and the Swedish along the Rhine were gradually conquered by the Imperial forces. This was how the Ehrenbreitstein fortress situated on the other side of the Rhine opposite Koblenz was captured too.


249-The new peasant prosecution of the heartless cavalrymen of this time. Come closer, kind reader, and look at this strange cavalry and what is now being done by the soldiers in the world.

The new peasant prosecution of the heartless cavalrymen of this time. Come closer, kind reader, and look at this strange cavalry and what is now being done by the soldiers in the world.

On 01.01.1636 (do 31.12.1636)

The picture depicts a soldier sitting on a peasant as on a horse. Other soldiers pictured behind him are torturing the villagers in various ways. A regiment is on the left and a hilly panorama in the background. There is a small cloud in the sky with a small figure sitting on a bonfire. A two-verse German poem is below the picture part of the print. It describes the suffering of the peasants in the war promising a future revenge. There is no date on the print; however Drugulin’s catalogue places this print in the year 1636.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Fürst Paulus, nakladatel v Norimberku, obchodník s uměleckými předměty

Original name: Neiwe Bawren Klag Uber die unbarmhertzigen Bawren reuter dieser Zeit. Günstiger Leser tritt herbey Beschaw die sltzam Reutery, Die jetziger Zeit in der Welt von den Soldaten angestellt.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 245/66

The Thirty Years‘ war caused terrible suffering and poverty to the citizens of territories affected in any way by the fights. Indeed, the peasants met the worst fate as the whole armies normally got food and horses by pillaging and plundering the countryside. This led to a complete depopulation in some parts. The peasant population of Germany and in the Czech territories decreased almost by two-thirds.


250-Prague

Prague

Praha, On 01.01.1636 (do 31.12.1636)

This is a wide view of the city of Prague with the river Vltava spanned by a stone bridge flowing through its centre. A stylised ruin stands in the left foreground with the Strahov Monastery visible behind it. The Baroque-style cartouches drawn over the city show the coats-of-arms of Hradčany, Old and New Town and Malá Strana, the Imperial Eagle and the Czech Lion. The city quarters and important buildings are marked with names. There is a rectangular cartouche at the bottom centre with names of 20 remarkable buildings in Czech, Latin and German. The coat-of-arms of the author (Hollar) with an inscription:,Wenceslaus Hollar a Lewengrun et Bareyt hanc regni Bohemiae Metropolim, Patriam suam, ex monte Sct. Laurentii A. 1636 exactissime delineavit & aqua forti in hanc formaa aeri insculpsit, Antwerpae A. 1649.‘ is at the top. Translation: ‚Václav Hollar of Lewengrun and Bareyt painted as accurately as possible this capital city of the Bohemian Kingdom, its homeland, in the year 1636, from the hill of St. Lawrence (present day Petřín) and using the aqua fortis (the nitric acid used for etching) he etched this view into a copperplate in Antwerp, year 1649.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Hollar Václav z Práchně, český mědirytec

Original name: Praga

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 245A/486

It is a beautifully done well-known Hollar’s view of the city made on his visit to Prague in 1636, when he was accompanied by the Ambassador of the English King Charles I, the Lord Thomas Haward Earl of Arundel and Surrey. The colour drawing existed in the collection of Sir Rawlings in London in the 18th century. The picture was probably painted from the Schönborn Garden. It is interesting that in the title of the picture Hollar does not state the gentle postscript ‚Prachenbergensis‘ given to his family by Rudolf II in 1606, only the predictates given to him by Ferdinand III according to the birth name of his Mother Marketa of Lövengryn and Bareyt in 1630.


245-An original outline of the well-built town of Hanou which was liberated from the Imperial siege by the Swedish and the Landgrave William of Hesse on 13 June 1636.

An original outline of the well-built town of Hanou which was liberated from the Imperial siege by the Swedish and the Landgrave William of Hesse on 13 June 1636.

On 13.06.1636

The town of Hanou is drawn from the birds-eye perspective in a meander of the river Küntzig and is divided into two parts. There are enemies‘ fortified lines, various regiments etc. in the near surroundings of the town. The river Main flows through a forested landscape in the foreground. The stated German text is in an oval cartouche at the top left. The caption A-Z and 1-15 is lower down.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation der vesten Statt Hanou sampt der Kays: Belagerung, wie sie von den Schweden und Landgrafen Wilhelm von Hessen entsetzet worden den 13. Juni 1636.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 241/308

As the Elector John George I of Saxon was forced to sign the Peace of Prague (1635) with the Emperor due to the defeat of the Swedish at Nördlingen, many other German princes also left the military Protestant Alliance. One of the few, who remained faithful to the Swedish, was the Landgrave William of Hesse, who helped to liberate the town of Hanou on the river Maiz from the Imperial siege. This Swedish-Hesse operation against the Imperial regiment took place on 13 June 1636.


246-Magdeburg was conquered again by the Imperial and Saxon /regiments/ and handed over upon agreement on 13 July 1636.

Magdeburg was conquered again by the Imperial and Saxon /regiments/ and handed over upon agreement on 13 July 1636.

Magdeburg, On 13.07.1636

The engraving depicts the river Elbe streaming out into several branches. The city of Magdeburg lies above the river. The author did not outline the centre of the city, there is only the inscription ‚Magdeburg‘. The Imperial-Saxon army fighting formations are lined-up outside the city while a relatively small Swedish garrison is leaving it from the other side. There are four mounted buglers at the bottom right. The above-stated German text is placed in an ornamental vignette in the top left corner.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Magdeburg durch Accord von den Kayserisch und Chur-Sächsischen wieder erobert den 13. Monats Julii 1636.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 242/98

The Electorate John George of Saxon started rethinking his alliance with the Swedish after the conquest of Regensburg by the Imperial forces on 17 August 1634 and, most of all, following the Battle of Nördlingen on 6 September 1634. He finally decided to change sides and support the Emperor during the peace negotiations in Prague in 1635. Obviously, the politics of this German Electorate was led primarily by his opportunistic plans. The strategic situation of the Swedish thus became critical and not even entering of France into the war against the Emperor could help to even up the powers. The Swedish retreated to the sea at the north and to the northwest and left only a couple of insignificant garrisons in the towns of the Central Germany, which were easily overpowered by the Imperial forces. This is how the city of Magdeburg, still affected by the cruel Tilly’s conquest five years ago, fell into the hands of the Imperial army. The Swedish garrison left and handed the town over voluntarily.


247-An original outline of the fight of the Imperial, Catholic and Saxon army with the Swedish near Wittstock on 24 September 1636.

An original outline of the fight of the Imperial, Catholic and Saxon army with the Swedish near Wittstock on 24 September 1636.

Wittstock, On 24.09.1636

There is an inscription below the bottom border of the engraving:,Wittstocker Schlacht’. A small river is flowing on the right with the small town of Wittstock above it. There are two hilltops in the depicted landscape with the armies fighting atop. The fights are also depicted in the valley spreading out towards the river. The caption A-P and the above-stated text are placed below the picture part of the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation des Treffens so zwischen der Keys. Ligistisch. und Chur-Sächsischen und dann anders theils den Schwedischen Armeen bey Wittstockh den 24. September anno 1636 vorgang.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 243/345

The strategic situation of the Swedish worsened considerably becoming almost critical, following the defeat in the Battle of Nördlingen and consequent exit of the Elector of Saxon and few other German princes from the Protestant Alliance. The focus of the fights moved into the area north of Saxony, where General Banner and his subordinate commanders Torstensson, Leslie, King and Stallhantsh led the Swedish army, counting 22000 men. The united Imperial-Saxon army, commanded by the Elector of Saxon himself and the General Count Hatzfeld had approx. 30000 men. Both armies met nearby the small town of Wittstock, almost 100 km northwest of Berlin. An exceptionally bloody and tough battle broke out with uneven forces on both sides for a long time. Finally, the Swedish managed to beat the opponent despite having fewer men. They seized 151 Imperial banners and standards, 35 cannons and all the supplies including the silver tableware of the Elector. A total of 1145 dead and 2245 wounded Swedes were left at the battlefield while the Imperial army lost almost 5000 men. The defeated army quickly withdrew to Magdeburg.


251-The city of Leipzig under the siege of 1637.

The city of Leipzig under the siege of 1637.

Lipsko, On 01.01.1637 (do 31.01.1637)

This is a very meticulous bird’s eye view of the city. There is the streamed out river Pleisa and a number of gardens outside the city. Several Swedish regiments are attacking the city, mainly from the south. There are two coats-of-arms at the top, one of them is Saxon. The above-stated German text is on an unrolled ribbon banner above the picture. Two rectangular banners with captions A-O, P-Z and 1-14 are at the bottom left and right.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Die Statt Leipzig sampt der Belägerung Anno 1637.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 246/237

The victory of the Swedish army at Wittstock in September 1636 gave the General Banner a chance to occupy the entire Saxony, which had supported the Emperor since the victory of the Imperial forces at Nördlingen in 1634. Banner besieged Leipzig in January 1637 and tried to conquer it. However, the garrison of the town fought bravely being supported by supplies of food and men from the Saxon countryside, a move organised by Julius of Wolfersdorf. The General Gallas also arrived with his army from the West Germany later on to support the besieged city. Banner then realised it was impossible to defeat the Saxons united with the Imperial forces, stopped the siege immediately and withdrew hastily being pursued by Gallas as far as the Danish borders. Experts considered this Swedish withdrawal a remarkable strategic success from the military point of view.


255-A ground-plan of the siege and battle outside Leucate in Languedoc, year 1637.

A ground-plan of the siege and battle outside Leucate in Languedoc, year 1637.

Leucate, On 01.01.1637 (do 31.12.1637)

A hilly peninsula in the Mediterranean Sea near Leucat Lake is depicted on the picture. A battle between the French and Spanish is raging on the peninsula. A ship is sailing on the sea. Leucate is situated at the seaside near Perpignan. The stated German text is placed in a rectangular cartouche at the top left. The local and factual caption is below the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grundrisz der Belägerung und Schlacht vor Leucate in Languedoc, Anno 1637.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 250/256

France and Spain were in war for many years but the fighting got more intensive after the Swedish lost some of their power after the Peace of Prague (the Emperor signed a truce with the Electorate John George I of Saxon in Prague in 1635. Saxony went on supporting the Emperor followed by the majority of the German princes, leaving the Swedish isolated). In the effort to support the anti-Imperial forces, the French declared war on the Hapsburgs and sat about fighting in all shared areas. Commanded by excellent commanders (Bernhard of Weimar, Harcourt, Guebriant, Cardinal la Valett and later also Turenn, Condé etc.) the French occupied Artois, Lorraine, Alsace and Roussillon. At the same time, the Cardinal Richelieu supported Catalonians and the Portuguese in their revolt against the Madrid government. The depicted battle between the French and the Spanish near Leucate on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in 1637 took place during this period of fighting.


256-A genuine ground-plan of the town of Corbie in Pikartie with the siege of 1637.

A genuine ground-plan of the town of Corbie in Pikartie with the siege of 1637.

Corbie, On 01.01.1637 (do 31.12.1637)

The picture depicts the rivers Ancre and Somme. On a hillock above the Somme is the fortress of Corbie, surrounded by an extensive system of fortifications. There are several army camps in the surrounding countryside. There is a cross-section detail of the fortification at the top right above the stated German test. The topographical and factual caption A-D and 1-20 is placed at the bottom right.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrer Grundrisz der Statt Corbie in Picardey sampt der Belagerung, Anno 1637.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 251/346

The Spanish the Netherlands took part in the prolonged war between France and Spain, after Cardinal Infant Ferdinand, a brother of the Spanish King Phillip IV, became its governor following the death of Isabella, the widow of the Archduke Albert. This Spanish-Dutch Alliance won a couple of important fights at the beginning in the Northwest France, including the conquest of the town and fortress of Corbie, situated approx. 20 km east of Amiens. However, the luck turned later on, and the French reoccupied the lost territories including Corbie in 1637. The described copper engraving depicts this event.


252-A genuine ground-plan of the town of Dolle in Burgundy and its siege, commenced on 1 June 1637.

A genuine ground-plan of the town of Dolle in Burgundy and its siege, commenced on 1 June 1637.

Dole, On 11.06.1637

The town of Dolle (Dole on the river Doubs) approx. 50 km southeast of Dijon in France lies in the centre of the engraving. The so-called bird’s eye view is done merely schematically, however the fortifications around the town are drawn quite meticulously. The river Le Doux (Doubs) spanned by a bridge leading out of the town flows across the bottom part of the picture. There are numerous fortification constructions, army line-ups and camps around the town. There is a wide circle of trenches around the town. The background is hilly. A detail of the fortification with the enemy’s trenches is in the top left corner in a square. The caption 1-22 and A–K is at the right in a rectangular banner. There is an orienteering compass at the bottom left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrer Grundrisz der Statt und belägerung Dolle in Burgund angefangen den 1. juny 1637.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 247/286

The powers and fighting activities moved again to the side of the Imperial-Catholic movement due to the victory of Nördlingen in 1634 and the Peace of Prague signed between the Emperor and John George of Saxon. As France entered the war in 1635 fighting against the Holy-Roman Empire, the centre of the war moved into Rhineland and France. The Swedish Commander Bernhard of Weimar stood alone after some of his allies, the German princes and, most of all the Elector of Saxon, left the Protestant Alliance, and got severely dependent on the French army. However, they had only one in common – the enemy. Opinion clashes between Bernhard of Weimar and French commanders occurred and this rift was skilfully used by the Imperial armies commanded at that time by Gallas and Charles of Lorraine. The depicted siege of the town of Dolle in Burgundy by the French in June 1637 took place during this period.


253-A true ground-plan of the Swedish bulwark and the bridge of ships near Rheinau, conquered by the Imperial forces in 1637.

A true ground-plan of the Swedish bulwark and the bridge of ships near Rheinau, conquered by the Imperial forces in 1637.

Wittenweier, On 08.08.1637

This copper engraving depicts a section of the upper stream of the Rhine that spills out in a forested terrain. The formation of regiments near the burning township of Wittenweyer is in the background. The Imperial soldiers are attacking the Swedish fortifications. In the foreground are some minor scenes with cavalrymen escorting the captives. The above-stated German test is above the picture, while the caption A-M is below it. Drugulin believes this engraving to be the work by M. Merian.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Delineation der Schwedischen Schantzen und Schiffbrücken bey Rheinaw wie selbige von den Keyserischen eingenohmen worden 1637.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 248/389

The great Commander of the Swedish-French Alliance Bernhard of Weimar was about to carry out his plan (of 3 years) in 1637. It involved a great invasion into the inherited Austrian lands of the Emperor. The army supported by the French forces was to move along the upper stream of the Rhine via Bavaria towards the east. However waiting in vain for the promised French help, Bernhard finally decided to go ahead with the campaign alone supported only by a fraction of the French regiments. He neared the Rhine near Rheinau in the second half of July 1637 and occupied a couple of fortifications on the right bank of the river to allow his entire army cross the river undisturbed. Charles of Lorraine stood on the other side of the river together with the brave Imperial Infantry General John of Werth, who once again did unheard of brave deeds. His cavalry carried out several aggressive attacks, even crossing the river, chasing the Swedes out of their positions. Next came several very fast movements that forced even Bernhard of Weimar himself to jump into the river hastily to save himself from a capture. Afterwards both sides hastily called reinforces, however no decisive fight took place. This battle of Rheinau took place on 8 August 1637.


254-The siege of the town of Bredy by the Duke Frederick Henry of Orange on 23 July 1637.

The siege of the town of Bredy by the Duke Frederick Henry of Orange on 23 July 1637.

Breda, On 07.09.1637

This is a map of the town of Bredy and its wide surroundings done with a great attention to detail. The fortifications of the conquerors circle the town widely. The stated German text is at the top left, below is an ornamental unrolled ribbon scroll with two coats-of-arms. Army formations as well as individual figures are painted all over the area of the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung der Statt Breda durch Friedrich Heinrich Princen von Oragien, den 23. July 1637.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 249/193

When the truce signed between Spain and the Netherlands in 1609 ended in 1621, the fighting was renewed. When Maurice of Orange died in 1625 the command of the army and state issues went to his brother Frederick Henry who managed to liberate the towns occupied by the Spanish: Herzogenbusch and Maastricht. Breda which had been occupied since 1625 was liberated on 7 September 1637. This is depicted on this print.


265-An original depiction of the bulwark in Caloo, Verbroek and Feuerschen, which were fortified by the Dutch, who were ousted out from here again by Spanish. Year 1638.

An original depiction of the bulwark in Caloo, Verbroek and Feuerschen, which were fortified by the Dutch, who were ousted out from here again by Spanish. Year 1638.

ústí řeky Šeldy, On 01.01.1638 (do 31.12.1638)

The copper engraving consists of two fully separated views placed above each other. The upper picture depicts a battle on the opposite bank of the river Scheldt. There is a church on the right, several sailboats on the river and many drowning soldiers in the water. The bottom picture is done to resemble a map of the situation around the mouth of the Scheldt; there are some fortification constructions and a lot of fighting regiments. The caption 1-18 is below the pictures.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung der Schantzen Caloo, Verbroek, und Feuerschen und wie solche von den Holländern befestigt und wie sie von den Spanischen wieder daraus geschlagen worden. Anno 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 268/313

The Governor of the Spanish Netherlands Cardinal Infante Ferdinand led a successful war against the Dutch and three French armies in 1638. In the end, he managed to force the enemy out of his land. The Dutch built several fortifications at the mouth of the Scheldt. Many soldiers drowned during the battle provoked by the Spanish attacks on these fortifications. The Spanish conquered and occupied the fortifications. This battle took place in year 1638.


466-Wildstatt

Wildstatt

Wildstatt, On 01.01.1638 (do 31.12.1648)

To the right side of the engraving there is Wildstatt castle surrounded with a dense fortification system of watercourses. Its geographic situation is unknown. The engraving rather has a character of cartographic layout or plan. In the top left part there is a decorative cartouche with a view of Wildstadt castle broken through by the artillery fire. In the lower part there is a square board in the shape of a headstone, held by two female figures with the Imperial Eagle above their heads. The board reads caption: A-M.

Signature: Inocentius de Comitibus.
Autor: Comitibus Inocentius de, mědirytec

Original name: Wildstatt

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 415/454

In this case it is difficult to identify precisely what are the depicted war events as well as the overall historical context. According to the factual data read on the engraving, it is a fortress occupied by the French army and later captured by imperial troops under General Quartermaster Gilli de Haes. Since there is a reference to the Emperor Ferdinand III, who ascended the throne in 1637, the depicted scene should have occurred between 1637 and 1648. Certain available data suggest Wildstadt lay in the Rhineland.


555-The fierce fight of the Imperial, Electorate-Bavarian and Weimar armies on Sunday 28 / 18 as well as Wednesday 21 of this and 3 March of the year 1638 in and near Rheinfelden.

The fierce fight of the Imperial, Electorate-Bavarian and Weimar armies on Sunday 28 / 18 as well as Wednesday 21 of this and 3 March of the year 1638 in and near Rheinfelden.

Rheinfelden, On 18.02.1638 (do 03.03.1638)

This engraving is much alike the record No 227/29 D, pg. 185. However in the foreground is depicted the battle itself instead of the army formations and camps that are on the above-stated record. It can be presumed that both prints are either the work by one person, or that the print from the year 1634 was used as a model for the depiction of the fight of Rheinfelden in 1638.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Hartes Treffen zwischen den Keiserischen, Chur. Beyer. und Wimarischen völkern Sontags den 28. / 18. wie auch Mittwichs den 21. diss und 3. Marty Ao. 1638 bey und umb Rheinfelden vorgangen.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 252/30 D

After the long and difficult negotiations with the French Chancellor Richelieu ended without any result, the Duke of Saxon-Weimar marched his army towards the Rhine and besieged the town of Reinfelden on 16 January 1638. The cannonade started to bombard the town on 28 January and the imminent and final attack was planned for 19 February. Unexpectedly, however, the Imperial Generals Jan of Wehrt and Savelli with their regiments appeared outside the town, and commenced a fierce battle with the Swedish-French army. After some twists and turns in the powers the fight was won by the Imperial army. Bernhard of Weimar was forced to withdraw from the town and retreated hastily to Lauffenburg while the Imperial regiments marched into the town with a triumph. Nobody thought the fight could continue, when out of the blue, Bernhard of Weimar returned with his army on 3 March and immediately attacked the Imperial garrison, still intoxicated with the victory. The Swedish cavalry commanded by Tupadl penetrated the withdrawing Imperial army and captivated the generals Savelli, Wehrt, Enkefort and Speereuter. The victory of the Duke of Weimar was thus completed. Prince Rohan commanded the French regiments of the victorious army.


258-A real depiction of the fight that took place near Rheinfelden between His Highness Price Duke Bernhard of Weimar and the Imperial army from 18 / 28 February until 21 February of 1638.

A real depiction of the fight that took place near Rheinfelden between His Highness Price Duke Bernhard of Weimar and the Imperial army from 18 / 28 February until 21 February of 1638.

Rheinfelden, On 18.02.1638 (do 21.02.1638)

The picture is divided into two parts across the middle. The wide stream of the Rhine with the town of Reinfelden on its other side flows at the top. Nearby a battle is raving, in which the Imperial army was finally defeated on 21 March 1638 thanks to the tactical art and ploy carried out by Bernhard of Weimar. The German explanatory text is placed on a wide unrolled ribbon banner at the top right and together with the caption 1-11 and A-N. The bottom half of the picture depicts the first battle on 18 February, which was won by the Imperial army.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eygentlicher Abrisz der Treffen so vorgangen bey Rheinfeld zwischen Ihr Fürstl. Gnaden Herzog Bernhard von Weymar und den Keyserischen geschehen 18. /28. bis 21. February Anno 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 253/292

After the long and difficult negotiations with the French Chancellor Richelieu ended without any result, the Duke of Saxon-Weimar marched his army towards the Rhine and besieged the town of Reinfelden on 16 January 1638. The cannonade started to bombard the town on 28 January and the imminent and final attack was planned for 19 February. Unexpectedly, however, the Imperial Generals Jan of Wehrt and Savelli with their regiments appeared outside the town, and commenced a fierce battle with the Swedish-French army. After some twists and turns in the powers the fight was won by the Imperial army. Bernhard of Weimar was forced to withdraw from the town and retreated hastily to Lauffenburg while the Imperial regiments marched into the town with a triumph. Nobody thought the fight could continue, when out of the blue, Bernhard of Weimar returned with his army on 3 March and immediately attacked the Imperial garrison, still intoxicated with the victory. The Swedish cavalry commanded by Tupadl penetrated the withdrawing Imperial army and captivated the generals Savelli, Wehrt, Enkefort and Speereuter. The victory of the Duke of Weimar was thus completed. Prince Rohan commanded the French regiments of the victorious army.


257-The Battle of Rheinfelden

The Battle of Rheinfelden

Rheinfelden, On 18.02.1638 (do 21.02.1638)

The usual explanatory inscription is missing on this copper engraving. However, according to the depicted event and the topographical and factual caption, this is undoubtedly the Battle of Rheinfelden, on 18 – 12 February 1638. This tall picture is divided by the river Rhine across the middle. A battle is raving near the river; there are three buglers and a group of Croatians at the foreground. There is a map of the Upper Rhineland on the wide unrolled ribbon banner at the top. The captions A-O and a-i are on both sides.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name:

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 254/455

After the long and difficult negotiations with the French Chancellor Richelieu ended without any result, the Duke of Saxon-Weimar marched his army towards the Rhine and besieged the town of Reinfelden on 16 January 1638. The cannonade started to bombard the town on 28 January and the imminent and final attack was planned for 19 February. Unexpectedly, however, the Imperial Generals Jan of Wehrt and Savelli with their regiments appeared outside the town, and commenced a fierce battle with the Swedish-French army. After some twists and turns in the powers the fight was won by the Imperial army. Bernhard of Weimar was forced to withdraw from the town and retreated hastily to Lauffenburg while the Imperial regiments marched into the town with a triumph. Nobody thought the fight could continue, when out of the blue, Bernhard of Weimar returned with his army on 3 March and immediately attacked the Imperial garrison, still intoxicated with the victory. The Swedish cavalry commanded by Tupadl penetrated the withdrawing Imperial army and captivated the generals Savelli, Wehrt, Enkefort and Speereuter. The victory of the Duke of Weimar was thus completed. Prince Rohan commanded the French regiments of the victorious army.


556-The town and fortress of Meppen is being conquered by an unexpected strike of the Imperial forces, on 1 / 11 May 1638.

The town and fortress of Meppen is being conquered by an unexpected strike of the Imperial forces, on 1 / 11 May 1638.

Meppen, On 11.05.1638

The fortified town of Meppen is in the centre of the engraving, however represented only by a large church. Four lines of army troops are marching into the centre of the town. Cannon batteries are firing in two places. The confluence of the rivers Ems and Hase is near the town; soldiers are wading the water. Individual cavalry and infantry soldiers are attacking the town. There are large trees in the countryside.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Statt und Vestung Meppen von den Keyserischen durch einen Anschlag erobert, welches geschehen den 1. / 11. Mey Anno 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 255/39 D

Some fights and smaller clashes between the two armies took place on the side battlefields after the Battle of Rheinfelden in March 1638, in which Duke of Weimar defeated the Imperial army and captivated the Generals Savelli, Werth, Enkefort and Speereuter. The Imperial regiments attacked unexpectedly Meppen on Ems in Hannover conquering the town on 11 May 1638.


259-The siege of the town of Vercelli, which was initiated on 27 May 1638 by the Margrave de Leganes, the General in Italy and the Governor of Milano of his Royal Highness in Spain.

The siege of the town of Vercelli, which was initiated on 27 May 1638 by the Margrave de Leganes, the General in Italy and the Governor of Milano of his Royal Highness in Spain.

Vercelli, On 27.05.1638

The picture of Milano and its surrounding is done to resemble a map. The landscape is dotted with trees, the rivers Sesia and Seruio flow across the picture. The small town of Pelarol is at the bottom right. It is surrounded by army constructions and camps. There is an ornamental cartouche in the right top corner with the stated German text. An orienteering compass is drawn below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung der Statt Vercelli von Herrn Margra. de Leganes Königl. May. zu Hispa. General in Italia und Gubernatoren in Mayland angefangen den 27. May 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 256/290

Charles V implanted the Sforza family to Milano in 1515, however when Maximilian Sforza died childless in 1535, his position was taken by Fillip II, which was the start of a cruel war between the Spanish governors. The Spanish Margrave de Leganes besieged the fortress of Vercelli, situated west of Milano, in the direction of Turin in 1638. The fortress was occupied by the French, who had been fighting the Spanish for many years.


263-An original depiction of the main pass and the outstanding fortress of Brysach, which was surrounded by walls and fortification by His Grace the Duke Bernhard of Saxon, besieged from 6 August till 2 December 1638 and finally forced to give up.

An original depiction of the main pass and the outstanding fortress of Brysach, which was surrounded by walls and fortification by His Grace the Duke Bernhard of Saxon, besieged from 6 August till 2 December 1638 and finally forced to give up.

Breisach, On 06.08.1638 (do 07.12.1638)

This map shows the river Rhine which streams out into many branches near Brysach. The town and the fortress are painted on the left bank of the river. There are various strongholds, fortifications, military camps etc. in the surrounding countryside. Banners with the topographical and factual caption A-Z and 1-16 are at the top left and right. A profile of the fortification system is shown on a special banner. Above it is an orienteering compass. The German explanatory text, cited word-for-word above is placed above the picture. According to Drugulin, the picture is the work by Th. Kluge, an artillery colonel.

Signature: M. Merian exc.
Autor: Merian Mateus, mědirytec a nakladatel ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem

Original name: Eigentliche Abbildung des Hauptpasses und der fürtrefflichen Vestung Brysach, wie dieselbe von Ihr. fürstl. Gnaden Hertzogen Bernhartem zu Sachsen mit Schantzen und Retranchements gefasst, auch wie von dem 6. Augusti bisz auf den 2. Decembris Anno 1638 mainteniert und zu entlicher übergab bezwungen worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 259/279

The Imperial fortress of Brysach, situated on the upper stream of the Rhine near the strategically important pass not far from the Swiss borders, was in danger after the defeat of the Imperial forces at Wittenweyer on 30 July 1638 and the resultant superiority of the Swedish-French army. Battles between the Swedish-French army commanded by the Duke of Weimar and the French General Longuevill and the Imperial regiments under Götz and Charles of Lorraine were fought here throughout the entire year 1638. The fortress was commanded by the Imperial General Reinach. Götz tried his best to prevent Brysach from being defeated by the Swedish, operating skilfully in the difficult mountainous terrain and calling Charles of Lorraine situated in Alsace to help. In the end, Bernhard of Weimar tightened the grip on the town surrounding it closely. All attempts of the Imperial forces to liberate the fortress from the blockade failed. Soon enough the garrison as well as the citizens of the town suffered unbearable starvation, which forced them eating rats – even dead horses and human bodies. Three times did the commander of fortress Reinach refuse to give the town up to the Swedish. Nevertheless, on 7 December, the resistance of defendants, half-starved to death, broke down and the town capitulated. Bernhard Saxon-Weimar’s capitulation conditions were fair and generous, reflecting his admiration of the unusual bravery of the defendants.


261-A depiction of the fierce fight between the Imperial General Count Götz, the Duke de Savelli and the Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar that took place near Wittenweyer. Year 1638.

A depiction of the fierce fight between the Imperial General Count Götz, the Duke de Savelli and the Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar that took place near Wittenweyer. Year 1638.

Wittenweier, On 09.08.1638

The river Rhine flows at the top border of the engraving. The small village of Wittenweyer is below right. A visible path goes down the middle of the picture; it turns into a dam further down. There is a thick forest in the foreground with the Swedish horse-pulled carriages and several infantry soldiers. The battle is depicted in the centre of the engraving – the Imperial army is already retreating. The topographical and factual legend A-S and 1-15 is at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Delineation des hartten Treffens so zwischen den Key. Gen. Graff Götzen duc de Savelli und Herzog Bernhard von Saxen Weinmar bey Wittenweyer vorgangen. A. 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 258/197

Last years of his career as a military commander Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar devoted to fighting with his French allies against the Imperial-Bavarian troops, mostly in Rhineland, which was closest for the French. Most of his fights were victorious at that time. On 30 July 1638 at high noon Bernhard of Weimar sat out with his army from a forest (depicted at the bottom of the engraving) and saw the Imperial army in front of him positioned between Wittenweyer and Kappela with the river Rhine behind them. Commanding the centre of the Swedish-French army, Duke immediately noticed the disadvantaged position of the Imperial army and ordered attack. General Tupadel commanded the right wing of the Swedish army and the Count of Nassau the left one. A battle broke out and soon enough, the right wing of the Imperial army commanded by Savelli was shattered under the attacks of Tupadel’s cavalry. However, Götz managed to straighten up the situation with his cavalry. As the battle remained indecisive for a long time, Bernhard used a plot. He sent a large group of drummers and buglers to a nearby forest on the left flank of the Imperial army ordering them to make huge noise with trumpets and drums to evoke the idea that the Imperial regiments were caught off-guard. The trick did not fail. The Imperial army started retreating pillaging their own supplies on the way. The result of the battle was a shattering defeat of the Imperial army, which lost 11 cannons, 2 mortars, 82 battle banners and standards, 3000 carriages with various supplies. 1500 soldiers died at the battlefield and 1300 were taken prisoners. The winners lost only 600 men, however General Tupadel was captured by the Imperial army.


260-A geometrical outline of the siege of Fuenterrabia and how this happy town was saved by the Spanish on 6 and 7 September of 1638.

A geometrical outline of the siege of Fuenterrabia and how this happy town was saved by the Spanish on 6 and 7 September of 1638.

On 07.09.1638

The engraving depicts the peninsula cutting into the Biscay Bay with the fortress of Fuenterrabia. The fight between the Spanish and the French armies can be seen behind the town. A French fleet is on the see in the foreground. There are two winged mermaids depicted on the sea. They are holding a shield with the inscription: ‚Fuenterrabia‘. A rectangle showing the geographical situation of the city and the fortress situated between Biaritz and San Sebastian at the foothills of the Pyrenees, is in the right corner. A detail of fortification is at the top left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Geometrische Delineation der Belägerung Fuentarabiae wieselbige Statt am 6. und 7. Septembris von den Spanischen glücklich entsetzt worden. Anno 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 257/165

The war between Spain and France, which started on 1630 over the succession in Italian Mantua, reached a crisis on the part of France in 1638. The Cardinal Infante Ferdinand successfully resisted the attacks of the Dutch in the Netherlands and three French armies. He even ousted them out of his country. The military campaign led by Richelieu with rather large army against the Spanish borders ended even worse. The French never managed to conquer the small poorly protected fortress of Fuenterrabia, situated directly on the borders of the two countries. The ad-hoc called Spanish militia scattered the French regiments in one attack chasing them to flee miserably. This fight took place on 7 September 1638.


262-An original ground-plan of the siege of the fortified pass of Brysach including the retreat that took place on 9 / 19 December 1638.

An original ground-plan of the siege of the fortified pass of Brysach including the retreat that took place on 9 / 19 December 1638.

Breisach, On 07.12.1638

The print depicts the siege of Brysach with the river Rhine spanned by two bridges flowing below. There are many trees in the landscape. Three buglers are in the left foreground. A cross-section of the fortification is placed in a special banner at the top left. The caption A-N and the above-stated German text are below the picture. There is also a long text divided into fourteen articles, including the conditions of capitulation and handover of the town by the General Reinach to the Duke Bernhard Saxon-Weimar.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentlicher Abrisz der Belägerung des vesten Pas Braisachs und sampt dem Auszug, welcher ist geschehen den 9. 19. Decembris 1638 Jahrs.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 260/333

The Imperial fortress of Brysach, situated on the upper stream of the Rhine near the strategically important pass not far from the Swiss borders, was in danger after the defeat of the Imperial forces at Wittenweyer on 30 July 1638 and the resultant superiority of the Swedish-French army. Battles between the Swedish-French army commanded by the Duke of Weimar and the French General Longuevill and the Imperial regiments under Götz and Charles of Lorraine were fought here throughout the entire year 1638. The fortress was commanded by the Imperial General Reinach. Götz tried his best to prevent Brysach from being defeated by the Swedish, operating skilfully in the difficult mountainous terrain and calling Charles of Lorraine situated in Alsace to help. In the end, Bernhard of Weimar tightened the grip on the town surrounding it closely. All attempts of the Imperial forces to liberate the fortress from the blockade failed. Soon enough the garrison as well as the citizens of the town suffered unbearable starvation, which forced them eating rats – even dead horses and human bodies. Three times did the commander of fortress Reinach refuse to give the town up to the Swedish. Nevertheless, on 7 December, the resistance of defendants, half-starved to death, broke down and the town capitulated. Bernhard Saxon-Weimar’s capitulation conditions were fair and generous, reflecting his admiration of the unusual bravery of the defendants.


264-A genuine ground-plan of the siege of fortified pass of Brysach. Year 1638.

A genuine ground-plan of the siege of fortified pass of Brysach. Year 1638.

Breisach, On 07.12.1638

This is a plan of the area around Brysach. The river Rhine with several islands flows through the landscape. The town itself with the fortress is done in a very charming way and with great precision. Enemy’s army formations and fortifications are in the surroundings. A large forest with the formation of the General Götz’s army is at the top right. An oblong banner with the caption A-T is at the bottom right.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrer Grundrisz der Belägerung des vesten Passes Brysach. Anno 1638.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 267/395

The Imperial fortress of Brysach, situated on the upper stream of the Rhine near the strategically important pass not far from the Swiss borders, was in danger after the defeat of the Imperial forces at Wittenweyer on 30 July 1638 and the resultant superiority of the Swedish-French army. Battles between the Swedish-French army commanded by the Duke of Weimar and the French General Longuevill and the Imperial regiments under Götz and Charles of Lorraine were fought here throughout the entire year 1638. The fortress was commanded by the Imperial General Reinach. Götz tried his best to prevent Brysach from being defeated by the Swedish, operating skilfully in the difficult mountainous terrain and calling Charles of Lorraine situated in Alsace to help. In the end, Bernhard of Weimar tightened the grip on the town surrounding it closely. All attempts of the Imperial forces to liberate the fortress from the blockade failed. Soon enough the garrison as well as the citizens of the town suffered unbearable starvation, which forced them eating rats – even dead horses and human bodies. Three times did the commander of fortress Reinach refuse to give the town up to the Swedish. Nevertheless, on 7 December, the resistance of defendants, half-starved to death, broke down and the town capitulated. Bernhard Saxon-Weimar’s capitulation conditions were fair and generous, reflecting his admiration of the unusual bravery of the defendants.


271-A new depiction of the Duchy and Bishopric of Würzburg with surrounding regions.

A new depiction of the Duchy and Bishopric of Würzburg with surrounding regions.

Würzburg, On 01.01.1639 (do 31.12.1639)

This engraving depicts a map of the territory along the river Maiz, mostly the regions situated northward and southward of the river. ‚Pipinus rex Galliae, fundator ecclesiae Herbip’,,Carolus Magnus imp. Pipini regis Galliorum filius’and,Gosbertus dux’ (?.).‘ are depicted in the top left corner. There are several coats-of-arms at the top right. The coat-of-arms of the contemporary Bishop of Bamberg-Würzburg and the coat-of-arms of Duke Franz of the East Franconia. Nearby are two figures representing St Killian and St. Burkhard; undoubtedly the patrons of the region. Signatures of the engravers are in an ornamental cartouche at the bottom right (as stated on the previous sheet).

Signature: Durch Hans Georgen und Georg Conrad die Jungen zu Rottenburg ob der Tauber 1639.
Autor: Jungen Georg Conrad, mědirytec v Rotenburgu n/T.

Original name: Nova Delineatio Episcopat. Ducatus Herbip. cum locis adiacentibus.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 273/214

Following the victory of Breitenfeld in 1631, the Swedish occupied the entire area along the river Maiz and Gustav Adolph forced out the Bishops of Bamberg and Würzburg. The Swedish king created a new Franconia Duchy from the two bishoprics, which Chancellor Oxenstierna gave to Bernhard Saxon-Weimar for his merits in Swedish victories in 1633. However, the war luck is unsteady and this situation soon turned. The Swedish were defeated in Nördlingen by the Imperial army and the stated territories were reoccupied by the Catholics, who immediately reinstated the two bishoprics.


266-

Thionville, On 01.01.1639

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name:


269-The city of Mousson, which was besieged by the Imperial army commanded by the General Field Marshal Piccolomini in June 1639.

The city of Mousson, which was besieged by the Imperial army commanded by the General Field Marshal Piccolomini in June 1639.

Mousson, On 01.06.1639 (do 30.06.1639)

The town of Mousson is schematically sketched in the middle of the picture; the river Meuse flows nearby. Military formations are built on both sides of the town. The stated German text is in a square banner at the top right; the caption A-R is lower down in another banner.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ing. delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Die Statt Mousson wie solche von den Kay. under general-Veltmarschallen Piccolomini belagert worden im Junio 1639.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 271/373

The General Piccolomini commanded the Imperial-Spanish army operating on the French borders. Among others he besieged the town of Mousson in Alsace near Metz. Soon after this event, Piccolomini was hastily recalled to the inherited Austrian lands, where the Swedish army commanded by Banner was seriously pushing the Imperial forces and pillaging mainly the lands of the Czech Kingdom.


267-An original drawing of the royal fortress of Deidenhofen, including the bloody fight that took place outside it, in which His Excellency General Piccolomini won greatly on 4 June 1639.

An original drawing of the royal fortress of Deidenhofen, including the bloody fight that took place outside it, in which His Excellency General Piccolomini won greatly on 4 June 1639.

Thionville, On 04.06.1639

The stream of the river Moselle is in the left third of the picture. A battle is raving on its banks, there is a forested hilly landscape in the background. A schematic sketch of the fortress is in the top right corner with the caption 1-13 on the left. There is an extensive three-columned German text below the picture part of the print. It describes in detail the progress of the depicted battle.

Signature: Nachgedruckt zu Augspurg in Verlegung Marx Antony Hannas
Autor: Hannas Marx Anthon, rytec a nakladatel v Augsburgu

Original name: Eigentlicher Abrisz der königlichen Festung Diedenhofen sammt dem blutigen Treffen darvor in welchem ihr. Excelenz Herr General Piccolomini eine herrliche viktori erhalten, den 4. Juni 1639.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 269/420

The French army suffered several defeats in the long war with Spain during the last years of the forth decade of the 17th century. A bloody battle broke out between the two enemies on 4 June 1639 near the town of Diedenhofen (Tionville), situated approx. 30 km south of Luxembourg. While the French forces were besieging the town and the fortress, the General Count Piccolomini arrived with his army, liberated the suffering town and crushed the French commanded by the General de Fauquiéres. The entire French infantry was killed, wounded or captured. At this time, General Piccolomini fought on the side of the Spanish Kingdom.


268-The siege of the fortress of Diedenhofen, which was liberated by the Imperial army commanded by His Excellency General Piccolomini, and the French were forced out from the area outside the town, in June 1639.

The siege of the fortress of Diedenhofen, which was liberated by the Imperial army commanded by His Excellency General Piccolomini, and the French were forced out from the area outside the town, in June 1639.

Thionville, On 04.06.1639

The Moselle river is drawn parallel to the bottom edge of the engraving. The town of Diedenhofen is only schematically sketched along the river. A wide strip of the French fortifications circles the town. A battle with the Imperial-Spanish army under Piccolomini is just commencing in the space between the fortifications and the fortress. The above-stated text is in a square on the left. The author of the print, fortification engineer Carlo Cappi, put the main emphasis on the precise drawing of various fortification constructions.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ing. Delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Belagerung der Vöstung Diedenhofen und wie solche von der Kays. Armée unter dem Commando Ihr. Excel. General Piccolomini entsetzt und die Franzosen darvor weg geschlagen worden, im Juni 1639.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 270/4221

The French army suffered several defeats in the long war with Spain during the last years of the forth decade of the 17th century. A bloody battle broke out between the two enemies on 4 June 1639 near the town of Diedenhofen (Tionville), situated approx. 30 km south of Luxembourg. While the French forces were besieging the town and the fortress, the General Count Piccolomini arrived with his army, liberated the suffering town and crushed the French commanded by the General de Fauquiéres. The entire French infantry was killed, wounded or captured. At this time, General Piccolomini fought on the side of the Spanish Kingdom.


270-A genuine depiction of the great naval battle fought between Spanish and Dutch fleets in Duyne on 21 October 1639, in which the Dutch commanded by Admiral Martin Harperstromp gained victory.

A genuine depiction of the great naval battle fought between Spanish and Dutch fleets in Duyne on 21 October 1639, in which the Dutch commanded by Admiral Martin Harperstromp gained victory.

Duyne, On 21.10.1639

This is a wide picture of a great naval battle. The coast of England is visible on the horizon in the far background. The surface of the see virtually swarms with various battle ships; a burning ship surrounded by safe boats is in the right foreground. The German explanatory text is placed above the picture, the caption A-S is below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Abbildung der mächtigen Seeschlacht so sich zwischen den Hispanischen und Holländischen Schiffsarmata in den Duynen den 21. Octobris 1639 zugetragen, darinnen die Höllander under dem Admiral Martin Harperstromp die victori erhalten.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 272/400

The war between Spain and the Netherlands lasted many years, there was a twelve-year ceasefire from 9 April 1609 till the year 1621 but after its end, new fights broke out bringing many important victories to the Dutch, mainly after the Duke Frederick Henry of Orange I took over the political and military issues of the state. The depicted naval battle near Duyne fought in the Straits of Dover on 21 October 1639, shows yet another defeat of the Spanish fleet.


287-The siege of the town and citadel in Turin in 1640.

The siege of the town and citadel in Turin in 1640.

Turín, On 01.01.1640 (do 31.12.1640)

The print depicts a detailed plan of the territory around Turin with the river Po spanned by two bridges. A hilly countryside with the Moncaglieri castle is in the foreground. A wide strip of Spanish trenches circles the town; military formations are lined-up in various places in the surroundings. There is a short descriptive German text is on an unrolled ribbon banner.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belagerung der Statt und Citadell Turino im Jahrw 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 289/401

The French army finally started winning above the Medieval powerful Spain around 1640 after the long war between France and Spain. The French forces won in the Spanish Netherlands, the French banners were flying on Iberian Peninsula, and the situation was not good for the Spanish army in Italy either. They were still trying to seize Turin and its citadel, however without any success. This meant a great loss of the Spanish strong positions in Italy.


272-A ground-plan of the city of Cologne, which was conquered by force of the Imperial army in the month of February 1640.

A ground-plan of the city of Cologne, which was conquered by force of the Imperial army in the month of February 1640.

Kolín, On 01.02.1640 (do 28.02.1640)

The print shows a ground-plan of Cologne with its suburbs. The city centre is only sketched. At the bottom flows the river Elbe spanned by a bridge, which connects the city to its quarter Zálabí, with a quadrant medieval tower, the so-called Prachárna (Gunpowder) Tower. The Imperial army is moving closer to the city. The above-stated text is on an unrolled ribbon banner above the picture. There is also the caption A-L.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ingenieur delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Grundrisz der Statt Kolin, und wie solche von der Kays. Armada mit Gewalt erobert worden im Monat Februario 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 274/368

Following his victory over the Saxons commanded by General Marazini on 20 May 1639, the Swedish General Baner marched with his army to Bohemia. Matthias Gallas could no longer prevent it for his army was devastated. The Swedish forces ravaged the Czech territories mercilessly, plundering the countryside, burning villages and entire towns. This Swedish outrageous pillaging in Bohemia became proverbial and lasted until year 1640, when the Imperial movement built a new army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III, and the General Count Piccolomini. The Swedish occupied the entire Central and Northwest Bohemia, however Prague never subdued to Baner. The new Imperial army forced the Swedish army to withdraw hastily from Bohemia. During this campaign, the Imperial Army liberated the following Czech towns: Kolín, Hradec Králové (20 February), Chlumec nad Cidlinou (February), Brandýs nad Labem (March) a Litoměřice (March). The Swedish retreated to the Western Saxony pursued by the Imperial army. The depicted events took place in 1640.


274-The Chateau of Chlumec in Bohemia, which was taken away from the Swedish by force in February 1640.

The Chateau of Chlumec in Bohemia, which was taken away from the Swedish by force in February 1640.

Chlumec, On 01.02.1640 (do 28.02.1640)

The heavily fortified Chlumec Chateau is depicted in the centre of the engraving. (It is the original old chateau not the present-day ‚Karlova Koruna Chateau‘.) Nearby is a small church and there is a large lake on the other side of the chateau (possibly the so-called Žehuňský Lake). The above-stated text is above the picture.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ingen. deel.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Das Schloss Chlumnitz in Böhmen, welches die Kays. den Schweden mit Gewalt abgenohmen im Februario 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 276/467

Following his victory over the Saxons commanded by General Marazini on 20 May 1639, the Swedish General Baner marched with his army to Bohemia. Matthias Gallas could no longer prevent it for his army was devastated. The Swedish forces ravaged the Czech territories mercilessly, plundering the countryside, burning villages and entire towns. This Swedish outrageous pillaging in Bohemia became proverbial and lasted until year 1640, when the Imperial movement built a new army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III, and the General Count Piccolomini. The Swedish occupied the entire Central and Northwest Bohemia, however Prague never subdued to Baner. The new Imperial army forced the Swedish army to withdraw hastily from Bohemia. During this campaign, the Imperial Army liberated the following Czech towns: Kolín, Hradec Králové (20 February), Chlumec nad Cidlinou (February), Brandýs nad Labem (March) a Litoměřice (March). The Swedish retreated to the Western Saxony pursued by the Imperial army. The depicted events took place in 1640.


273-A genuine ground-plan of the town of Hradec Králové in Bohemia including the Swedish fortifications, which was conquered by the army of His Holy Emperor by force, on 20 February 1640.

A genuine ground-plan of the town of Hradec Králové in Bohemia including the Swedish fortifications, which was conquered by the army of His Holy Emperor by force, on 20 February 1640.

Hradec Králové, On 20.02.1640

The engraving maps out the situation of the fortress with an extensive system of water canals. Few villages situated around the town are burning. There is an orienteering compass at the top. Special squares show the following: 2 details of fortification constructions, details of the St Anthony and St Peter’s Gate. The above-stated text is in the centre of the picture.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ingenieur delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Wahrer Grundrisz der Statt Königgrätz in Böhmen sampt den Schwed. Fortificationen und wie solche von der röm. kays. May. Armada mit Gewalt eingenohmen worden, den 20. Februari 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 275/381

Following his victory over the Saxons commanded by General Marazini on 20 May 1639, the Swedish General Baner marched with his army to Bohemia. Matthias Gallas could no longer prevent it for his army was devastated. The Swedish forces ravaged the Czech territories mercilessly, plundering the countryside, burning villages and entire towns. This Swedish outrageous pillaging in Bohemia became proverbial and lasted until year 1640, when the Imperial movement built a new army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III, and the General Count Piccolomini. The Swedish occupied the entire Central and Northwest Bohemia, however Prague never subdued to Baner. The new Imperial army forced the Swedish army to withdraw hastily from Bohemia. During this campaign, the Imperial Army liberated the following Czech towns: Kolín, Hradec Králové (20 February), Chlumec nad Cidlinou (February), Brandýs nad Labem (March) a Litoměřice (March). The Swedish retreated to the Western Saxony pursued by the Imperial army. The depicted events took place in 1640.


275-The Chateau of Brandýs in Bohemia, with a fortified Swedish field, which the General Baner left shortly before the arrival of the Imperial forces in March 1640.

The Chateau of Brandýs in Bohemia, with a fortified Swedish field, which the General Baner left shortly before the arrival of the Imperial forces in March 1640.

Brandýs, On 01.03.1640 (do 31.03.1640)

The Brandýs Chateau is situated near the river Elbe spanned by a bridge. A stylish maintained garden is depicted around the chateau. The ruins of the town of Staré Boleslav, fortification constructions and the river Jizera are in the foreground. A cross-section of a fortification construction is placed in the small square banner at the far left of the print. The caption A-E is lower down. The inscription stated word-for-word on the previous page is on an unrolled ribbon banner above the picture.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ingenieur delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Das Schloss Brandeysz in Böhmen und verschantzungen des schwedischen Velds welches general Baner vor den Kayserischen verlassen im Martio 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 277/348

Following his victory over the Saxons commanded by General Marazini on 20 May 1639, the Swedish General Baner marched with his army to Bohemia. Matthias Gallas could no longer prevent it for his army was devastated. The Swedish forces ravaged the Czech territories mercilessly, plundering the countryside, burning villages and entire towns. This Swedish outrageous pillaging in Bohemia became proverbial and lasted until year 1640, when the Imperial movement built a new army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III, and the General Count Piccolomini. The Swedish occupied the entire Central and Northwest Bohemia, however Prague never subdued to Baner. The new Imperial army forced the Swedish army to withdraw hastily from Bohemia. During this campaign, the Imperial Army liberated the following Czech towns: Kolín, Hradec Králové (20 February), Chlumec nad Cidlinou (February), Brandýs nad Labem (March) a Litoměřice (March). The Swedish retreated to the Western Saxony pursued by the Imperial army. The depicted events took place in 1640.


277-A ground-plan of the town of Litoměřice, which was pillaged and deserted by the Swedish in March of the year 1640.

A ground-plan of the town of Litoměřice, which was pillaged and deserted by the Swedish in March of the year 1640.

Litoměřice, On 01.03.1640 (do 31.03.1640)

This copper engraving is divided into two parts; a schematically sketched plan of Litoměřice with fortifications is at the top, while the river Elbe is at the bottom. There are four details of various parts of the town and technical cross-sections of fortification constructions in the other part of the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Grundrisz der Statt Leutmaritz, welche von den Schwedischen geplündert und verlassen, im Martio des 1640 Jahrs.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 278/351

Following his victory over the Saxons commanded by General Marazini on 20 May 1639, the Swedish General Baner marched with his army to Bohemia. Matthias Gallas could no longer prevent it for his army was devastated. The Swedish forces ravaged the Czech territories mercilessly, plundering the countryside, burning villages and entire towns. This Swedish outrageous pillaging in Bohemia became proverbial and lasted until year 1640, when the Imperial movement built a new army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III, and the General Count Piccolomini. The Swedish occupied the entire Central and Northwest Bohemia, however Prague never subdued to Baner. The new Imperial army forced the Swedish army to withdraw hastily from Bohemia. During this campaign, the Imperial Army liberated the following Czech towns: Kolín, Hradec Králové (20 February), Chlumec nad Cidlinou (February), Brandýs nad Labem (March) a Litoměřice (March). The Swedish retreated to the Western Saxony pursued by the Imperial army. The depicted events took place in 1640.


278-Litoměřice

Litoměřice

Litoměřice, On 01.03.1640 (do 31.03.1640)

This is a small schematically sketched plan of the town of Litoměřice with its nearest surroundings. The river Elbe flows on the right. There is an extensive German text describing the town in the way of a chronicle on the left side.

Signature: G. Bodenehr excudit.
Autor: Bodenehr G., mědirytec a kartograf

Original name: Leutmeritz

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 279/412

Following his victory over the Saxons commanded by General Marazini on 20 May 1639, the Swedish General Baner marched with his army to Bohemia. Matthias Gallas could no longer prevent it for his army was devastated. The Swedish forces ravaged the Czech territories mercilessly, plundering the countryside, burning villages and entire towns. This Swedish outrageous pillaging in Bohemia became proverbial and lasted until year 1640, when the Imperial movement built a new army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of the Emperor Ferdinand III, and the General Count Piccolomini. The Swedish occupied the entire Central and Northwest Bohemia, however Prague never subdued to Baner. The new Imperial army forced the Swedish army to withdraw hastily from Bohemia. During this campaign, the Imperial Army liberated the following Czech towns: Kolín, Hradec Králové (20 February), Chlumec nad Cidlinou (February), Brandýs nad Labem (March) a Litoměřice (March). The Swedish retreated to the Western Saxony pursued by the Imperial army. The depicted events took place in 1640.


279-The battle that happened between those of Breda and the Swedish near Plauen in April of the year 1640. The Battle of Plauen.

The battle that happened between those of Breda and the Swedish near Plauen in April of the year 1640. The Battle of Plauen.

Plauen, On 01.04.1640 (do 30.04.1640)

The print depicts the panorama of the landscape around the town of Plauen in the West Saxony; the river Elster flows through here. Plauen is depicted on the right side of the picture, but its centre is only schematically sketched. A various phases of the fights between the Swedish and the Imperial cavalry led by von Bredau are shown in the terrain around the town. The German explanatory text is placed below the picture; the caption A-H is placed in an ornamental rectangular banner.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Geschehenes Treffen zwischen dem von Bredau und den Schwedischen bey Plawen, im April Anno 1640. Dimicatio Plavenam.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 280/371

The Imperial army led by the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm forced the Swedish commanded by General Baner to withdraw from Bohemia hastily in the first half of 1640. The Swedish army was pursued by the Imperial forces and marched through the West Saxony to Hesse, where it was stopped by the regiments of the General Piccolomini. Some small battles were fought between the Imperial and the Swedish forces during the march through Saxony. One of them took place near Plauen in April.


280-A depiction of two powerful field camps of the army of Holy Roman Empire on one side and the army of the United Crowns and territories on the other, including the position of the same landscape near Saalfeld, and how far one was one army pushed to retreat by the other. May 1640.

A depiction of two powerful field camps of the army of Holy Roman Empire on one side and the army of the United Crowns and territories on the other, including the position of the same landscape near Saalfeld, and how far one was one army pushed to retreat by the other. May 1640.

Saalfeld, On 01.05.1640 (do 31.05.1640)

The picture outlines the position of two strong armies near Saalfeld, which lies on the right side of the print above the river Saale flowing across the entire length of the picture. The regular formation of the Swedish-French regiments is at the bottom, while the Imperial Army is fortified at the top. The landscape is very meticulously drawn with the attention to detail, there are many minor scenes: for instance a burning village, military guards etc. There is an ornamental cartouche with the German text from the previous sheet at the top right. The caption A-E and F-K is at the bottom left and right.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abbildung der zwey mächtigen Veldtläger der Röm. Kays. May. an einem und der conföderierten Cronen und Ständen Arméen anders teils sampt der Gelegenheit selbiger Gegend bey Saalfeldt und wie weit eine der anderen weichen müssen. Im Mayo 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 281/456

During the year 1639 Baner stayed with his army in Bohemia pillaging and plundering the land mercilessly. However, the Imperial forces built a new army commanded by the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of Ferdinand III, and the Field Marshal Count Piccolomini. The Swedish were forced to withdraw from Bohemia and pursued by the Imperial forces marched through the West Saxony to Thuringia. The Imperial generals hoped to finally defeat the Swedish with their bigger army. Nevertheless, the Swedish joined with the Hesse, French and Brunswick regiments and thus fortified, Banner tried to provoke a battle and take an advantage of his present superiority. However, Piccolomini assumed an advantageous strong position near Saalfeld, which the Swedish could not attack without serious losses. Thus, both large armies stood against each other inactively for some time. Both camps were suffering from the lack of food. Baner retreated first, and as the Bavarian General Mercy with his army spoiled his intention to march to Franconia, he went to Hesse, while Piccolomini took a position near Fritzlar.


281-A true ground-plan of the fortified town of Arras, which was besieged and conquered by the King of France and Navarre Louis XIII. Year 1640.

A true ground-plan of the fortified town of Arras, which was besieged and conquered by the King of France and Navarre Louis XIII. Year 1640.

Arras, On 12.06.1640

This print is made to resemble a map with the town and fortress Arras above Scarpa in its centre. The centre of the town is only schematically sketched, while the huge fortifications around the town are painted to detail. The French fortifications and trenches are built in a large circle around the town. The numerous various military regiments randomly pained in the near and far surroundings are noteworthy. There is a square ornamental vignette with the explanatory text at the top right. The map is engraved precisely and delicately, showing a skilled hand of an experienced and artistically mature engraver.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahrer Grundrisz der vesten Statt Arras und wie solche durch Ludwig XIII. König in Frankreich und Nauarra belägert und erobert worden. Anno 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 282/306

Arras, currently in the Pas de Calais region, used to be the main town of the Artois and Burgundy areas. It experienced a difficult period of constantly changing governments, which ended at the turn of the 15th century. From that time the town belonged to the Austrian ruling house as part of the Spanish Netherlands. Fights over the city were common, but only French King Louis XIII managed to seized the town on 12 June 1640. France got a definite control over the city thanks to the Peace of 1659.


558-The town of Höxter seized by the Imperial army in 1640.

The town of Höxter seized by the Imperial army in 1640.

Höxter, On 01.07.1640 (do 31.12.1640)

The Weser river flows across the picture. The town of Höxter is above it in the centre. Its centre is only schematically sketched. Military regiments are standing in a large curve below the town. There are more regiments atop the hills above the river, which are cannonading the area of the town. The image is very delicately done. The landscape is dotted with many big trees. A short explanatory inscription is placed above the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Die Statt Höxter von den Kayserlichen eingenommen Anno 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 287/479

The huge Imperial army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Marshal Piccolomini set out to Bohemia during the first months of 1640 to force out the Baner’s army, which was pillaging and plundering the land. Pursued by the Imperial army, the Swedish withdrew northwest, marching through the West Saxony and Thuringia to Hesse, where Baner joined with the Hessian, French and Brunswick regiments. For a short time both armies camped near Saalfeld, however no deciding battle was fought here as Piccolomini skilfully avoided fighting with the outnumbered enemy. Lack of food forced both armies to further strategic moves. First to go was the army of the Swedish, French, Hessian and Brunswick regiments commanded by Baner. The Imperial army followed soon after. Baner wanted to enter Franconia, but the Bavarian General Mercy stepped in his way. The Protestants therefore marched to the area between Wildungen and Zeigenhein in Hesse, while the Imperialists under Piccolomini encamped in Fritzlar on the river Eder. Both armies held these positions inactively until autumn 1640, when they started looking for a winter encampment. The Imperial army planned to stay in the Brunswick territory, but Baner spoilt this plan by marching to the Weser near Höxter. This forced the Imperialists to encamp in the allied lands, which was considered a strategic failure. The depicted episode happened near Fritzlar around 20 August 1640. It remains to add that soon after the Swedish seized Höxter on the Weser river, Baner marched with considerable forces to Bavaria to disturb the Imperial Diet session in Regensburg. Only a weak Swedish garrison was therefore left in Höxter, which was attacked and defeated by the imperial army without any bigger complications. The conquest of Höxter by the Imperial army that took place in the second half of 1640 is depicted on this copper engraving.


286-The town of Höxter (was) captured by the Imperial army in 1640.

The town of Höxter (was) captured by the Imperial army in 1640.

Höxter, On 01.07.1640 (do 31.12.1640)

This print depicts the area along the Weser river with the fortified fortress of Höxter. The centre of the town is left unfinished. Several military troops are placed in the surroundings of the town, hilly and forested landscape scenery is in the background.

Signature: Carlo Cappi Ingen. delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Die Statt Höxter von den Kayserischen eingenohmen Anno 1640. Expugnatio Höxterae.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 288/50 D

The huge Imperial army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Marshal Piccolomini set out to Bohemia during the first months of 1640 to force out the Baner’s army, which was pillaging and plundering the land. Pursued by the Imperial army, the Swedish withdrew northwest, marching through the West Saxony and Thuringia to Hesse, where Baner joined with the Hessian, French and Brunswick regiments. For a short time both armies camped near Saalfeld, however no deciding battle was fought here as Piccolomini skilfully avoided fighting with the outnumbered enemy. Lack of food forced both armies to further strategic moves. First to go was the army of the Swedish, French, Hessian and Brunswick regiments commanded by Baner. The Imperial army followed soon after. Baner wanted to enter Franconia, but the Bavarian General Mercy stepped in his way. The Protestants therefore marched to the area between Wildungen and Zeigenhein in Hesse, while the Imperialists under Piccolomini encamped in Fritzlar on the river Eder. Both armies held these positions inactively until autumn 1640, when they started looking for a winter encampment. The Imperial army planned to stay in the Brunswick territory, but Baner spoilt this plan by marching to the Weser near Höxter. This forced the Imperialists to encamp in the allied lands, which was considered a strategic failure. The depicted episode happened near Fritzlar around 20 August 1640. It remains to be added that soon after the Swedish seized Höxter on the Weser river, Baner marched with considerable forces to Bavaria to disturb the Imperial Diet session in Regensburg. Only a weak Swedish garrison was therefore left in Höxter, which was attacked and defeated by the imperial army without any bigger complications. The conquest of Höxter by the Imperial army that took place in the second half of 1640 is depicted on this copper engraving.


282-A sketch of the town of Neustadt in Franconia, including the fortifications and encampments of the Imperial and Bavarian armies, on 6 July 1640.

A sketch of the town of Neustadt in Franconia, including the fortifications and encampments of the Imperial and Bavarian armies, on 6 July 1640.

Neustadt, On 06.07.1640

This is a detailed map of the area along the river Saale with the town of Neustadt, which is only schematically sketched. There are various fortification constructions and positions of military formations in the surroundings. The explanatory German text is at the top, the caption A-I is placed in a Lauer wreath. A ruin of Salzburg, situated opposite Neustadt near the Neuhaus Spa, is drawn in a separated square banner at the bottom right. Neustadt lies approx. 80 km northwest of Bamberg.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Neustadt in Franken sampt der Verschantzungen, worinnen die kayserl. und bayrisch. Arméen quartiert haben, den 6. Juli 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 283/385

During the year 1639 Baner stayed with his army in Bohemia pillaging and plundering the land mercilessly. However, the Imperial forces built a new army commanded by the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, a brother of Ferdinand III, and the Field Marshal Count Piccolomini. The Swedish were forced to withdraw from Bohemia and pursued by the Imperial forces were marching through the West Saxony to Thuringia. The Imperial generals hoped to finally defeat the Swedish with their bigger army. Nevertheless, the Swedish joined with the Hesse, French and Brunswick regiments and thus fortified, Banner tried to provoke a battle and take an advantage of his present superiority. However, Piccolomini assumed an advantageous strong position near Saalfeld, which the Swedish could not attack without serious losses. Thus, both large armies stood against each other inactively for some time. Both camps were suffering from the lack of food. Baner retreated first, and as the Bavarian General Mercy with his army spoiled his intention to march to Franconia, he went to Hesse, while Piccolomini took a position near Fritzlar. It remains to add that Piccolomini’s Imperial army together with the Bavarian regiments commanded by Mercy encamped temporarily near the small town of Neustadt in Franconia during the period between they left the stable position near Saalfedt and encamped in Fritzlar. The described copper engraving depicts this event that took place on 6 July 1640.


283-An original depiction of the Imperial and Bavarian field encampment near Fritzlar, and how the allied army arrived in August 1640.

An original depiction of the Imperial and Bavarian field encampment near Fritzlar, and how the allied army arrived in August 1640.

Fritzlar, On 20.08.1640

It is a very delicately engraved plan of the town Fritzlar with extensive surroundings. As usually, the town itself is only schematically sketched. Since the engravers were mostly interested in depiction of the military topics, which they perceived as the purpose of their work, they intentionally neglected other topics, such as the landscape scenery, urban architecture etc. The river Eder flows across the engraving, with Fritzlar above it. At the top left is a banner with the caption A-V. Next to it is an orienteering compass. There are two long lines of army formations on the other side. The German explanatory text is above the picture image.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation des Kays. und Bayr. Veldläger bey Fritzlar und wie die confoederierte Armada gegen sie anzogen Augusto 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 284/377

The huge Imperial army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Marshal Piccolomini set out to Bohemia during the first months of 1640 to force out the Baner’s army, which was pillaging and plundering the land. Pursued by the Imperial army, the Swedish withdrew northwest, marching through the West Saxony and Thuringia to Hesse, where Baner joined with the Hessian, French and Brunswick regiments. For a short time both armies camped near Saalfeld, however no deciding battle was fought here as Piccolomini skilfully avoided fighting with the outnumbered enemy. Lack of food forced both armies to further strategic moves. First to go was the army of the Swedish, French, Hessian and Brunswick regiments commanded by Baner. The Imperial army followed soon after. Baner wanted to enter Franconia, but the Bavarian General Mercy stepped in his way. The Protestants therefore marched to the area between Wildungen and Zeigenhein in Hesse, while the Imperialists under Piccolomini encamped in Fritzlar on the river Eder. Both armies held these positions inactively until autumn 1640, when they started looking for a winter encampment. The Imperial army planned to stay in the Brunswick territory, but Baner spoilt this plan by marching to the Weser near Höxter. This forced the Imperialists to encamp in the allied lands, which was considered a strategic failure. The depicted episode happened near Fritzlar around 20 August 1640.


284-An original depiction of the ceremonial session of the Imperial Diet held on 15 September 1640 in Regensburg, during the opening session eight proposals were brought out and dealt with.

An original depiction of the ceremonial session of the Imperial Diet held on 15 September 1640 in Regensburg, during the opening session eight proposals were brought out and dealt with.

Řezno, On 15.09.1640

The picture shows the session of the Imperial Diet in a large hall with coffered ceiling. Ferdinand III is on the throne surrounded by numerous court dignitaries. Each person is marked by a number, however the caption below the painting is unfortunately missing. The German text cited word-for-word is place above the picture part of the print.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Dümler Jeremias, nakladatel v Norimberku

Original name: Eigentlicher Abrisz der Reichstagsolenität so den 15. September 1640 Jahrs in Regenspurg bey Eröffnung 8 propositionen angestellt und gehalten worden.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 285/442

The Emperor Ferdinand III called the Imperial Diet to Regensburg in autumn 1640. It was to discuss the end of the war and establishment of peace. The Emperor himself chaired the session, but despite being very benevolent, his peace proposals failed to succeed. The present ambassadors of electors and German counts caused problems to such extend that there was no positive outcome at all. The session was even interrupted by the Baner’s Swedish army, which suddenly appeared near Regensburg ready to besiege the city. However, the Emperor knew that the Swedish lacked proper technical equipment to besiege the city and continued therefore the session not allowing its participants to leave. Soon enough the Imperial army forced Baner to drop his intentions and withdraw northwards.


285-An original sketch of the fight near Ziegenhein, between the Colonel and Director Reinold of Rosa and the Baron of Bredov, on 15 November 1640.

An original sketch of the fight near Ziegenhein, between the Colonel and Director Reinold of Rosa and the Baron of Bredov, on 15 November 1640.

Ziegenhain, On 15.11.1640

The print depicts a minor battle. Military formations are lined-up behind a forest, while the town of Ziegenhein is sketched on the right. Several cavalrymen are running away in the background, a bugler and three dragoons are depicted in the left foreground. A couple of villages with marked names in the surroundings are burning. The explanatory German text is below the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Eigentliche Delineation des Treffens bey Ziegenhein zwischen denen Obristen und Direktor Reinold von Rosa und dem Baron von Bredau den 15. Novembirs Anno 1640.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 286/434

The huge Imperial army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Marshal Piccolomini set out to Bohemia during the first months of 1640 to force out the Baner’s army, which was pillaging and plundering the land. Pursued by the Imperial army, the Swedish withdrew northwest, marching through the West Saxony and Thuringia to Hesse, where Baner joined with the Hessian, French and Brunswick regiments. For a short time both armies camped near Saalfeld, however no deciding battle was fought here as Piccolomini skilfully avoided fighting with the outnumbered enemy. Lack of food forced both armies to further strategic moves. First to go was the army of the Swedish, French, Hessian and Brunswick regiments commanded by Baner. The Imperial army followed soon after. Baner wanted to enter Franconia, but the Bavarian General Mercy stepped in his way. The Protestants therefore marched to the area between Wildungen and Zeigenhein in Hesse, while the Imperialists under Piccolomini encamped in Fritzlar on the river Eder. Both armies held these positions inactively until autumn 1640, when they started looking for a winter encampment. The Imperial army planned to stay in the Brunswick territory, but Baner spoilt this plan by marching to the Weser near Höxter. This forced the Imperialists to encamp in the allied lands, which was considered a strategic failure. The depicted episode happened near Fritzlar around 20 August 1640. It remains to be added that the small fight between the cavalry, depicted on the described cooper engraving, took place on 15 November 1640 near Baner’s camp near Ziegenhein.


557-An accurate drawing of the battle that took place on 15 November 1640 between the Colonel Reinhold of Rosen and the Imperial General Field Marshal Colonel Baron of Breda at Ziegenhein.

An accurate drawing of the battle that took place on 15 November 1640 between the Colonel Reinhold of Rosen and the Imperial General Field Marshal Colonel Baron of Breda at Ziegenhein.

Ziegenhain, On 15.11.1640

The print depicts a minor battle. Military formations are lined-up behind a forest, while the town of Ziegenhein is sketched on the right. Several cavalrymen are running away in the background, a bugler and three dragoons are depicted in the left foreground. A couple of villages with their names marked in the surroundings are burning. The explanatory German text is below the picture.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Gründlicher Abrisz deren den 15. Novemb. 1640 zwischen Herrn Obr. Reinhold von Rosen mit dem Keys. General-Feld-Marschallen Leutnant Baron de Breda bay Ziegenhain gehabten Recontre.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 286a/ 483 D

The huge Imperial army under the command of the Archduke Leopold Wilhelm and the Marshal Piccolomini set out to Bohemia during the first months of 1640 to force out the Baner’s army, which was pillaging and plundering the land. Pursued by the Imperial army, the Swedish withdrew northwest, marching through the West Saxony and Thuringia to Hesse, where Baner joined with the Hessian, French and Brunswick regiments. For a short time both armies camped near Saalfeld, however no deciding battle was fought here as Piccolomini skilfully avoided fighting with the outnumbered enemy. Lack of food forced both armies to further strategic moves. First to go was the army of the Swedish, French, Hessian and Brunswick regiments commanded by Baner. The Imperial army followed soon after. Baner wanted to enter Franconia, but the Bavarian General Mercy stepped in his way. The Protestants therefore marched to the area between Wildungen and Zeigenhein in Hesse, while the Imperialists under Piccolomini encamped in Fritzlar on the river Eder. Both armies held these positions inactively until autumn 1640, when they started looking for a winter encampment. The Imperial army planned to stay in the Brunswick territory, but Baner spoilt this plan by marching to the Weser near Höxter. This forced the Imperialists to encamp in the allied lands, which was considered a strategic failure. The depicted episode happened near Fritzlar around 20 August 1640. It remains to be added that the small fight between the cavalry, depicted on the described cooper engraving, took place on 15 November 1640 near Baner’s camp near Ziegenhein.


300-The siege of the fortified chateau and pass of Gennep.

The siege of the fortified chateau and pass of Gennep.

Gennep, On 01.01.1641 (do 31.12.1641)

This detailed and accurate map depicts the fortress of Gennep situated on the river Moselle on the territory of present-day Belgium. The fortified town is surrounded by fortification constructions of the enemies – the Dutch. A failed attempt of the Spanish troops to free the town from the Dutch blockade is depicted on the bottom right. The above-stated inscription is placed in a square ornamental cartouche at the top right. The factual caption A-C is in a similar banner on the bottom left.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung des vesten Schlosses und Passes Gennep.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 303/408

This engraving depicts one of the last battles of the long-standing war conflict between the Netherlands and the Spanish Kingdom, lost by Spain in the end. Its defeat was due to the situation of Spain, once a very powerful medieval kingdom that was now gradually losing its powers as well as importance, and also due to Frederick Henry of Orange, outstanding ruler of the Netherlands, who excelled in the state and military matters. This statesman and genius commander was behind the great defeat of the Spanish on the land and on the sea. He besieged the Gennep fortress, occupied by the Spanish in 1641, defeated the Spanish regiments, which were trying to save the besieged town, and finally conquered the town as well as the fortress. This battle is depicted on the described copper engraving.


301-A true depiction of the well-fortified town of Aire, which was besieged and conquered by Louis XIII, the King of France and Navarre, in 1641.

A true depiction of the well-fortified town of Aire, which was besieged and conquered by Louis XIII, the King of France and Navarre, in 1641.

Aire sur la Lys, On 01.01.1641 (do 31.12.1641)

This is a very accurate and detailed depiction of the town and its entire surroundings. It resembles a map rather than a picture. The town is circled by wide attacking formations of the French army. There is a rectangular banner with the explanatory German text on the bottom right. A map of the Northern France with the town of Aire (Arien), situated approximately 50 km southeast of Calais, is in the top left corner.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Wahre Abbildung der vesten Statt Arien belagert und erobert durch Ludwig XIII. König zu Frankreich und Navarra im Jahr 1641.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 304/267

The war between the Spain and France was still ongoing with varied intensity throughout the year 1641. France officially declared war on the Holy Roman Empire in 1635. Prior that it had been fighting rather indirectly, mainly supporting the Swedish in various ways. Now, however the French king was sending his best troops and commanders to fight the Imperial army. The French troops fought on the German territory mainly side by side with the Swedish under a joint command. For many years France had been fighting the Spanish Hapsburgs. The depicted battle between the two enemies took place in 1641, when the French led by their king besieged and conquered the town of Aire that had a strategically important position near the Spanish Netherland


302-The siege of the town of Aire carried out by the Spanish in 1641, after it was conquered by the French.

The siege of the town of Aire carried out by the Spanish in 1641, after it was conquered by the French.

Aire sur la Lys, On 01.01.1641 (do 31.12.1641)

This picture is drawn to resemble a map with the fortified town of Aire in its centre. There is the usual wide circle of fortification constructions of the conquerors – this time the Spanish. Only the main buildings are drawn in the town; the rest is only schematically sketched. An orienteering compass is at the top left. A detailed list of sizes of the individual encampments and regiments including their names is below it.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Belägerung der Statt Arien von den Spanischen nach eroberung der Franzosen vorgenohmen. Anno 1641.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 305/277

The war between the Spain and France was still ongoing with varied intensity throughout the year 1641. France officially declared war on the Holy Roman Empire in 1635. Prior that it had been fighting rather indirectly, mainly supporting the Swedish in various ways. Now, however the French king was sending his best troops and commanders to fight the Imperial army. The French troops fought on the German territory mainly side by side with the Swedish under a joint command. For many years France had been fighting the Spanish Hapsburgs. The depicted battle between the two enemies took place in 1641, when the French led by their king besieged and conquered the town of Aire that had a strategically important position near the Spanish Netherland. It remains to be said that following the conquest of Aire by Louis XIII, the Spanish attempted to get this strategic strongpoint back and were reinforced to carry out this deed by the Imperial army commanded by General Lamboy, which prior to this had operated in the area of the Central Rhineland and Holland. The described engraving depicts this Spanish-Imperial besiege of the town of Aire.


303-A depiction (of this) and which 4 main events took place at the time when the King John IV was called to the coronation in Portugal in the year 1641.

A depiction (of this) and which 4 main events took place at the time when the King John IV was called to the coronation in Portugal in the year 1641.

Lisabon, On 01.01.1641 (do 31.12.1641)

The entire area of the picture is divided into 4 separated fields. At the top in the middle is a bust portrait of John IV of Portugal. The following scenes are in the individual fields: 1. The murder of the Castilian House ruler, the predecessor of John IV. 2. Heralds are spreading the news about the new king, John IV. 3. The oath of the king. 4. The coronation. The above-stated German explanatory text is placed above the 4 images.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Vorbildung was zur Zeit Königs Johannes des IV. in Portugall beruffung Grönung für 4 Hauptactus gegeben 1641.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 306/402

For a couple of years (since 1637) the Portuguese were increasingly unsatisfied with the rule of the Spanish Castilians. The French Chancellor Richelieu supported the Portuguese national movement (if we may imply the present-day meaning of this expression to the situation in the 17th century) intentionally and intensively, observing his own purpose to weaken the power of Spain. Finally the last ruler of Portugal, from the Castilian family of Braganza, the predecessor of John IV, was assassinated and removed from the throne. At that time the Spanish were powerless and incapable of doing nothing against this for them unfavourable change on the Portuguese throne. England, the Netherlands and other countries accepted the new Portuguese king, who personally owned about three quarters of the entire sovereign Portuguese territory.


289-The army positions near Přísečnice passes. The outline of where the General Baner retreated as he was pursued by the Imperial and Bavarian army commanded by the Field Marshal Piccolomini and the Bavarian General Mercy in March 1641.

The army positions near Přísečnice passes. The outline of where the General Baner retreated as he was pursued by the Imperial and Bavarian army commanded by the Field Marshal Piccolomini and the Bavarian General Mercy in March 1641.

Přísečnice, On 01.03.1641 (do 31.03.1641)

The engraving depicts the positions of the Imperial-Bavarian and Swedish armies near the township of Přísečnice. An unnamed stream flows through the place with the Chateau of Přísečnice on its bank. There are two buglers on horses in the left foreground, on the right is a staffage of trees. The ‚Böhmer-Wald‘ is in the background with the positions of the Swedish. It is interesting that the Přísečnice near the town of Vejprty does not lie at the foothills of the Šumava Forest but at the foothills of the Ore (Krušné) Mountains. On the other hand, the author of the engraving was the fortification engineer Carlo Cappi, and any topographical inaccuracy is out of question, based on the experience with his other prints. The explanatory Latin-German text is above the picture part of the print; the caption A-V is in a square banner on the left.

Signature: Carlo Cappi ingenieur delineavit.
Autor: Cappl Carlo, fortifikační inženýr a kreslíř plánů

Original name: Dispositio ad fauces Presnizianas. Abrisz des Posto zur Bressnitz, dahin sich H. General Banner retriert hat, deme die Kay. und Bayrische Armata unter dem Befelch H. Veldmarschalckens Piccolomini und Bayr. General Freiherrn Mercy nach gefolget im Martio 1641.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 291/96

General Baner tried to attack the session of the Imperial Diet chaired by the Emperor in Regensburg in 1640/41. His daring intention failed however, as the Imperial army led by Piccolomini forced the Swedish to withdraw to the Upper Palatinate and further via Cheb to Bohemia. Baner paid for this evasive strategy with the loss of several regiments commanded by the Colonel Schlange, who held back the Imperial-Bavarian army near Neuburg on the Czech-Bavarian borders. Here the Swedish regiment was surrounded by Piccolomini and capitulated on 21 March 1642. It remains to add that the after Baner withdrew to the Czech territory the Swedish army stopped for a short rest near Přísečnice and got out of there only at the cost of great casualties (the capitulation of the Schlange’s regiment at Neuburg) and was under persisting danger of being caught and shattered by the outnumbered enemy.


288-A depiction of the town of Neuburg as it was surrounded and cannonaded by the Imperial and Bavarian army and how the Colonel Schlange with the Swedish garrison inside was forced to give up on 21 March 1641.

A depiction of the town of Neuburg as it was surrounded and cannonaded by the Imperial and Bavarian army and how the Colonel Schlange with the Swedish garrison inside was forced to give up on 21 March 1641.

On 21.03.1641

This beautiful image of the town of Neuburg in the centre of the painting was engraved exceptionally meticulously and artistically. Several small rivers, including the Schwarzach, flow around the town. There is a big dark forest in the foreground. The Imperial-Bavarian troops are positioned around the town. High forested mountains are in the background, possibly the Bohemian Forest Šumava. There is an inscription in the sky over the town:,Expugnatio Neoburgi in confinis Bohemiae‘. The factual and topographic caption 1-19 and A-C is at the bottom.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Delineatio der Statt Neuburg am Waldt und wie selbige durch die Röm. Kay. und Bayrische Armata umbringt beschossen und der Obriste Schlange sampt der darin gelegenen Schwedischen Regimentern sich ergeben müssen den 21. Martii 1641.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 290/260

General Baner tried to attack the session of the Imperial Diet chaired by the Emperor in Regensburg in 1640/41. His daring intention failed however, as the Imperial army led by Piccolomini forced the Swedish to withdraw to the Upper Palatinate and further via Cheb to Bohemia. Baner paid for this evasive strategy with the loss of several regiments commanded by the Colonel Schlange, who held back the Imperial-Bavarian army near Neuburg on the Czech-Bavarian borders. Here the Swedish regiment was surrounded by Piccolomini and capitulated on 21 March 1642.


290-An outline of the town of Bernburg including the Swedish and Weimar (armies), as well as the Imperial camps, fortifications and batteries, on 7 and 17 May of 1641.

An outline of the town of Bernburg including the Swedish and Weimar (armies), as well as the Imperial camps, fortifications and batteries, on 7 and 17 May of 1641.

Bernburg, On 07.05.1641

This schematic sketch shows the town of Bernburg situated on the Saale approx. 80 km northwest of Leipzig in Saxony. The scenery around the town dotted with many trees with the stream of Saale is painted with a good taste and in detail. The position of the Imperial troops is depicted above Bernburg. There is an inscription over the town:,Bernburgum cum situ‘. The word-for-word cited German explanatory text is above the picture part of the engraving.

Signature: Not available
Autor: Unknown

Original name: Abrisz der Statt Bernburg sambt der schwedischen und weymarischen, wie auch der Kayserl. Läger fortificationen und Battereien. inn Anno 1641 den 7. 17. May.

Katalogová čísla: Collection Český Šternberk, kód: 292/372

In winter 1641/2 Baner was forced by the Imperial-Bavarian army commanded by Piccolomini and Mercy to withdraw further to the northwest after his short-term occupation of some territories in Western Bohemia, including the town of Cheb. The Swedish marched to Cvikov, where they were joined by the remainders of Bernhard of Weimar’s army, commanded now by the French General Guebriant. The united army then moved to Halberstadt, where Baner soon died. He was first replaced by Pfuhla and later by Torstensson. The event depicted on this engraving took place during the described campaign through Saxony, which continued even after Baner’s death.


291-An original drawing of the town of Weissenfels and how the Imperial army under the commander General Field Marshal Piccolomini crossed the river Saale on 9 May 1641.

An original drawing of the town of Weissenfels and how the Imperial army under the commander General Field Marshal Piccolomini crossed the river Saale on 9 May 1641.